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Dr.

Archana Shrivastava

Agenda
1. Transactional Analysis.

2. Interpersonal Communication.
3. Self monitoring Activity. 4. Issues influencing interpersonal communication. 5. Case Study: Implication of T.A. & I.C. for conflict resolution.

Transactional Analysis
Transactional Analysis is a theory developed by Dr. Eric Berne in the 1950s. Originally trained in psychoanalysis, Berne wanted a theory which could

be understood and available to everyone.


Transactional Analysis is a social psychology and a method to improve

communication.
The theory outlines how we have developed and treat ourselves, how we

relate and communicate with others, and offers suggestions and interventions which will enable us to change and grow.
TA includes 3 major areas that are Ego States, Transaction, and Strokes &

Games.

Simple language

Build-in Humour

Reasons for Popularity Non-Threatening self analysis Appropriate for normal people

Ego States
A.

Parent Ego State characterized by domineering,


over protective & loving, stern and critical. It is illustrated by those who establish standard and rule for other.

B.

Adult Ego State In this people attack problems


in a cool minded rational manner. In adult state information is gathered, carefully analyze it, generate alternative, and make logical choices.

C.

Child Ego State submissive & conforming,


insubordinate, emotional, joyful, or rebellious. Characterize by very immature behaviors.

BASIC HUMAN EGO STATES


(PERSONALITY STATES)
THREE BASIC EGO STATES

FURTHER BREAKDOWN OF EGO STATES


CRITICAL PARENT NURTURING PARENT LECTURING, CRITICIZING, MANY OUGHTS, SHOULD &DONTS CONSOLING, TAKING CARE OF OTHERS, SYMPATHY OBJECTIVE, RATIONAL, ORIENTED TOWARD PROBLEM SOLVING, DEEMPHASIZE EMOTION MODIFIED BEHAVIOUR TO CONFORM TO ADULT EXPECTATIONS, MANUPULATIVE, SUMBISSIVE PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE, NATULRALLY CURIOUS &CREATIVE, FUN LOVING, REBELLIOUS

P
(PARENT)

A
(ADULT)

ADULT

C
(CHILD)

ADAPTED CHILD NATURAL CHILD

TYPICAL WAYS OF EXPRESSING EGO STATES ON THE JOB


CANT YOU TURN IN A REPORT ON TIME JUST ONCE?

CRITICAL PARENT

YOU SHOULD CLEAN UP YOUR DESK ONCE IN A WHILE! IM SURPRISED AT YOU THIS PRODUCT SHOULD HAVE BEEN COMPLETED A MONTH AGO.

NURTURING PARENT

IM ONLY TRYING TO HELP YOU LET ME CLEAN UP THAT DESK FOR YOU, MR. SMITH YOUVE DONE A SWELL JOB, TOM. WHAT ARE THE ALTERNATIVES? CANT WE REACH SOME SORT OF COMPROMISE? WHAT CONSEQUENCES WILL THIS ACTION HAVE? ANYTHING YOU SAY, SIR! SORRY, ILL TRY TO IMPROVE. WHY DO YOU ALWAYS PICK ON ME THE OTHERS WERE IN ON THIS TOO! LET ME SEE HOW THIS GADGET WORKS. WONDER WHAT HAPPENS IF WE DO IT THIS WAY? LETS KNOCK OFF FOR TODAY! WHO WANTS TO WORK ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON ANYWAY? 7

ADULT

ADAPTED CHILD

NATURAL CHILD

Transaction between ego states


A.

Complimentary transaction: It shows 3 possible


complementary. Transactions are complimentary if the message sent or behavior exhibited by 1 person ego state receive the appropriate and expected response from the other person ego state.

B. Crossed Transaction: It occurs when message sent the behavior


exhibited by the 1 persons ego state is reacted to by an incompatible and unexpected ego state on the part of the other person.

C. Ulterior Transaction: They are very damaging to


interpersonal relation because it always involve at least two ego state on the part of 1 person. Individual may say one thing but mean quite another.

A
C

A
C

A
C

A
C
CROSSED

A
C
ULTERIOR

A
C

COMPLEMENTARY

P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C

EXPECTED RESPONSE, NO CONFLICT

PRODUCE CONFLICT, STOP COMMUNICATION, HURT FEELINGS

VERBAL COMMUNICATION NON-VERBAL HIDDEN MEANING

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EXAMPLES OF COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTIONS ON THE JOB


(1) SECRETARY: LET ME STRAIGHTEN OUT THAT DESK FOR YOU, (1) MANAGER: WHAT COULD WE DO TO MEET THE DEADLINE ON THIS PROJECT? EMPLOYEE: WE COULD TAKE A COUPLE OF PEOPLE OFF THE OTHER PROJECT FOR A WHILE AND PUT THEM ON THIS ONE. (1) FIRST MANAGER: GEE, I WISH I WERE OUT ON THE GOLF COURSE RIGHT NOW. SECOND MANAGER: LETS TAKE OFF. WHO COULD WORK ON A SUNSHINY DAY LIKE THIS ANYWAY?

(2)

MANAGER: YOU SURE KNOW HOW TO TAKE CARE OF ME,

(2)

(2)

P A

(1)

P A

P
(1)

P A
(2)

P A
(1)

P A C
(2)

A C

(2)

C
ADULT TO ADULT TRANSACTION

NURTURING PARENT TO ADAPTED CHILD

NATURAL CHILD TO NATURAL CHILD 12

EXAMPLES OF CROSSED TRANSACTIONS ON THE JOB


(1) MANAGER: DO YOU KNOW WHERE THE PROFIT & LOSS STATEMENT IS? SECRETARY: WHERE DO YOU THINK IT IS? ON YOUR DESK, OF COURSE!. (1) MANAGER: COME OVER HERE! (DEMANDING TONE OF VOICE) (1) SUPERVISOR: HOW CAN WE MINIMIZE THESE MACHINE BREAKDOWNS?

(2)
(2)

EMPLOYEE: WHY DONT YOU COME OVER HERE? ITS JUST AS FAR!

(2)

OPERATOR: WHO CARES? IT ISNT OUR MONEY!

P A

(1)

P A

P A C

P A

P
(1)

P
(1)

A
(2)

A C

(2)

(2)

ADULT-TO-ADULT CROSSED BY CRITICAL PARENT-TOCHILD RESPONSE

PARENT-TO-CHILD CROSSED BY CRITICAL PARENT OR REBELLIOUS CHILD RESPONSE

ADULT-TO-ADULT CROSSES UP BY DISCOUNTED CHILD TO PARENT RESPONSE 13

EXAMPLES OF ULTERIOR TRANSACTIONS


(1) EMPLOYEE: SORRY, I WONT HAVE THE DRAWING READY FOR TOMORROWS DEADLINE. (ULTERIOR MESSAGE: KICK ME, IM A BAD BOY.) MANAGER: ITS O.K. IVE BEEN THINKING OF ASSIGNING THE JOB TO SOMEONE ELSE ANYWAY. (HIDDEN MEANING: YES, YOU ARE A BAD BOY. HERES YOUR KICK. (1) SALESMAN: THIS MACHINE HAS GOT EVERYTHING YOUD EVER WANT FROM A TYPEWRITER BUT IT MAY BE TOO EXPENSIVE FOR YOU. (HIDDEN MESSAGE: LETS SEE IF I CAN HOOK THE PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE CHILD IN YOU.) CUSTOMER: IT MIGHT BE WORTH IT IN THE LONG RUN. ILL TAKE IT. (HIDDEN MEANING: WHO DOES HE THINK I AM?)

(2)

(2)

(1) (1) (2) (2)

P
(1) (2) (1)

A
C

A
C

A
C

A
C
14

(2)

Strokes and Games


Strokes: It means simply that beginning in infancy and
continuing throughout their lives, people need cuddling, affection, recognition, and praise. People dont get positive strokes when they will seek out negative strokes. The strokes are divided into two categories:

Positive Negative

Games: Games are set or pattern of transactions that have surface


logic but hidden meaning and attempt to drawing in an unsuspecting participant. The outcome of the games is always a win - lose proposition.

STROKING
THE TYPES OF STROKES YOU SEEK DEPEND ON YOUR OKAYNESS

POSITIVE STROKES

NEGATIVE STROKES

CONDITIONAL STROKES

PRAISE COMPLEMENTS RECOGNITION AFFECTION REWARDS SYMPATHY CONSOLATION SELF-SATISFACTION FROM JOB WELL DONE

PUT-DOWNS CRITICISM

STROKES WITH ULTERIOR MOTIVES

DEGRADING
RIDICULE SCOLDING PUNISHMENT DISCOUNTING (1) (2)

STROKES GIVEN FOR WHAT YOU DO, RATHER THAN FOR WHAT YOU ARE:

PERFORMANCE ORIENTED STROKES ACCOMODATION & CONFORMITY ORIENTED STROKES

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Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication deals with relationships between people, usually in faceto-face private settings.
Interpersonal communication is the primary way through which relationships are created, maintained, and changed.

Uses of Interpersonal Communication


Give and collect information. Influence the attitudes and behavior of others. Give and receive emotional support. Form contacts and maintain relationships. Make sense of the world and our experiences in it. Make decisions and solve problems.

Issues influencing Interpersonal Communication


Personality conflict:
Each of us has a unique way of interacting with others.

Personal opposition always based on :


personal dislikes, personal Ego states,

personal disagreements,
different personality styles.

Example: Imagine the potential for a top level personality conflict at EMC corp.., a leading maker of data storage equipment.
M.C. Ruggs was CEO for 9yrs. Gave up his position in 2001,due to personality conflict. J.M. Tucci was working under him. Become new CEO in 2001.

In 2001, interview he gave A grade to Tucci Tucci wanted to move faster to cut cost, for innovation & Strategic mgmt. but F in make acquisitions & introduce new fin. Mgmt. because of loss. software's.

He is not interested one to one relation. Make tough decisions slowly. He thinks thank-you is a sign of weakness.

He ld like to make one-to-one relation. Make tough decisions quickly. Tucci praises & thanks his troops regularly.

Gender Differences

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Communication Barriers between Men & Women:


Difference in style of conversation.
Both have different mind set, priorities and principles. Ways of dealing with the same situation are very different. A research shows that Men use to talk to emphasize status whereas women use it to create connection.

Cultural Differences

23

Cross Cultural Communication


Barriers caused by differences among perception.
Barriers caused by tone difference. Barriers caused by semantics. Same word mean different things to different people. Barriers caused by word connotations. Words imply

different things in different languages.

Politically Correct Communication:


How do you describe a person who is wheelchair

bound (as handicapped or physically challenged) Similarly, a blind or visually impaired, Elderly or senior, We must be sensitive of others feelings. Should choose politically correct word. Words might have the same meaning but politically correctness refers either words are soothing or hurting someone.

CASE STUDY
Heading off a Permanent Misunderstanding
Martin, Sharp, Walter are working together in an organization. Martin and Sharp were good friends and all three had very healthy

competition between them as they all were at the same level.


Martin was very hard working, ambitious and responsible employee.

Because of their hard work and good efforts, Martins division had become the leader in the company and the upper management had praised her lavishly.
She believed that with a good recommendation from Sharp, she

would get that promotion.

But unfortunately Walter received the promotion and moved

to Topeka.
Martin was shocked. It was bad enough that she did not get

the promotion, but she could not stand the fact that Walter had been chosen.
She and Sharp had taken to calling Walter Mr. Intolerable,

because neither of them could stand his pompous arrogance.


She felt that his being chosen was an insult to her. When the grapevine confirmed her suspicion that Sharp had

strongly influenced the decision, she determined to reduce her interaction with Sharp to a bare minimum.

Relations in the office were very chilly for almost a month.

Sharp soon gave up trying to get that in Martins favor and they began communicating only in short.
Finally William , their immediate boss, called the two for a

meeting. William said, were going to sit here until you two become friends again.
Martin resisted for a few minutes, denying that anything

had changed in their relationship, but when she saw that William was serious, she finally said, Sharp seems more interested in dealing with Walter.
Sharp could not say anything. William came to the rescue.

William said that, Martin if youre upset about that

promotion, you'd know that Sharp had nothing but praised for you and kept pointing out how this division would suffer if we buried you in Topeka.
With your bonuses you are making as much as Walter and

if you work here continues to be outstanding, youll be headed for much better place than Topeka.
Embarrassed, Martin looked up at Sharp and apologized

for treating him unfairly.


The next day office was almost back to normal. Martin and

Sharp use to take a coffee break together every day as earlier.

Conclusion
Now with the help of Psychoanalytical theory i.e. Transactional Analysis, Martin can understand her

different behavior in different situation and can improve those behavior which are not fruitful in those situation.
She can also use Interpersonal communication as to understand the person, real situation/conflicts better. She can apply both to understand others behavior so that she can negotiate with them easily and effectively.

Any Question

Thank you