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Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs

Chapter 8 Objectives
Describe the two types of software Understand the startup process for a personal computer Describe the term user interface Explain features common to most operating systems Know the difference between stand-alone operating systems and network operating systems
Next p.8.2

Identify various stand-alone operating systems Identify various network operating systems

Recognize devices that use embedded operating systems
Discuss the purpose of the following utilities: file viewer, file compression, diagnostic, uninstaller, disk scanner, disk defragmenter, backup, and screen saver

System Software
What is software?

The series of computer-language coded instructions that tells the computer how to perform tasks Two types of software
application software

system software

Next p.8.2

System Software
What is system software?

Next p.8.2

Consists of the programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices Serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer's hardware Two types are operating systems and utility programs

Operating Systems What is an operating system (OS)?    Click to view animation Next p.8.3 A set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources Required for a computer to work Sometimes called the software platform or platform Operating System .

3 Fig.Operating Systems What are the functions of an operating system? provide user interface manage programs manage memory schedule jobs and configure devices start up the computer administer security Next p. 8-1 Operating System monitor performance and provide housekeeping services control access the a network Web .8.

Operating Systems Where is the operating system located?   Resides on computer’s hard disk in most cases May reside on a ROM chip on handheld computers different sizes of computers typically use different operating systems same types of computers may have different operating systems various operating systems often are not compatible with each other Next p.8.3 .

each corresponding to a different operating system runs on Windows 98 and Windows NT Next p.8. 8-2 .4 Fig.Operating Systems What is a cross-platform application?   One that runs identically on multiple operating systems Often has multiple versions.

4 .Operating System Functions What is booting?  The process of starting or restarting a computer cold boot Process of turning on a computer after it has been powered off completely warm boot Process of restarting a computer that is already powered on Also called a warm start Next p.8.

8. such as devices. the kernel and other frequently used operating system instructions are loaded • Loading a file means the file is copied from the hard disk to the computer's memory • • Instructions remain on the hard disk until they are needed Other parts of the operating system are nonresident Next p. 4 . and information • Instructions remain in memory while the computer is running • The kernel is memory resident nonresident  Each time you boot a computer.Operating System Functions What is the kernel?  memory resident The core of an operating system • Manages memory and devices • Maintains the computer’s clocks • Starts applications • Assigns the computer’s resources. programs. data.

8.4 Fig.Operating System Functions What messages display on the screen when you boot the computer? BIOS version and copyright notice total amount of memory devices detected and tested message sound card and CD-ROM drivers loaded Next p. 8-3 .

basic input/output system Firmware that contains the computer's startup instructions Next p. signal to components in the BIOS system unit.8. 8-4 Operating System Functions Step 1 Step 2 processor BIOS .How does a personal computer boot up? Step 1: The power 2: processor looks supply sends a for the BIOS. 5 Fig.

and expansion cards.8. keyboard connectors. 8-4 .Operating System Functions Step 3: The BIOS performs the POST. which checks components such as the mouse. Step 3 BIOS CD-ROM drive processor POST power-on self test expansion cards Next p. 5 Fig.

8-4 .8.Operating System Functions Step 4: The results of the POST are compared with data in the CMOS chip. CD-ROM drive CMOS Step 4 CMOS chip processor Also detects new devices connected to the computer BIOS expansion cards Stores configuration information about the computer Next p. 5 Fig.

5 Fig. 8-4 . processor floppy disk drive CD-ROM drive CMOS hard disk system files Specific operating system files loaded during start up BIOS Step 5 expansion cards Next p.8.Operating System Functions Step 5: The BIOS looks for the system files in drive A (floppy disk drive) and then drive C (hard disk).

8. processor (RAM) memory modules BIOS floppy disk drive CD-ROM drive CMOS hard disk Step 6 expansion cards Next p. The operating system in memory takes control of the computer. 5 Fig. 8-4 .Operating System Functions Step 6: The boot program loads the kernel of the operating system into RAM from storage (hard disk).

8. 5 Fig. registry Several files that contain the system configuration information Registry is constantly accessed during the computer's operation Next p. 8-4 StartUp folder Contains a list of programs that open automatically when you boot the computer Step 7 . The operating system executes programs in the StartUp folder.Operating System Functions Step 7: The operating system loads configuration information and displays the desktop on the screen.

6 Fig.8. 8-5 . drive C (the hard disk) is the boot drive  Next p.Operating System Functions What is a boot drive? The drive from which your personal computer boots (starts)  In most cases.

Point to Start menu.Operating System Functions What is an emergency repair disk?     A floppy disk. point instructions. or CD-ROM that contains system files that will start the computer Used when a hard disk becomes damaged and the computer cannot boot Also called a boot disk or a rescue disk To create a boot disk: Step 2: Click Backup on Step 1: Click the Start 3: the Systemthe taskbar. repair to emergency point disk. Next p. 8-5 Emergency Repair Disk button . to System Tools on the Accessories submenu. button on Tools Disk Emergency Repair submenuPrograms on the point to to openthe button to create the Backup window. Zip® disk. the Emergency Repair Accessories on the Follow the on-screen Disk button. and then point to Backup. Programs submenu.6 Fig.8.

8-6 data and instructions and how information Allows you to type displays on the screen use commands entered by user .7 Fig.8.Operating System Functions What is a user interface? command-line interface (GUI) graphical user  Controls how you enter menus and visual keywords or press images to issue special keys on the commands keyboard to enter data and instructions Set of commands you use to interact with the computer is called the command language Click to view animation Next p.

Operating System Functions What are features of a graphical user interface?    Next p.8. a file. an instruction.8 Fig. or some other object Web pages can be delivered or pushed automatically to your screen icons function as Web links Web pages pushed onto the desktop . 8-7 Menu: a set of commands from which you can choose Icon: a small image that represents a program.

8.8 .Operating System Functions How does an operating system manage programs?   Operating systems vary in capabilities • Number of users • Number of programs running at the same time • Number of processors Management of programs directly affects user productivity single user/single tasking operating system Allows only one user to run one program at a time Early systems were single user Next p.

are in the background  foreground application  background applications listed on the toolbar Next p. 8-8 .8. but are not in use.9 Fig.Operating System Functions What is multitasking?  Allows a single user to work on two or more applications that reside in memory at the same time The foreground contains the active application: the one you currently are using The other programs that are running.

Operating System Functions What are other program management features of operating systems? multiuser Operating system enables two or more users to run a program simultaneously multiprocessing Operating system can support two or more processors running programs at the same time fault-tolerant computer Click to view animation Next p. memory.8. and disk drives .9 Continues to operate even if one of its components fails Computer has duplicate components such as processors.

data and instructions to an area of memory while they are being processed monitors the contents of memory clears items from memory when the processor no longer requires them Next p.8.10 .Operating System Functions What is memory management?  Optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM) allocates. or assigns.

to function as additional RAM Step 1: Operating 2: system transfers least and program data recently used data and program instructions from instructions to disk disk to memory because memory is when they are needed for other needed. usually the hard disk. page swapped out disk (virtual memory) RAM (physical memory) Next p.10 Fig. 8-9 page swapped in .8.Operating System Functions What is virtual memory (VM) management?  The operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium. functions.

10 . instead of executing application software page The amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time Next p.8.Operating System Functions What are some virtual memory terms? swap file The area of the hard disk used for virtual memory paging The technique of swapping items between memory and storage thrashing When an operating system spends much of its time paging.

Operating System Functions How does an operating system schedule jobs?   Adjusts the schedule of jobs based on their priority A buffer is an area of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device job receiving data from an input device An operation the processor manages transferring items from storage to memory and from memory to storage Next p.10 sending information to an output device processing instructions .8.

11 Fig. print spooler print job called a print print queue spooler. 8-10 server disk laser printer .Operating System Functions What is spooling?    Next Print jobs are sent to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer Multiple print jobs line up in a queue within the buffer A program.8. intercepts print jobs from the operating system and places them jobs jobs in the queue to be printed being printed p.

Operating System Functions What is a device driver?    A small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a device Also called a driver Each device on a computer requires its own specific driver device driver Click to view Web Link then click Device Drivers Next p.8.11 .

onicon. necessary driver files to complete the installation of the device.8. Plug You may screen instructions. CD-ROM. Point to the Step 2: Start the Step 3: The Add/Remove Hardware Add/Remove Add/Remove Hardware Hardware icon.12 Fig. Next p. you want finds and such be install. 8-11 Add/Remove model Hardware icon selected device type selected manufacturer selected . or of device you want to DVD-ROM that contains install. Wizard by doubleWizard searches for Step 5: Next you select Step 4: If the clicking the Plug and PlayHardware devices the manufacturer and Add/Remove Hardware Add/Remove on yourcannot find any If modelFollow theto it Wizard system.any Play devices. floppy disk. select the the requested to insert type you can it installs them. devices.Operating System Functions How do you install a device driver? Step 1: Open the Control Panel window.

8. 13 .Operating System Functions What is Plug and Play?   The computer can recognize a new device and assist you in its installation by loading the necessary drivers automatically and checking for conflicts with other devices Supported by most devices and operating systems today Click to view Web Link then click Plug and Play Next p.

Operating System Functions What is an interrupt request (IRQ)?    A communications line between a device and the processor Most computers have 16 IRQs. numbered 0 through 15 IRQs are assigned during installation Next p. 8-12 .8. 13Fig.

8-13 .Operating System Functions How does the operating system help access the Web?   Typically provides a means to establish Web connections Some include a Web browser and an e-mail program Next p.13 Fig.8.

called a performance monitor.Operating System Functions How does an operating system monitor performance?  Provides a program.8.14 Fig. 8-14 . that assesses and reports information about various system resources and devices Next p.

8. 8-15 .14 Fig.Operating System Functions How does an operating system manage files?   Contains a program called a file manager Performs functions related to storage and file management Next p.

and sorting files Next p. deleting. copying. moving.Operating System Functions What are some file manager functions? creating shortcuts: an icon on the desktop that runs a program when you click it formatting and copying disks displaying a list of files on a storage medium organizing. renaming.15 checking the amount of used or free space on a storage medium .8.

Operating System Functions What is formatting?    The process of preparing a disk for reading and writing Most floppy and hard disk manufacturers preformat their disks Various operating systems format disks differently Next p. 15 .8.

8. and locations Reformatting a disk usually erases only the file allocation table and leaves the actual files on the disk .Operating System Functions What is a file allocation table (FAT)?     Next p. 15 A table of information that the operating system uses to locate files on a disk Defined during the formatting process Lists all files. file types.

8.15 Fig. 8-16 laser printer server controls access .Operating System Functions What is a network operating system?    An operating system that supports a network Also called a network OS or NOS A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications media and devices client client client Next p.

8-16 Network administrator uses the network OS to add and remove users. and other devices to and from the network . computers.Operating System Functions What are features of a network operating system?   The server is the computer that controls access to the network and provides a centralized storage area The other computers on the network are called clients Organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on the network Resources include programs.15 Fig.8. and devices such as printers and drives Next p. files.

8.16 Fig. 8-17 .Operating System Functions How do operating systems administer security?  Most multiuser operating systems allow each user to log on log on Processname user of entering a user A unique combination password name and a of characters that password A combination of characters identifies one specific associated with the user user name that allows access to Also called a user resources certain computer ID Next p.

Operating System Functions How does a network administrator use the network OS?     Next p. settings. 16 To establish permissions to resources To define who can access certain resources To define when they can access those resources To assign passwords to files and commands to restrict access to only authorized users Active Directory (AD) A feature of Windows 2000 Server that allows network administrators to manage all network information including users. devices.8. and connections from a central environment .

17 . but also runs with system the new version Next p.Types of Operating Systems What are some characteristics of operating systems? device-dependent One that runs only on a specific type of computer proprietary software Privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model device-independent Run on many manufacturers’ computers downward-compatible Recognizes and works upward-compatible with application software Written for an earlier written for an earlier version of the operating version of the operating system.8.

Types of Operating Systems What are three categories of operating systems? Next p.8.17 Fig. 8-18 .

8.17 A complete operating system that works on a desktop or notebook computer Some. called client operating systems.Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is a stand-alone operating system?   Next p. also work in conjunction with a network operating system .

8. both developed by Microsoft  Used a command line interface and added a menudriven interface in later versions commands entered by user Next p.17 .Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is DOS (Disk Operating System)?   Refers to several single user operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers Two more widely used versions were PC-DOS and MSDOS.

18 Windows 95 A true multitasking operating system with downward compatibility for DOS and Windows 3.x An operating environment is a GUI that works in combination with an operating system to simplify its use .8.x Windows NT Workstation A client operating system that could connect to a Windows NT server Used a Windows 95 interface Refers to three early versions of Microsoft Windows that were operating environments with DOS Click to view Web Link then click Windows Next p.Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Windows?  Developed by Microsoft to meet the need for an operating system that had a GUI Windows 3.

a popular Web browser The file manager. Windows Explorer. had a Web browser look and feel An Active Desktop™ interface allowing icons and file names to work similar to Web links Support for multimedia technologies such as DVD and Web TV ™ Next p.18 Support for the Universal Serial Bus (USB) .8.Stand-Alone Operating Systems What are features of Windows 98?      Upgrade to Windows 95 More integrated with the Internet than Windows 95 Included Internet Explorer.

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Windows 2000 Professional?   Upgrade to the Windows NT Workstation operating system Complete multitasking client operating system that has a GUI Click to view video Next p.8. 8-19 .18 Fig.

18 Registry Checker FAT32 Update Wizard Multiple display support Hardware support Accessibility Settings Wizard .8.Stand-Alone Operating Systems What are features of most Windows operating systems? Active Desktop™ Taskbar/toolbars Windows Explorer has a Web browser look and feel Increased speed Tune-Up Wizard Universal Serial Bus Next p.

8.Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Windows Millennium Edition (Me)?    Next An operating system that has features specifically for the home user Also called Windows Me Includes multimedia features p.20 Fig. 8-21 .

8. 8-22 .Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Mac OS?  A multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by Apple Apple’s Macintosh operating system was the first commercially successful GUI Mac OS is the current version   Click to view Web Link then click Mac OS Next p.21 Fig.

Java. 8-23 .22 Fig. and speech recognition Runs programs written specifically for OS/2. the Internet.Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is OS/2 Warp?    Next IBM’s GUI multitasking client operating system Supports networking.8. as well as most programs written for DOS and Windows p.

   Click to view Web Link then click Apple Next p. the PowerMac G4.8. and the Mac OS X . followed by the iBook.Company on the Cutting Edge Apple Computer. Inc.21  Formed by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak in 1976 Began with the Apple I circuit board developed in Jobs’ garage The Apple II product line generated more than $1 billion in annual sales from 1977 until 1993 The current highperformance Power Macintosh line was introduced in 1994.

Network Operating Systems What is a network operating system?    An operating system that supports a network Typically resides on a server Client computers on the network rely on the server(s) for resources Next p.8.22 .

8.22 .Network Operating Systems What is Novell’s Netware?   A widely used network operating system designed for client/server networks Has a server portion that resides on the network server and a client portion that resides on each client computer connected to the network Click to view Web Link then click Novell Next p.

22 . large-scale applications such as data Windows NT server warehousing Older version developed as an operating system for client/server networks Next p.Network Operating Systems What is Windows 2000 Server?  Family of three products • Windows 2000 Server: operating system for the typical business network • Windows 2000 Advanced Server: designed for e-commerce applications • Windows 2000 Datacenter Server: best for demanding.8.

8.Network Operating Systems What is OS/2 Warp Server for E-business?    IBM’s network operating system Designed for all sizes of business Includes Netscape as its Web browser and e-mail program Next p.23 .

8.23 Fig.Network Operating Systems What is UNIX?     A multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s by scientists at Bell Laboratories Lacks interoperability across multiple platforms Several versions exist. 8-24 . each slightly different Command-line interface Click to view Web Link then click UNIX Next p.

free.Network Operating Systems What is Linux?   A popular. multitasking UNIX-type operating system Also includes many programming languages Open-source software • Code is available to the public Some versions are command-line and others are GUI   Next p. 8-25 .8.24 Fig.

24 .Product on the Cutting Edge     Operating system created by Linus Torvalds A free program offered as alternative to Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS Linux’ GNU General Public License allows anyone to obtain and modify the source code and then redistribute the revised product A large. mailing lists. friendly community of users distribute the operating system and provide an extensive number of user groups.8. newsletters. and forums Click to view Web Link then click Linux Next p.

8.25 .Technology Trailblazer Linus Torvalds Creator and lead technical developer of the free operating system Linux  A native of Finland  Credits the high level of technology and superior educational system of Finland for giving him the advantages of being able to concentrate on his Click to view Web Link brainstorm instead of then click Linus Torvalds worrying about economic Next issues  p.

8.Network Operating Systems What is Solaris™?       A version of UNIX Developed by Sun Microsystems A network operating system designed specifically for e-commerce applications Can manage high-traffic accounts Incorporates security necessary for Web transactions Client computers use a version called CDE (Common Desktop Environment) Next p.25 .

8.Embedded Operating Systems What is an embedded operating system?   The operating system on most handheld computers and small devices Resides on a ROM chip Palm OS® Pocket PC OS Next p. 25 Windows CE .

8-26 Provides for scaled-down versions of applications .8.Embedded Operating Systems What is Windows CE?  A scaled down Windows operating system designed for use on wireless communications devices and smaller computers • Handheld computers Supports color. • In-vehicle devices sound. 25 Fig. and Internet capabilities Incorporates many elements of the Windows GUI Next p. multitasking. • Web-enabled devices e-mail.

and stock quotes. 8-26 . weather.8.Embedded Operating Systems What is an Auto PC?      A device mounted onto a vehicle’s dashboard that is powered by Windows CE Directed through voice commands Provides information to the driver such as driving directions. traffic conditions. and allows the driver to access and listen to e-mail Acts as a radio or an audio CD Shares information with a handheld or notebook computer Next p. 25 Fig.

Embedded Operating Systems What is Pocket PC OS®?       Click to view video Next A scaled-down operating system developed by Microsoft Works on a specific type of handheld computer. 26 Fig.8. 8-27 . called a Pocket PC Allows access to all the basic PIM functions Provides Web access Supports handwriting recognition Allows document creation p.

8.Embedded Operating Systems What is Palm OS?    Used in handheld computers • Palm from Palm. Inc. 26 . • Visor from Handspring® Manages data and synchronizes this information with a desktop computer Some access the Internet Next p.

Utility Programs What is a utility program?      Next p.8. its devices. or its programs Also called a utility Most operating systems include several utility programs You can also buy standalone utilities utility suites Combine several utility programs into a single package Web-based utility service You pay an annual fee that allows you to access and use a vendor’s utility programs on the Web McAfee and Norton offer utility suites and Webbased utility services .27 A type of system software that performs a specific task Usually related to managing a computer.

8. 8-28 Imaging Preview .27 Fig.Utility Programs What is a file viewer?   Allows you to display and copy the contents of a file Windows Explorer has a viewer called Imaging Preview Next p.

Utility Programs
What is a file compression utility?


Shrinks the size of a file Compressed files • Take up less storage space than the original files • Sometimes called zipped files • Usually have a .zip extension You must uncompress a compressed file to use it Two popular utilities are PKZIP™ and WinZip®

compressed file

p.8.28 Fig. 8-29

Utility Programs
What is a diagnostic utility?

Compiles technical information about your computer's hardware and certain system software programs Prepares a report outlining any identified problems Windows includes the utility Dr. Watson

Next p.8.28 Fig. 8-30

Utility Programs
What is an uninstaller?
 


Removes an application, as well as any associated entries in the system files When an application is installed, the operating system records information it uses to run the software in the system files The uninstaller removes this information

p.8.29 Fig. 8-31

Utility Programs
What is a disk scanner?


Detects and corrects both physical and logical problems on a hard disk or floppy disk • A physical problem is one with the media • A logical problem is one with the data Searches for and removes unnecessary files Windows includes two disk scanners

p.8.29 Fig. 8-32

8.30 Fig. 8-33  defragmentation process .Utility Programs What is a disk defragmenter? fragmented file A utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a The contents are scattered across two or more computer's hard disk noncontiguous  Allows the operating system to sectors of a disk access data more file 1 before quickly and defragmenting programs to run file 1 after faster defragmenting  Defragmenting the disk reorganizes it so the files are fragmented disk stored in Next disk after contiguous sectors p.

selected files on your entire hard disk onto another disk or tape Backup utility monitors progress of the backup process Many will compress files during the process A restore program reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original forms Next p.30 Fig.8. or backup.Utility Programs What is a backup utility?     Allows you to copy. 8-34 .

8. business. or entertainment purposes .Utility Programs What is a screen saver?   Click to view video Next Causes a monitor's screen to display a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified time period Developed to prevent ghosting. no longer a problem for modern monitors  p. in which images could be permanently etched on a monitor’s screen. 8-35 Popular for security.31 Fig.

29 .Technology Trailblazer Phillip Katz    Developed PKZIP. a data compression utility His innovative PKZIP shareware cornered the data compression market PKWARE has steady annual sales of $5 million Click to view Web Link then click Phillip Katz Next p.8.

Summary of Operating Systems and Utility Programs System software  Operating systems  Operating system functions  Types of operating systems  Stand-alone operating systems  Network operating systems  Embedded operating systems  Utility programs  .

Chapter 8 Complete .