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Organisms that are made up of only one cell

Unicellular organisms in the animal kingdom are

amoeba and paramecium Unicellular organisms in the plant kingdom are pleurococcus, euglena, chlamydomonas and yeast

Organisms which have more than one cell.


Multicellular organisms in the animal kingdom are

mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and hydra Multicellular organisms in the plant kingdom are mosses, algae and ferns.

Human beings are complex living things because the human body is made up of 50-60 trillion cells. Human cells are specialized. They perform certain specific functions. There is also division of labour. Each cell, tissue, organ and system has its own functions. Human beings have the most developed brain. As a result, they think and solve problems, decide between right and wrong, invent new things and adapt themselves to their surroundings.

*Cells of the same type joined together are called tissues. *Different tissues are joined together to form organs. *Various organs are arranged into an organ system.

Human is a multicellular organism made up of millions of different types of cells. Each cell has different size, shape and structure to enable it to perform a particular function. Cells perform specialized functions, that is each type of cell performs only one specific function. This characteristic is known as specialization of cell. Examples of types of cells commonly found in the human body are nerve cell, red blood cell, white blood cell, skeletal cell, reproduction cell, epithelium cell and bone cell.

Nerve Cell(neurone): Divided into cell body, axon and


dendrite. Conducts nerve impulses.

Red blood cell: Biconcave, disc-shaped and no nucleus.


Transports oxygen from lungs to all cells in the body.

Epithelial cell: Found in the outer layer of skin.


Controls exchange of substances among parts of the body and also between the body and the environment.

Sperm Cell: Has a head, body and tail. Acts as the male
gamete in the male reproductive system.

Skeletal muscle cell: Made up of fine and long


muscle fibres and surrounded by elastic membrane. Controls movement of bones and organs of body.

A group of cells of the same shape and structure and performing one particular function is called tissue. Tissues contain cells which have experienced growth, adaption and changes in their features in order to be able to perform a particular function.

There are four major types of tissues in the human body namely epithelium tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.
Type of tissue
Epithelium tissue

Structure
It is made up of epithelial cells which are arraged closely and in layers. It consist of transparent, semifluid substances that contains many elastic and non elastic fibres.

Functions
Protects the tissues beneath it.

Examples
Endothelium(cavit ies lining) and epithelium (external surface lining)

Connective tissues

Connect one tissue Fat tissues, bones, to another tissue. cartilage, blood tissues. Supports organs in the body.

Type of tissue

Structure

Functions

Examples

Muscle tissue

It consists of Enables the elongated cells movement of that has the body parts ability to relax and contract It is formed from basic units called neurone cell

Smooth muscle, cardiac(heart) muscle, skeletal muscles

Nerve tissue

Carries nerve Nerve fibres in the impulses(message brain and the ) from one part of sprain cord. body to another. Enables body to respond to stimuli

A group of different tissues which work together to carry out a particular life process is called an organ. For example, skin is an organ formed of epithelium tissues, connective tissues, muscle tissues and nerve tissues. Examples of other human organs are stomach, lungs, heart, kidney and brain.

Ear: Detects sound stimulus


Liver: Breaks down excessive

proteins
Kidney: Excretes waste products Small Intestine: Digested food

substances
Large Intestine: Absorb water Brain: Controls various activities

of the body Nose: Detect smell stimuli Lungs: Carried out gas exchange

Heart: Pumps blood to other parts of the body. Stomach: Digest food substances Ovary: Produce ovum in women Testes: Produces sperm cells in men

A group of organ that co-operate to perform a

certain function of life process is known as a system.

A body system as a whole enables humans to

carry out life process normally and more efficiently.

There are ten main system in the human body.

Breaks down complex food into simple substances for easy absorption by body cells.

Ways to look after:


*Consume easily digestive food *Drinks a lot of water and avoid alcohol *Eat at regular hours

Transport oxygen and digested food to the body


Ways to look after: ~Exercise regularly ~Avoid food rich in cholesterol ~Consume food rich with iron(ferrum)

Inhale oxygen into the body and exhale carbon dioxide out of the body.
Ways of looking after: ~Stay away from smoking ~Breathe in fresh air

Produce hormones that controls the bodys responses towards stimuli.

Ways to look after:


#Reduce sugar and fats intake of diets #Undergo regular medical check ups.

Provide supports and protection to soft internal organs

Ways to look after:


*Adopt correct body posture. *Consume food rich in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D.

Helps in movement of body parts


Ways to look after: +Exercise regularly +Do not lift heavy objects +Adopt correct body posture

Reproductive System
Produce offspring to

continue the generation Ways to look after:

*Do not be sexually Promiscuous *Always take care of personal hygiene

Excretory system
Dispose waste from the body
Ways to look after:
Drink a lot of

water Reduce intake of salty food

Nervous System
Coordinates and controls

all bodily activities related to impulses and reactions Ways to look after:
o Consume food rich in

vitamin B o Avoid taking any type of alcohol

Defend the body from diseases

Ways to look after:


Exercise regularly Drink lots of water and eat

lots of vegetable

All system in the body works together to produce a life process that

produce an independent organism. Cells organisms allows different types of work in body to work more smoothly and efficiently

Human considered to be a complex organism because they have various type of cells organized to form tissues, organs and systems.