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MANUFACTURING AUTOMATION

MME 3112 LECTURE 5 DISCRETE CONTROL WITH PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS (PLCS): LOGICAL SENSORS

INSTRUCTOR: ISRAD HAKIM JAAFAR DEPARTMENT OF MANUFACTURING & MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Discrete Control
Review from last lecture.
Discrete Control

Discreet Parameters & Variables

Handled by Logical Sensors & Actuators Depends on Application

Binary Inputs and Outputs

1 or 0

ON or OFF

True or False

Object Present or Not Present

High voltage or Low Voltage

Discrete Control (2)


Binary signal
Sensors: read current state of system

Process
Actuators: Drive system to new states

PLC makes decision to update outputs to actuators. Binary signal

PLC

Discrete Control (3)


Purpose of the Controller

coordinate the various actions of the physical system solve the programmed logic based on the inputs and gives a resultant output transferring parts onto the work holder feeding the machining work head separating parts on a conveyer belt

Examples of actions of physical system:


Discrete process control can be divided into:

Logic control, for event-driven changes in the system; and Sequential control, for time-driven changes in the system.

Sensors and Actuators in Discrete Control


Logical (discrete) Sensors and Actuators typically

used.
Common Interpretation of Binary Signals for Various Logical Sensors & Actuators Sensor Limit Switch Photodetector Push-Button switch Timer Control Relay Circuit Breaker 1/0 Contact/No Contact On/Off On/Off On/Off Contact/No Contact Contact/No Contact Actuator Motor Control Relay Light Valve Clutch Solenoid 1/0 On/Off Contact/No Contact On/Off Closed/Open Engaged/Not Engaged Energized/Not Energized

Discrete Control Example Discrete Sensors and Actuators


Motor control with
PLC

controller Discrete sensors (push button switches) Discrete Actuator (motor)

An Initial Example: Motor Control with PLC


Typical Push Buttons: Normally Closed (NC)
Switch is in the ON position until you press it. When we press, it will be in the OFF position. When we release, it will be back in the ON position

Schematic Symbol

Normally Open (NO)


Switch is in the OFF position until you press it. When we press, it will be in the ON position. When we release, it will be back in the OFF position.

An Initial Example: Motor Control with PLC

Push button sensors Overload relay sensor Motor actuator

Well talk about relays later.

An Initial Example: Motor Control with PLC

Start button (sensor) pressed. Controller receives

logic 1 from input I0.0 All three inputs are now a logic 1. First rung is connected. Controller sends logic 1 to Motor starter (actuator) at output O0.0 Motor starts.

An Initial Example: Motor Control with PLC

The output status bit for O0.0 is now a 1. Finger released but O0.0 is still connected via 2nd rung. Motor remains running.

An Initial Example: Motor Control with PLC

Stop button pressed. Controller received logic 0 from I0.1 It disconnects the rung. Power cannot go through to output O0.0. Controller sends logic 0 to Motor starter (actuator) at output

O0.0 Motor stops.

Logical Sensors

Logical Sensors
Sensors allow a PLC to detect the state of a process. Logical sensors can detect a state that is either TRUE

or FALSE. It measures a physical quantity, & converts it to a logical signal which can be read by the PLC
1 Logical Sensor

1 in this case may mean a fire/heat is present

Sensor Wiring
When sensor detects a logical change, it signals that

change to the PLC


Signal change 0 to 1 1

Sensor

PLC

Sensors provide input to PLC. Output of a Sensor is Input to a PLC.

Sensor Wiring (2)


How this signal is relayed to the PLC depends on the

sensor wiring. Several types:


1.

Plain Switches
Voltage switched ON or OFF

2.

Transistor-to-Transistor Logic (TTL)


Uses 0V for OFF, 5V for ON

3.

Sinking and Sourcing


Current switched ON or OFF

4.

Solid State Relays


Switches AC to DC or DC to AC

1. Plain Switches
Simplest example

of logical sensor. Sensor must be separately powered

V+ and V-connected separately to 24 Vdc supply.

When physical

phenomenon detected, an internal switch (a relay) will close allowing V+ to be connected to PLC Input 06 shown. (1, ON, TRUE)

Electrical Wiring Diagram showing connection of 24 Vdc power supply, Push Button (NO), and Plain Switch sensor to a PLC Input Card

Well talk about relays later.

2. Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)


TTL is based on 2 voltage levels. 0 V = FALSE 5 V = TRUE
Susceptible to Noise (when ~0V, ~5V or in ambiguous range). Improved by employing Schmitt Trigger.

Schematic symbol for Schmitt Trigger

2. TTL - Schmitt Trigger


Output retains

the same value until input changes sufficiently to trigger a change in the output. Eliminates influence of noise to PLC input.

HTL LTL 5V

0V

2. TTL - Schmitt Trigger (2)


If input above HTL 5 V If input below LTL 0 V If voltage is in an ambiguous range, about 1.5-3.5V it will be ignored.

3. Sinking & Sourcing


Sinking

Allows current to flow into sensor, and to the voltage common

Sourcing

Allows current to flow out of the sensor from a positive source.

Emphasis is on current flow, not voltage.

Sinking Sensor (NPN)

NPN transistor always has arrow pointing away from center


Sensor has part that detects physical phenomena Sensor needs supply voltage supply (V+ and V-) to operate Phenomenon detected Active Line triggered Active Line connected to NPN transistor If voltage to transistor on Active Line is at 0V Transistor OFF, current

does not flow through. Phenomenon detected. Voltage to transistor on Active Line is triggered to High Transistor ON, current flows into NPN, through to the voltage common V-.

Sinking Sensor (2)


Schematic symbol for NPN sensor

Sinking Sensor (3)


When PLC Input card does not have a common (COM) but it has a V+ instead, it can be used for NPN sensors. Current flows out of card and sinks into the NPN sensor when sensor is ON.

Electrical Wiring Diagram showing connection of 24VDC power supply and NPN sensor connected to a PLC Input Card

Sinking Sensor (4)


Current flow when NPN sensor is ON, i.e. phenomenon detected. Notice current fl0ws into NPN output.

NPN

V+ V-

Sinking sensor with Sourcing PLC Input Card

Electrical Wiring Diagram showing connection of 24VDC power supply and NPN sensor to a PLC Input Card

Sourcing Sensor (PNP)


PNP transistor always has arrow pointing towards center

No phenomenon detected, Active Line stays at V+ value Transistor OFF,

this is like an open switch. Phenomenon detected, sensor is activated. Active Line Triggered to 0V Transistor ON, allow current to flow out of PNP.

Sourcing Sensor (2)


Schematic symbol for PNP sensor

Sourcing Sensor (3)


When PLC Input card has common (COM) it can be used for PNP sensors. Current flows out or sourced from PNP sensor sinks into the common when sensor is ON.

V+

PNP
V-

Electrical Wiring Diagram showing connection of 24VDC power supply and PNP sensor connected to a PLC Input Card

Sourcing Sensor (4)


Current flow when PNP sensor is ON, i.e. phenomenon detected. Notice current fl0ws out of PNP output.

V+

PNP
V-

Sourcing sensor with Sinking PLC Input Card

Electrical Wiring Diagram showing connection of 24VDC power supply and PNP sensor to a PLC Input Card

Sinking and Sourcing Sensors to turn ON a Lightbulb

Sensor Wiring: Sinking Sensor / NPN

LOAD

Sensor detects phenomena NPN output turns

ON NPN output sinks or pulls current through the load to the common, V Light turns ON

Sensor Wiring: Sourcing Sensor / PNP

LOAD

Sensor detects phenomena PNP output turns

ON
PNP outputs sources or pushes current

through the load to the common, V Light turns ON

Question
Why is a PNP or NPN sensor not like a Plain Switch?

Example Problem

EXAMPLE PROBLEM
Sketch the connections required for the PLC input and

output cards shown. The input is a NO push button and an optical sensor that has both NPN and PNP outputs. The output is 24Vdc light.

EXAMPLE PROBLEM: Solution

V+

PNP V-

4. Solid State Relays


An electronic switching device in which a small control

signal controls a larger load current or voltage. It has a voltage or current sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal), a solid-state electronic switching device of some kind which switches power to the load circuitry either ON or OFF, and some coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC to the load. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, but has no moving parts.
Well talk about relays later.

MME 3112 Assignment 1


Sketch the electrical wiring for diagrams for PLC

Input cards that have:


3 NO push buttons 1 NO thermal relay 3 sinking sensors 1 sourcing sensors

Sinking Sensor

Sourcing Sensor

JIC Schematic Symbols

MME 3112 Assignment 1


Submit next Monday (5 March) in Class. Write Name, Matric #, Assign #.