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By: Tariq A.

Nassar
College of Engineering Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Department Spring 2013

Build RC airplane to takeoff, fly, and land safely Consist of main components; fuselage, wings, motor, servos Presented in technical report and Powerpoint presentation

Experts (Technical Assistance) Built of balsa wood and foam (suggested composite materials) Held together with various glues Create lightest prototype as possible

Requirements

Steps of design process Strength tests Cost estimates Hand and CAD drawings Data for # diff. materials Calculations for plane (thrust, drag, lift)

# tests on # different materials Strength test on material/prototype

Construction

What building materials will be used? What bonding materials will be used? What prefabricated materials will be used? What tools will be used?

Plane characteristics

How will the airplane be powered? How will the airplane be maneuvered (directed)? What weather conditions are required to fly the plane? What wing structure will be used? What is the optimal center of gravity & shape?

Testing

Where will we fly the airplane? What if the airplane crashes? Will we need permission to fly the airplane? What criteria's shall be used to test the airplane?

Looked heavily into materials

Balsa vs. Basswood Foam vs. Metal vs. Fiberglass vs. Carbon Fiber

Motor types

Electric, nitro engine, jet engine

Servos
Move surfaces of plane Provide turning capabilities

Propeller & Landing gear


Propeller needs to fit with motor Proper size wheels taking weight into consideration.

Plane channels

Ailerons for roll Elevators for pitch Throttle for speed Rudder Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) #-channel system most practical

Wing position

High, mid, and low-wing High is most stable and easiest to fly V-tail and T-tail T-tails better with low speeds for control frequency band

Tail

Transmitter

Criteria

Applications of Calculus
Calculations for d(t), v(t), a(t) Calculations for lift force Calculations for engine torque Calculations for thrust Calculations for types of materials Optimization with different materials and structures

Materials
Balsa wood

Pros
Porous (able to absorb fluids) Less glue required Lightweight Cheap Widely available Stiff Wont crush Lightweight

Cons
Varying strength

Basswood

Not widely available More expensive

Foam
Plastic

Very lightweight
Strong Rigid Very strong Rigid Very strong Very lightweight

Metal

Fiberglass

Hard to work with Not very strong Rigid Hard to work with Expensive Relatively heavy Very heavy Expensive Hard to work with Not widely available Very expensive No previous experience Not widely available

Tails
V-Tail

Pros
Lightweight Less drag Keep airflow behind wing Better pitch control Aerodynamics

Cons
Less aerodynamic

T-Tail

Can break at landing

T-tail best choice

Aerodynamics

Wings
High wing

Pros

Cons
Not as acrobatic

Low wing Mid-wing

Most stable Easiest to fly Easy to build Easy to roll


Easy to turn

Hard to fly Top-heavy Hardest to fly Wings at bulk (exact position) of mass

High wing best choice


Easiest to fly/build Stable Makes sustained flight easiest to attain Acrobatics not necessary

Adhesives
Wood Glue (Urea)

Pros
Easiest to use Low cost Light color Quick cooling time Relatively easy to use Low cost Very light Expands while setting Best for wood than other materials Waterproof Expands when dry Less glue required Cheap Water-resistant Strong flexible bond Easy to peel off Not brittle Very strong bond Often used for model aircraft Versatile Water resistant

Cons
Poor heat resistance Poor moisture resistance Bond not very strong Bond not strong Leaves residue Visible on plane Hard to work with Contains air bubbles Somewhat expensive

Hot Glue Gorilla Glue

Pro-bond Glue

Heavy

Rubber Cement Super Glue

Flammable Highly toxic Expensive Expensive Can become brittle Long cure times

Propellers
Dual Blade

Pros
Easily available Very efficient Easy to use Fairly cheap

Cons
Larger diameter

Multi Blade

Smaller diameter

Less available Less efficient Breaks easily

Wood Blade

Very rigid Efficient Light Dont break as easily Efficient

APC Blade (Fibers/plastic)

Heavy

Motors
Electric

Pros
Cheap Easy to run Clean Doesnt require gasoline Lightweight

Cons
Low power / torque

Nitro

Relatively cheap Wide availability High torque and power

Special mixture of fuel Heavy

Gas

High torque and power

Not as available Heavy Special mixture of fuel Expensive

Jet

Extreme power

Extremely expensive Not as available

High I M P A C T Low Low Effort High


Design 1

Design 2

Design 3

Test Criteria for Prototype

Safety Functionality (in air/on ground) Ease of use Aerodynamics Velocity Weight/Size Strength

Test Criteria for Materials


Strength
Safety Compression/Tension Flexibility Weatherability (ability to withstand outdoor

conditions)

Test Criteria for Materials


Adhesive Weatherability Holding strength Drying time Motor/Propeller Thrust Torque Voltage (if necessary) Weatherability Weight/Size Functionality

Test Criteria Overall Plane Aerodynamics

How Tested Look at the overall body of the plane and determine if any parts of the plane will decrease aerodynamics. Move all surfaces (rudder, elevators) and check for responsiveness. Check if the plane flies consistently in the air and doesnt wobble. Hang weights on the wings and see if the flex too much or break. Put weights on other critical structures of the plane. While in the air, look at distance/time to determine the speed. Measure the overall planes dimensions. Put the whole plane on a scale.

Expected results The plane will have sound aerodynamics and will have minimal drag. All motorized parts of the plan will respond well. The plane will be safe and wont wobble. The plane will be able to support the weight and will not fracture. The velocity will be high enough to sustain flight. Planes weight will be in proportion to its size.

Actual Results

Functionality

Safety

Strength

Velocity

Weight/Size