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CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CRACKS IN BUILDING PREPARED BY: RISHI YADAV 0705200019 CIVIL ENGG.

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION THE SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BUILDING CRACKS

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS IN GENERAL


DETAILED CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS WITH EXAMPLES MEASURES TO BE TAKEN FOR PREVENTION OF CRACKS

INTRODUCTION
Cracks in general may occur due to : * Inadequate Planning * Faulty Design * Improper Construction * Poor Maintenance

Efforts should be made to prevent the occurance of cracks


Cracks are analogous to CANCER for buildings & their presence may not only deteriorate the building but also makes it unsafe to inhabit.

CRACKS ----BASICS.
Cracks occur when stress exceeds strength. Structural Vs. non structural cracks.

Building can easily move in vertical direction but not in

horizontal because of restrain of foundation. Vertical cracks are hence due to horizontal movements.

CRACKS---- CLASSIFICATION.
THIN

MEDIUM
WIDE

- less than 1 mm in width. - 1 to 2 mm in width. - more than 2 mm in width.

CRACKS CAUSES------GENERAL.
MOISTURE MOVEMENT : reversible in nature( expansion

on absorbance & shrinkage on drying ). Initial shrinkage(in concrete, mortar, plasters) irreversible in nature is the main cause of cracking. Initial shrinkage is 50% greater than subsequent drying and wetting. Shrinkage tensile stress cracksstress relieved. Shrinkage cracks controlled by temperature reinforcement': small dia bars closely spacedthin cracks.

CRACKS CAUSES----GENERAL
Work done in cold weather is less liable to shrinkage than

in hot weather(E/C opposite). Daily variation in temperature more crack prone than seasonal changes(creep). Factors contributing thermal movements: 1. Colour---reflectivity 2. Conductivity---temp grad & warp. 3. Insulating cover---- absorbence. 4. Heat generated-----OPC Vs. LHC.

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS IN GENERAL

The primary source and causes of cracks in buildings can be streamlined under the following headings. 1.Human 2.Chemical 3. Atmospheric 4.Structural 5. Moisture 6.Faulty Design 7. Faulty Construction 8. Faulty Materials 9. Faulty System 10.Vegetation .

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

1. HUMAN

1.

Human

Failure to clean and carry out routine maintenance Ignorance of the causes of cracks. Poor planning .

Failure to promote awareness of maintenance needs by all


who use the buildings.

Adopting a negative attitude of waiting until emergency measures are required.

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

2.CHEMICAL

2.

Chemical

- Sulphate attack : Soluble Sulphate present in soil attacks


tri CAL in cement vol. increases cracks - Attack of chemicals on exposed reinforcement. - Alkali-aggregate reaction :KaO & NaO in OPC reacts with silica in aggregate causing (E)cracking.

2.CHEMICAL 3-Alkali Aggregate Reaction

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

3.ATMOSPHERIC

OCCURANCE OF CRACKS
E/C of roof slab, large span, slip joints, inadequate

insulation cover. (wall &ceiling plaster discontinuous by a 10 mm groove). Thermal coeff of concrete=2wice of brick.(differential E/C). Drying shrinkage of concrete=3-4 times of brickwork.

Provision of joints:
Expansion joints: allows(E/C), 6-40 mm wide. Control joints: allows only contraction(concrete & masonry

are strong in compression & weak in tension);cracks occur due to contraction. Slip joints: allows sliding movement(roof slab is ingressed in the brick wall, tarred paper in between).

3.

Atmospheric

- Reaction of the structure, external fabric, finishes and claddings to the atmospheric elements such as:

Wind
Rain

Sun
Frost and snow for cold weather Pollution in the atmosphere - Reaction of the building to the penetration of the above atmospheric elements.

3-ATMOSPHERIC 1.D-Cracking frost cycles

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

4.STRUCTURAL

4.

Structural

- Reaction of the structural elements to settlement, moisture,

shrinkage and thermal movements.


- Reaction of the structural elements to the change of loading patterns.(static vs. dynamic). - Natural aging of the structural elements.

4.STRUCTURAL 1.Cracks Typesin brick and block work

4.STRUCTURAL 2.Internal wall


settlement of the floor

4.STRUCTURAL 3-External wallDiagonal Cracks-

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

5.MOISTURE

5.

Moisture

- Penetration of the external fabric of claddings, or through ground floor constructions giving rise to dampness which may create a suitable condition for fungi growth and subsequently a crack.

- Excessive moisture in the internal atmosphere which may


lead to excessive condensation and corrosion. - Faulty Plumbing

5.MOISTURE 1-Dampness on CeilingsRoof leaks-

5.MOISTURE 2-EfflorescenceLeaks through cracks-

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

7.FAULTY DESIGN

7.

Faulty Design

- Poor detailing at the design stage including: - Insufficient allowance for expansion or contraction - Absence of weathering - Incorrectly placed damp proof courses

- Poor jointing between different materials or components


- Poor specification Lack of adequate consideration of future maintenance problems - Inadequate provisions for access to carry out maintenance activities.

7.FAULTY DESIGN 1-Wall cracksPoor detailing-strong bond vertical crack-

7.FAULTY DESIGN 2-Wall cracksPoor detailing-weak bond diagonal stepped crack-

7.FAULTY DESIGN 3-Wall cracksVertical crack-cavity clay brick work-restrained by columns

7.FAULTY DESIGN 4-Wall cracksPoor detailing-Parapets cracking-Extreme weather

7.FAULTY DESIGN 5-Wall cracksPoor detailing-Diagonal crack-Expansion and shrinkage

7.FAULTY DESIGN 6-Clay tilesPoor detailing-No allowance for E&C-

7.FAULTY DESIGN 7-External wall Poor detailing-Spilling of brickwork cladding-compression of the concrete wall

7.FAULTY DESIGN 8-Slab with WallsPoor detailing-Random cracks near walls-

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION

8.

Faulty Construction

- Lack of supervision during construction period

- Failure to understand or follow exactly the specification and/or drawings


- Failure to replace defective work

- Failure of Designer/Architect/or Engineer to monitor works in progress


- Lack of skilled labour

- Over emphasis or need for quantity rather than quality


- Failure to fully appreciate the consequences of shady or poor materials

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION 1-CrazingA pattern of fine shallow random cracks-Spreading dry


cement on concrete or wetting dry concrete for finishing

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION 2-CrazingEnlarged-Spreading dry cement on concrete or wetting dry concrete


for finishing

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION 3-Plastic CrackingOccurs while concrete in plastic state-rapid loss of water or settlement of aggregates

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -4-Plastic CrackingEnlarged-rapid loss of water or settlement of aggregates

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -10-Floors tiles


Workmanship-base concrete-grading of aggregate

8 8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -11-Floors tiles


Workmanship-base concrete-grading of aggregate

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -13-Corrosion


Workmanship-inadequate concrete cover

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -14-Corrosion


Workmanship-inadequate concrete cover

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -15-Corrosion


Workmanship-inadequate concrete cover

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -17-External Finishing


Workmanship-Cracking of the base wall or shrinkage of the plaster

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -18-External Finishing


Workmanship-Cracking of the base wall or shrinkage of the plaster

8.FAULTY CONSTRUCTION -19-Internal Finishing


Workmanship-Ceramic tiles, loss of adhesion-inadequate space fixing

7/8.FAULTY DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION 1-Floor deflection


:Cracks at the wall bottom due to floor deflection

7/8.FAULTY DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION 2-Internal Finishing


:plaster Cracks due to shrinkage-base wall movement-use of different materials

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

9.FAULTY MATERIALS and 10.FAULTY COMPONENTS

9.

Faulty Materials

- Failure of client, builder, designer or architect to reject substandard materials. - In adequate inspection of materials by supplier or receiver - Inadequate storage facilities on site - Inadequate/or inconsistent mixing of materials on site

10. Faulty Components


Similar condition to those given above for faulty material can lead to deterioration and decay of the fabric, services or finishes of the structure of building.

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

11.FAULTY SYSTEMS

11.

Faculty Systems

- Inadequate knowledge on the part of the designer or architect leading to an unsatisfactory design, detail of system. - Inability of the installer to follow the specification and/or drawings - Inadequate testing of the system before commissioned - Failure of owner to follow maintenance instructions provided by manufacturer or designer. - Inability of the owner to operate the system as instructed.

CAUSES OF CRACKS IN BUILDING

12. VEGETATION

CRACKING DUE TO VEGETATION


Expansive action of the roots near compound walls: cracks

wide at bottom &narrow at top. Moisture present in the soil is dehydrated by the roots of the trees,which swells up to exert an upward thrust on the foundation, subsequently causing cracks in the wall.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR CRACKS


CONSTRUCTION OF JOINTS. 2. USING GOOD QUALITY OF CONCRETE MIX. 3. PROPER WORKMANSHIP. 4. GENERAL MEASURES.
1.

PREVENTION OF CRACKS---(A)
Create slip joints under the support of RCC slab on walls. Masonry work on RCC slabs and beams should not be started before drying RCC slab and beam. Provide horizontal movement joints between the top of brick panel and RCC beam/slab
Construct joints such as construction joints, expansion joints, control joints and slip joints. The joints should be planned at the time of design and be constructed carefully.

PREVENTION OF CRACKS----(B)
Use dense and good quality concrete i.e. richer mix of

cement concrete 1:1.5:3 to prevent cracks. Repair corrosive cement concrete surface by guniting/ injecting technique after removing all loose and damaged concrete and cleaning reinforcement from all rust. Use minimum quantity of water required for mixing cement concrete or cement mortar according to water cement ratio. Never allow cement concrete work without mechanical mix and vibrator.

PREVENTION OF CRACKS----(C)
Use largest possible aggregate and ensure good grading of

materials. The use of water according to required workability has less shrinkage because of reduction in the porosity of hardened concrete. Proper curing should be started as soon as initial setting has taken place and be continued for at least seven to ten days. When hardening of concrete takes place under moist environment, the shrinkage due to drying is comparatively less.

PREVENTION OF CRACKS----(D)
Do not use fine materials containing silt, clay and dust. Use

coarse sand/fine aggregate in cement concrete and cement mortar mix which has silt and clay less than 4%. Use coarse aggregate and fine aggregate after washing to reduce silt contents. Construct the foundation of buildings on firm ground while doing construction. Tie up the building with connecting beams at foundation level, door level and roof level. Do not let trees grow too close to the buildings, compound walls etc. Remove any saplings of trees as soon as possible if they start growing in or near of walls etc.

PREVENTION OF CRACKS----(E)
Increasing the volume of aggregate by 10% reduces the shrinkage value by 50%. Use of CaCl2 as an accelerator increases shrinkage by 50%. Shrinkage is much lesser in coastal environment than in non coastal environment. Shrinkage is lesser for cements having large C3S & lesser NaO & KaO. RHC has greater shrinkage than OPC. Lowering temperature from 38 to 10( deg cel) reduces H2O requirement by 25 lts per cubic meter.

Conclusion

It is impossible to control all the above factors during design, construction and occupations stages of buildings. However, considering these factors and minimizing their effect will definitely reduce the amount and need for maintenance. Cracks should be repaired by injecting epoxy compound .