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THESIS PRESENTATION

ON

PRESENTED BY
DAVENDRA KUMAR
Id. No. 1304/09

DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE
SARDAR VALLABHBHAI PATEL UNIVERSITY OF
AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY, MEERUT (U.P.), 250 110
INDIA

Introduction
India is largest producer of vegetables in the world after China

with an area around 8.45 mha, production 146.55 mt and


productivity 17.30 mt/ha. India contribute 16% to the world
vegetable production.(Anonymous, 2011)
In India, West Bengal rank first in the total production of vegetable

contributing more than one fifth of the vegetable production.


India rank first in world pea production with an area of 0.37 mha,

production 35.17 mt and productivity 9.5 mt/ha (Anonymous,


2011)
The state U.P. with respected area is 0.89 mha, production is 1.76

mt and productivity is 21.3 mt/ha (Anonymous, 2011).

Conti..
Common Name
Botanical name
Family

: Garden pea
: Pisum sativum L.
: Leguminoceae

Sub. Family

: Fabaceae

Origin

: Ethiopia

Pollination system

: Self-pollinated

Chromosome no.
Edible portion
Plant type

: 2n = 14
: Seed
: Herbaceous annual

Nutritional Status
Moisture
(%)

Protein
(%)

Fat
(%)

Mineral
matter (%)

Fibre
(%)

CHO.
(%)

Calories
(K Cal)

72.9

7.2

0.1

0.8

15.9

93

P
(mg/100g)

K
(mg/100g)

Ca
(mg/100g)

Mg
(mg/100g)

Fe
(mg/100g)

Na
(mg/100g)

139

79

20

34

1.5

7.8

Cu
(mg/100g
)
0.23

S
(mg/100g)
95

Cl
(mg/100g)
20

Riboflavin
(mg/100g)
0.01

Niacin
(mg/100g)
0.8

Vit. C
(mg/100g)
9

Minerals

Vitamins
Carotene
(mg/100g)
83

Thiamine
(mg/100g)
0.25

Objectives
To assess and analyze the genetic variability present in

the parents and their progenies.


To understand the association between seed yield and
yield contributing traits.
To estimate the direct and indirect effect of yield and its
components through path-coefficient analysis.
To elucidate the nature of inheritance of seed yield and
other quantitative characters.
To facilitate the selection of parents for hybridization
programme by estimating the combining ability effects.
To assess the nature and magnitude of heterosis for
different quantitative characters.

Variability, Heritability and


Genetic Advance
Variability-The existence of phenotypic differences among the

genotypes of a population.
Heritability-Transmission of characters from parents to their offspring.
Types of heritability :

1. Broad sense heritability


2. Narrow sense heritability
Genetic advance-Improvement or advancement in advance

generation (population) from the basic population.

Correlation and path


coefficient
Correlation- A statistical measure which is used to find out the degree

and direction of relationship between two or more variable.


Phenotypic correlation- The association between two variable which can
be directly observed.
Genotypic correlation- The heritable association between two variables
also called as genetic correlation.
Path coefficient measures the direct and indirect contribution of
various independent variables on the dependent variable.
Phenotypic path- Path coefficient that are worked out from all possible
phenotypic correlation coefficient among various characters.
genotypic path- Path coefficient that are worked out from all possible
genotypic correlation coefficient among various characters

Combining ability and


Heterosis
Development of high yielding varieties and F1 hybrids have become

insatiate to face the challenges of increasing the production and productivity


in the years to come.
Genetic improvement in seed yield could normally be obtained through

various

selection

and

breeding

procedures

that

accumulate

and

concentrate the favorable genes and gene complexes.


Information on combining ability and heterosis for seed yield and its traits in

garden pea will prove very useful in selection of appropriate parents for the
development of hybrids.

Conti..
The line x tester analysis, a tool employed in the study of genetic

variability, heritability and genetic advance of yield attributes may


be helpful in selection of some useful materials from the existing
population.
It is also used in estimating GCA of the parents and SCA of the

hybrids and their effects.


The SCA and GCA are directly related to additive and non-

additive genetic variance in a cross. Predominance at nonadditive genetic variance is suggestive of adopting a heterosis

breeding programme while, prevalence of additive gene action


suggests that the use of conventional breeding will be fruitful.

Conti.

Heterosis refers to the superiority of F1 hybrids over their


parents.

In heterosis breeding, a knowledge of combining ability,


gene action and relative amount of additive and non-additive
components of genetic variance helps in identification of best
combiners and feasibility of its utilization in the breeding
programme.

In Pea, limited information is available in the magnitude of


variability,

heritability,

genetic

advance,

correlation

coefficient, path coefficient, combining ability and heterosis


for yield and its component characters.

Materials and Methods


The details of the experiment is stated below.
Total treatment
: 15 genotype
Number of lines
: 12
Number of testers
:3
Number of F1 hybrids
: 36
Commercial check
: 2 (Asuji and Pant uphar)
Replication
:3
Spacing :
PXP
: 10 cm.
RXR
: 30 cm.
Design : Randomized Block Design (RBD)
Randomly 5 plants were selected from each genotype with each
replication for observation.
Genotypes KS-156, KS-175, KS-149, AP-5, AP-2, AP-3,KS-256, KS-216,
KS-204, KS-205, KS-159 and KS-150 are used as Female parents
(Lines)
Genotypes AP-1, Arkel and E-6 are used as Male parents (Testers)

Observations

Days to flowering
Days to maturity
Plant height(cm)
Productive branches/plant
Number of pods/plant
Pod length(cm)
Pod width(cm)
Number of seed/pod
100-seed weight(g)
Seed yield/plant(g)

F1 Combinations
S.
N.

F1 Combinations

S. N.

F1 Combinations

F1 combination

S.
N.

F1 Combinations

KS-156

AP-1

13

KS-156

Arkel

25

KS-156

E-6

KS-175

AP-1

14

KS-175

Arkel

26

KS-175

E-6

KS-149

AP-1

15

KS-149

Arkel

27

KS-149

E-6

AP-5

AP-1

16

AP-5

Arkel

28

AP-5

E-6

AP-2

AP-1

17

AP-2

Arkel

29

AP-2

E-6

AP-3

AP-1

18

AP-3

Arkel

30

AP-3

E-6

KS-256

AP-1

19

KS-256

Arkel

31

KS-256

E-6

KS-204

AP-1

20

KS-204

Arkel

32

KS-204

E-6

KS-216

AP-1

21

KS-216

Arkel

33

KS-216

E-6

10

KS-205

AP-1

22

KS-205

Arkel

34

KS-205

E-6

11

KS-159

AP-1

23

KS-159

Arkel

35

KS-159

E-6

12

KS-150

AP-1

24

KS-150

Arkel

36

KS-150

E-6

Hybridization programme
Seed of male and female parents were sown during winter season

2010- 2011 for attempting cross in line x tester fashion. The total
of 36 hybrids were developed by crossing 12 female parents
(lines) with each of 3 male parents (testers).
Flower buds of male and female parents were selected on the

previous evening prior to the day of their opening.


Flower buds of female parents were covered with butter paper

bags after emasculation to avoid out crossing.


Pollination was carried out on the next day morning. After

pollination, the pollinated buds were again covered with butter


paper bags to avoid contamination and tagged with details of
female and male parent with date of pollination.

Statistical Analysis
Analysis of variance : ANOVA for testing the differences among progenies

and parents (Line x Tester) by standard procedure given by Panse and


sukhatme (1985).
Estimation of variability parameters: Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of
variation, heritability, genetic advance for different characters will be
suggested by Burton (1952) and Johnson et al. (1955).
Estimation of correlation coefficients : The phenotypic, genotypic coefficient
of correlation were computed as per methods suggested by Al- Jibouri et al.
(1958).
Path coefficient analysis : were suggested by Deway and Lu (1959).
Estimation of combining ability : estimated of combining ability variances
and effects will be obtained using line x tester method suggested by
Kempthorne (1957).
Estimation of heterosis : heterosis in F1 will be calculated as the difference
of F1 hybrid performance from the standard check (standard heterosis) and
better parents (heterobeltiosis) suggested by Kempthorne (1957).

Analysis of variance for 10 characters in parents and


F1 generation of Garden pea
Sources of

d.f.

variation

Days to

Days to

Plant

Produ

No. of

Pod

Pod

No. of

100-

Seed

flowering

maturity

height

ctive

pods

Length

Width

seed/

Seed

Yield/

(cm)

branc

/ plant

(cm)

(cm)

Pod

Weight

Plant

(gm)

(gm)

hes/
Plant
Replication

3.13

1.93

1.56

0.09

0.98

0.13

0.09

0.07

1.13

0.02

Treatments

50

165.55**

381.52**

662.60**

2.87**

142.68**

2.42**

3.02**

2.95**

7.14**

22.59**

Error

100

1.09

1.79

3.09

0.03

2.05

0.05

0.02

0.06

1.10

0.29

Continue

Parameters of variability for various traits


studied in garden pea

S.No.

Characters

Heritability
(%)

Genetic
advance

Genetic
advance as

GCV (%)

PCV (%)

% of mean
1.

Days to flowering

48.19

15.10

30.13

14.77

14.91

2.

Days to maturity

58.65

23.01

20.54

10.04

10.11

3.

Plant height (cm)

98.61

40.33

48.80

28.86

27.02

4.

Productive branches/Plant

90.95

31.04

47.48

24.18

23.37

5.

No. of pods/plant

95.84

43.81

57.48

38.51

39.12

6.

Pod length (cm)

94.05

21.77

21.90

30.96

31.31

7.

Pod Width (cm)

90.74

10.19

13.92

07.09

07.45

8.

No. of Seed/Pod

84.51

21.97

36.30

33.14

33.51

9.

100-Seed Weight (gm)

74.65

22.35

30.81

26.53

28.12

10.

Seed yield/plant (gm)

96.32

25.51

42.09

26.83

29.23

Estimation of correlation coefficient for Genotypic (G) and Phenotypic (P)


levels among different characters in garden pea
Produc
tive
Branch
es/
Plant
0.33**

No. of
Pods/
Plant
-0.02

Pod
Length
(cm)
0.31**

Pod
Width
(cm)
0.32**

0.23**
0.14
0.11
1.00

-0.02
0.01
0.02
0.36**

0.21**
-0.16
-0.15
0.16

1.00

0.21**

G
P

S.N
o. Character
1

Days to
Flowering

Plant
Height (cm)

Productive
Branches/
Plant

4
Pods/ Plant
5
6
7
8

G
P
G
P
G
P

Days to
Floweri
ng
1.00

Plant
Height
(cm)
0.39**

1.00

0.49**
1.00
1.00

No. of
Seeds/
Pod
-0.11

100seed
Weight
(gm)
-0.04

Days
to
Maturi
ty
0.05

Seed
yield/pla
nt
-0.08

0.31**
0.27**
0.25**
0.37**

-0.14
0.36**
0.25**
-0.01

-0.09
0.32**
0.30**
0.09

0.08
0.10
0.13
0.05

-0.09
0.06
0.07
-0.13

0.14

0.33**

0.03

0.11

0.11

-0.14

1.00

-0.08

-0.07

0.01

0.10

-0.02

0.73**

1.00

-0.08

-0.06

0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.75**

Pod Length
(cm)

1.00

0.59**

0.64**

0.60**

-0.04

0.35**

1.00

0.56**

0.60**

0.45**

0.11

0.39**

Pod Width
(cm)

1.00

0.18

0.24**

0.53**

0.31**

1.00

0.23

0.29**

0.59**

0.39**

1.00

0.38**

-0.01

0.33**

1.00

0.31**

-0.09

0.28**

1.00

-0.05

0.30**

1.00

0.07

0.24**

1.00

0.11

1.00

0.13

Seeds/ Pod
100-seed
Weight
(gm)

9
Days to
Maturity

Estimation of direct and indirect effect for various


traits studied towards seed yield in garden pea
S.No
.
1

Days to
Flowering

Plant
Height
(cm)

Productive
Branches/
Plant

No. of
Pods/
Plant

Pod
Length
(cm)

Pod
Width
(cm)

No. of
Seeds/
Pod

100-seed
Weight
(gm)

Days to
Maturity

Correlation
with seed
yield/plant

0.13

-0.21

-0.01

0.01

0.09

0.14

0.14

0.17

-0.15

-0.08

0.23

-0.16

-0.08

0.01

0.07

0.10

0.10

0.11

-0.16

-0.09

-0.03

0.55

-0.02

0.07

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

-0.04

0.06

0.02

0.54

0.02

0.09

-0.01

-0.01

-0.01

-0.01

0.03

0.07

-0.04

-0.08

-0.18

-0.04

-0.03

-0.07

0.75

-0.05

-0.02

-0.13

-0.05

-0.09

-0.22

-0.05

-0.03

-0.07

0.77

-0.06

-0.02

-0.14

-0.01

0.11

0.78

0.79

-0.07

-0.06

0.06

0.08

-0.02

0.73**

-0.02

0.07

0.76

0.74

-0.06

-0.05

0.08

0.05

-0.01

0.75**

0.08

0.04

0.08

0.09

0.78

0.22

0.10

0.09

0.10

0.35**

0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.71

-0.06

-0.06

-0.05

0.03

0.39**

-0.02

-0.02

0.02

0.11

0.04

0.06

0.02

0.02

-0.04

0.31**

-0.01

-0.01

0.02

0.04

0.03

0.05

0.02

0.01

-0.03

0.39**

0.08

0.07

0.07

0.67

-0.17

-0.01

0.66

-0.1

0.11

0.33**

0.07

0.05

0.01

0.63

-0.13

-0.08

0.61

-0.07

0.08

0.28**

0.06

0.06

-0.05

-0.02

0.59

-0.06

-0.06

0.86

0.07

0.30**

0.01

0.01

-0.01

0.08

0.61

-0.01

-0.01

0.82

0.01

0.24**

0.31

0.29

0.04

-0.01

-0.13

-0.25

-0.16

-0.18

0.19

0.11

0.29

0.27

0.03

-0.01

-0.09

-0.17

-0.11

-0.1

0.16

0.13

Characters
Days to
Flowering

Plant Height (cm)

Productive
Branches/ Plant

Pods/ Plant

Pod Length (cm)

Pod Width (cm)

Seeds/ Pod

100-seed Weight
(gm)

Days to Maturity

Analysis of variance for 10 characters in


parents and F1 generation of garden pea
d.f.

Days to
Flowering

Days to
Maturity

Plant
Height (cm)

Produ
ctive
Branc
hes/
Plant

Replication

1.23

2.56

6.68

0.07

0.70

0.02

0.05

0.04

1.92

1.01

Crosses

35

117.57**

203.05**

309.06**

0.82

77.05**

2.02**

0.02

2.56**

6.23**

18.48**

Line

11

203.76**

538.10**

610.40**

2.35**

119.44**

6.06**

0.06

7.61**

15.51**

58.52**

Tester

882.06**

572.12**

1781.95**

0.90

592.61**

0.69

0.02

1.87

14.05**

30.98**

Line x
Tester

22

4.97**

8.98**

24.49**

0.04

7.98**

0.11

8.88**

0.10

0.98

21.08**

Error

70

0.93

1.46

3.73

0.02

2.65

0.03

0.00

0.03**

1.35

0.15

Source of
Variations

No. of
Pods/
Plant

Pod
Length
(cm)

Pod
Width
(cm)

No. of
Seeds
/ Pod

100-seed
Weight
(gm)

Seed
Yield/
Plant

Estimation of general combining ability effects of lines and


testers with respect to 10 characters in garden pea
Days to
Flowering

Days to
Maturity

Plant
Height
(cm)

KS-156

4.96**

2.09**

12.02**

10.45**

2.03**

10.66**

20.10**

10.33**

21.01**

20.33**

KS-175

0.59

0.13

6.65**

0.14

3.34**

-0.25

0.05

-0.14

1.29

0.74

KS-149

1.26

1.02

7.46**

-0.62

6.12**

1.26

-0.05

9.42**

9.84**

7.72**

AP-5

2.26**

7.91**

10.76**

1.03

2.91**

0.05

0.02

-0.95

10.56**

11.13**

AP-2

10.70**

1.24

5.09**

0.14

5.05**

-0.48

-0.02

21.28**

-1.43

12.55**

AP-3

9.07**

0.20

-0.69

-0.04

-1.46

-0.45

0.06

1.05

-0.73

-0.84

KS-256

2.48**

3.46**

4.09**

10.31**

2.55**

10.77**

2.05**

3.36**

3.13**

2.66**

KS-204

-1.30

1.46

-0.69

-0.44

11.05**

-0.08

-0.07

10.06**

-1.70

-0.85

KS-216

0.37

10.69**

4.98**

-0.46

3.81**

-0.59

-0.12

-0.12

-0.95

3.26**

KS-205

-1.41

1.02

9.02**

-0.46

4.42**

10.63**

-0.04

11.16**

-1.07

4.93**

KS-159

0.93

-1.87

11.69**

-0.51

1.32

-0.52

-0.03

20.27**

-0.61

-0.92

KS-150

0.15

-0.54

9.98**

0.47

13.75**

11.81**

2.19**

0.54

-0.16

22.34**

AP-1

3.01**

4.02**

8.06**

0.15

4.21**

-0.16

-0.02

0.12

10.66**

10.15**

ARKEL

2.70**

-0.06

4.88**

0.01

-0.33

0.07

0.02

0.15

0.09

10.50**

0.71

0.95

3.19**

-0.16

3.88**

0.09

-0.01

-0.26

-0.58

20.10**

Crosses

E-6

(5)

(4)

(10)

Productive
Branches/
Plant

(3)

No. of
Pods/ Plant

Pod
Length
(cm)

Pod Width
(cm)

(10)

(4)

(3)

No. of
Seeds/ Pod

100-seed
Weight
(gm)

Seed Yield/
Plant

(7)

(4)

(8)

SE [gi] ()

0.15

0.21

0.19

0.05

0.17

0.07

0.02

0.07

0.30

0.18

SE [gj] ()

0.17

0.20

0.29

0.02

0.14

0.03

0.05

0.03

0.17

0.09

SE [gi- gj]
()

0.19

0.09

0.03

0.07

0.08

0.10

0.01

0.10

0.09

0.25

SE [gi- gj]
(+_)

0.24

0.29

0.41

0.03

0.34

0.05

0.08

0.05

0.24

0.12

Estimation
Continue

of specific combining ability effect with


respect to 10 characters in garden pea
Days to Flowering

S.No.

Plant Height
(cm)

Days to Maturity

Line

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

KS-156

0.44

-0.59

0.16

-0.13

-0.38

0.51

5.95**

6.66**

-0.70

KS-175

0.12

-0.15

1.27**

3.35**

0.40

-0.05

0.05

2.32**

2.37**

KS-149

0.12

2.81**

0.94

1.43**

-0.49

-0.95

2.51**

2.10**

0.41

AP-5

1.21**

1.48*

0.27

-0.80

0.29

-0.49

0.27

0.88

0.15

AP-2

1.56**

1.74**

-0.18

0.54

-0.05

-0.49

3.60**

0.79

-0.81

AP-3

-0.45

2.19**

1.73**

-0.02

-0.27

0.29

1.38**

0.34

0.96

KS-256

-0.01

1.30**

0.29

0.98

-0.60

-0.38

2.60**

3.12**

0.52

KS-204

0.10

0.74

-0.84

-0.35

0.06

0.29

-0.95

-0.01

0.96

KS-216

1.10**

-0.93

-0.18

-0.24

1.71**

-0.94

2.05**

0.68

0.63

10

KS-205

0.88

1.15**

0.27

-0.35

0.06

0.29

1.38**

-1.01

-0.37

11

KS-159

-0.12

0.52

-0.40

-0.69

-0.60

1.29**

2.62**

0.99

1.63**

12

KS-150

-0.34

0.37

1.71**

-0.02

-0.60

0.62

0.71

-1.01

0.30

Sij
Sij - Skl

(12)

0.86
1.79

(4)

1.02
2.13

(13)

1.45
3.01

Continue
Productive
Branches/ Plant
S.No.

No. of Pods/ Plant

Pod Length (cm)

Line

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

KS-156

0.27

-0.05

-0.21

0.35

-0.87

0.52

-0.07

0.13

-0.05

KS-175

3.99**

2.01**

0.10

0.11

1.69**

1.80**

2.46**

1.37**

4.09**

KS-149

-0.26

0.21

0.05

-0.17

0.91

-0.74

0.36

-0.07

-0.29

AP-5

0.09

-0.03

-0.06

1.94**

-0.45

1.50**

0.07

1.13**

0.06

AP-2

2.02**

-0.01

0.03

2.03**

1.67**

0.36

-0.17

0.13

0.05

AP-3

-0.04

-0.03

0.07

0.52

1.30**

0.78

0.07

-0.03

-0.04

KS-256

1.99**

3.01**

2.01**

-2.30

-0.39

2.69**

0.05

-0.12

0.07

KS-204

0.02

-0.03

0.01

0.87

-0.86

-0.01

0.09

-0.07

-0.02

KS-216

-0.02

0.06

-0.04

1.34

0.25

1.60**

0.14

-0.10

-0.04

10

KS-205

-0.02

0.06

3.04**

1.30

0.34

1.64**

-0.02

-0.18

0.20

11

KS-159

1.82**

-0.10

0.07

0.93

1.99**

0.06

0.09

-0.03

0.02

12

KS-150

0.05

-0.08

0.03

2.87**

0.01

2.86**

-0.06

2.10**

-0.04

Sij
Sij Skl

(8)

0.14
0.29

(13)

1.18
2.45

(5)

0.18
0.38

Continue
S.No. Line

Pod Width (cm)

No. of Seeds/ Pod

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

KS-156

0.05

-0.02

2.44**

-0.05

-0.11

0.16

KS-175

2.02**

3.04**

-0.02

2.02**

-0.08

0.06

KS-149

0.06

0.58

0.20

-0.01

0.03

-0.03

AP-5

-0.01

0.4 1

0.1 0

-0.04

-0.13

0.17

AP-2

-0.08

0.51

0.91

-0.07

3.07**

0.14

AP-3

0.03

-0.02

-0.52

-0.04

0.10

-0.06

KS-256

0.09

-0.21

0.40

1.30**

0.21

2.51**

KS-204

0.01

-0.04

0.06

-0.16

0.08

0.09

KS-216

0.07

0.88

-0.41

0.06

-0.10

0.04

10

KS-205

0.85

1.87**

0.60

1.17*

0.01

-0.18

11

KS-159

1.99**

0.32

0.71

-0.05

-0.01

0.06

12

KS-150

0.01

-0.25

0.30

-0.13

0.08

0.05

Sij
Sij - Skl

(4)

0.02
0.05

(5)

0.19
0.39

Continue

100-seed Weight (gm)

Seed Yield/ Plant

S.No.

Line

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

AP-1

ARKEL

E-6

KS-156

-0.28

-0.31

0.58

0.17

-0.08

-0.10

KS-175

2.40**

0.29

2.11**

4.19**

3.11**

5.32**

3
4

KS-149
AP-5

1.09*
-0.73

-0.78
1.50**

-0.31
0.23

-0.04
-0.07

-0.01
0.07

0.05
3.01**

AP-2

-0.39

0.06

0.33

0.18

-0.09

-0.09

AP-3

-0.27

-0.19

3.46**

5.13**

4.04**

0.08

KS-256

-0.12

3.29**

-0.17

0.05

-0.15

0.10

KS-204

-0.25

0.07

0.18

2.05**

0.09

-0.14

KS-216

0.47

0.44

-0.91

-0.03

-0.01

3.50**

10

KS-205

0.47

-0.23

-0.24

-0.23

-0.11

0.34

11

KS-159

-0.15

-0.02

0.17

-0.04

0.06

-0.02

12

KS-150

0.56

-0.13

-0.43

3.11**

2.04**

0.07

Sij Sij - Skl

(6)

0.86
1.80

(10)

0.44
0.92

Estimation
Continue

of better parents and mid parents


heterosis in 36 F1 progenies
Day to flowering
Cross

S. No.

Cross

BP

MP

S. No

BP

MP

KS-156xAP-1

-2.92

-2.39

19

KS-256xAP-1

1.60

1.23

KS-156xARKEL

5.44**

4.47**

20

KS-256xARKEL

4.91**

4.70**

KS-156xE-6

-1.73

-2.93

21

KS-256xE-6

22.09**

20.74**

KS-175xAP-1

8.28**

8.43**

22

KS-204xAP-1

-3.16

-1.29

KS-175xARKEL

-0.10

-0.63

23

KS-204xARKEL

-2.53

0.98

KS-175xE-6

1.53

1.87

24

KS-204xE-6

21.52**

23.13**

KS-149xAP-1

0.19

0.31

25

KS-216xAP-1

-1.73

0.31

KS-149xARKEL

5.99**

5.00**

26

KS-216xARKEL

8.88**

8..53**

KS-149xE-6

17.96**

13.40**

27

KS-216xE-6

22.49**

21.87**

10

AP-5xAP-1

2.02

2.45

28

KS-205xAP-1

-1.97

-1.97

11

AP-5xARKEL

9.20**

8.56**

29

KS-205xARKEL

6.58**

5.02**

12

AP-5xE-6

1.69

1.47

30

KS-205xE-6

-0.39

-3.20

13

AP-2xAP-1

-0.98

-0.81

31

KS-159xAP-1

-0.79

-0.31

14

AP-2xARKEL

5.87**

5.46**

32

KS-159xARKEL

-0.19

1.91

15

AP-2xE-6

2.03

2.21

33

KS-159xE-6

20.96**

20.38**

16

AP-3xAP-1

1.79

1.59

34

KS-150xAP-1

-0.11

-0.32

17

AP-3xARKEL

8.16**

9.31**

35

KS-150xARKEL

0.59

-1.30

18

AP-3xE-6

-1.00

-1.01

36

KS-150xE-6

6.58**

5.02**

SE

0.85

0.74

(15)

(14)

Continue
Day to maturity
S. No.
1

8
9
10

Cross
KS-156xAP-1
KS156xARKEL
KS-156xE-6
KS-175xAP-1
KS175xARKEL
KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1
KS149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1

11
12
13

AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1

9.62**
3.92**
12.33**

5.31**
3.50**
13.71**

29
30
31

KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1

11.75**
-0.90
1.48

12.53**
-0.78
1.52

14
15
16

AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1

1.58
1.60
0.42

1.82
1.16
0.48

32
33
34

KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1

10.80**
1.47
0.41

10.00**
1.44
0.31

17

AP-3xARKEL

-1.45

-1.49

35

KS-150xARKEL

11.40**

11.89**

2
3
4

5
6
7

BP
0.24

MP
0.16

S. No.
19

Cross
KS-256xAP-1

BP
0.82

MP
0.72

6.41**
9.29**
4.54**

6.85**
9.39**
3.65**

20
21
22

KS-256xARKEL
KS-256xE-6
KS-204xAP-1

11.29**
-1.17
5.99**

11.81**
1.71
3.92**

8.31**
11.91**
5.63**

7.80**
12.09**
5.07**

23
24
25

KS-204xARKEL
KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1

8.99**
11.99**
0.34

2.77**
12.70**
0.63

1.46
1.94
4.10**

1.83
1.10
4.91**

26
27
28

KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1

-1.26
16.59**
-1.60

-1.43
12.36**
-1.24

Continue
S.
No.

Plant height (cm)


Cross

BP

MP

SN

Cross

KS-156xAP-1

10.63**

9.37**

19

KS-256xAP-1

0.35

0.26

KS-156xARKEL

28.70**

22.70**

20

KS-256xARKEL

-0.21

-0.84

KS-156xE-6

1.25

1.96

21

KS-256xE-6

0.96

0.94

KS-175xAP-1

6.21**

5.36**

22

KS-204xAP-1

0.22

0.36

KS-175xARKEL

15.72**

13.64**

23

KS-204xARKEL

29.07**

25.37**

KS-175xE-6

0.24

0.49

24

KS-204xE-6

25.55**

25.30**

KS-149xAP-1

-1.63

-1.22

25

KS-216xAP-1

0.14

0.11

KS-149xARKEL

11.05**

11.03**

26

KS-216xARKEL

0.31

0.41

KS-149xE-6

5.05**

4.93**

27

KS-216xE-6

0.60

0.70

10

AP-5xAP-1

17.43**

14.40**

28

KS-205xAP-1

1.47

1.68

11

AP-5xARKEL

10.43**

9.03**

29

KS-205xARKEL

24.60**

24.31**

12

AP-5xE-6

0.78

0.07

30

KS-205xE-6

20.63**

23.55**

13

AP-2xAP-1

13.37**

16.34**

31

KS-159xAP-1

-2.99

-2.21

14

AP-2xARKEL

-0.41

-0.53

32

KS-159xARKEL

-1.92

-1.99

15

AP-2xE-6

1.23

1.34

33

KS-159xE-6

13.53**

18.83**

16

AP-3xAP-1

9.89**

8.08*

34

KS-150xAP-1

16.25**

15.17**

17

AP-3xARKEL

0.99

0.98

35

KS-150xARKEL

-2.00**

-1.15

18

AP-3xE-6

5.35**

5.49**

36

KS-150xE-6

28.78**

26.59**

(19)

(18)

1.44

1.25

SE

BP

MP

Continue
Productive branches/plant
S N Cross

BP

MP

S.
No.

Cross

BP

MP

27.89**

17.14**

KS-156xAP-1

30.56**

38.24**

19

KS-256xAP-1

2
3

KS-156xARKEL
KS-156xE-6

31.11**
-2.78

29.03**
-2.81

20
21

KS-256xARKEL
KS-256xE-6

2.63
-2.26

21.88**
-2.03

KS-175xAP-1

5.71

10.45

22

KS-204xAP-1

-1.25

-1.09

KS-175xARKEL

2.86

18.03**

23

KS-204xARKEL

3.85

2.20

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1
KS-149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1
AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1
AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1
AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

30.00**
28.12**
17.69**
1.55
38.16**
30.00**
1.12
2.70
-2.70
18.11**
22.38**
16.45**
23.23**

25.00**
24.81**
16.67**
1.98
30.86**
30.67**
1.43
1.14
-1.29
17.24**
1.11
15.79**
23.08**

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1
KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1
KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1
KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1
KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

18.70**
2.37
17.69**
1.35
19.37**
27.69**
24.29**
1.37
3.85
18.70**
25.79**
25.26**
32.63**

13.64**
2.45
14.29**
1.09
13.73**
24.44**
20.00**
1.45
2.04
13.64**
25.71**
25.00**
32.20**

Continue

No. of pod/plant
S.
No.

MP

S.
No.

Cross

BP

Cross

BP

MP

KS-156xAP-1

67.05**

58.58**

19

KS-256xAP-1

0.57

0.21

KS-156xARKEL

38.41**

36.25**

20

KS-256xARKEL

46.11**

42.48**

KS-156xE-6

27.65**

25.89**

21

KS-256xE-6

43.24**

41.40**

KS-175xAP-1

64.72**

59.79**

22

KS-204xAP-1

2.05

2.56

KS-175xARKEL

50.63**

47.10**

23

KS-204xARKEL

1.43

2.25

6
7
8

KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1
KS-149xARKEL

17.25**
42.40**
93.11**

16.52**
39.19**
90.31**

24
25
26

KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1
KS-216xARKEL

1.24
1.45
2.23

1.51
1.43
2.88

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1
AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1
AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1
AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

57.74**
56.50**
26.45**
0.50
0.83
1.35
0.52
1.44
2.96
2.02

52.18**
47.43**
24.57**
0.16
0.99
1.44
1.05
2.70
2.16
11.50**

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1
KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1
KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1
KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

0.03
0.03
19.19**
-2.77
1.14
2.39
1.88
40.49**
1.10
46.49**

0.21
0.29
17.67**
-1.19
1.63
1.50
1.76
35.51**
0.43
43.11**

Continue
Pod length (cm)
S. No.

Cross

BP

MP

S.
No.

KS-156xAP-1

16.97**

13.97**

19

KS-256xAP-1

0.74

0.25

KS-156xARKEL

7.87**

8.04**

20

KS-256xARKEL

-1.81

-1.32

KS-156xE-6

9.35**

9.80**

21

KS-256xE-6

16.50**

13.14**

4
5

KS-175xAP-1
KS-175xARKEL

0.74
0.09

11.74**
20.05**

22
23

KS-204xAP-1
KS-204xARKEL

2.52
-0.15

1.96
-0.08

6
7

KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1

0.12
1.04

0.08
1.70

24
25

KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1

14.81**
1.77

12.48**
1.55

8
9
10

KS-149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1

1.88
0.72
1.78

1.52
0.87
1.29

26
27
28

KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1

19.45**
-1.69
14.67**

16.17**
-1.37
12.56**

11
12
13

AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1

-1.36
0.25
14.67**

-1.31
0.16
12.34**

29
30
31

KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1

-1.02
13.25**
2.70

-0.98
10.70**
1.59

14
15
16

AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1

-0.51
-0.25
1.75

-0.62
-0.68
1.68

32
33
34

KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1

7.87**
0.07
14.68**

8.68**
0.85
16.54**

17
18

AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

-1.09
-3.07

-1.07
-2.42

35
36

KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

14.76**
0.40

12.41**
2.59

(13)

(12)

SE

0.18

0.15

Cross

BP

MP

Continue

Pod Width (cm)

S.
No.

Cross

KS-156xAP-1

BP
0.39

MP
0.27

S.
No.
19

KS-156xARKEL

-1.33

-1.24

20

KS-256xARKEL

12.33**

10.07**

KS-156xE-6

0.24

0.16

21

KS-256xE-6

11.24**

9.13**

KS-175xAP-1

6.08**

5.05**

22

KS-204xAP-1

3.14

2.41

5
6
7

KS-175xARKEL
KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1

7.58**
9.09**
3.38

5.75**
0.31
2.65

23
24
25

KS-204xARKEL
KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1

13.95**
12.44**
-1.22

10.61**
11.18**
-1.13

8
9
10
11
12
13

KS-149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1
AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1

12.09**
-1.48
3.57
7.67**
2.66
3.36

10.55**
-1.13
0.31
1.24
2.53
2.62

26
27
28
29
30
31

KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1
KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1

17.21**
-1.42
0.87
-0.63
10.53**
-1.83

15.81**
-1.13
0.38
-0.42
9.35**
-1.31

14
15
16

AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1

8.84**
-1.97
0.76

6.70**
-1.79
0.54

32
33
34

KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1

0.77
-2.09
1.91

0.24
-1.80
1.51

17
18

AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

-1.65
8.55**

-1.37
6.21**

35
36

KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

2.28
13.37**

1.23
11.74**

Cross
KS-256xAP-1

BP
-2.12

MP
-1.60

Continue
Number of Seed/ Pod
S.
No.

Cross

BP

KS-156xAP-1

MP

S.
No.

Cross

BP

MP

3.05

2.57

19

KS-256xAP-1

-2.17

1.52

KS-156xARKEL

2.67

1.17

20

KS-256xARKEL

-2.98

-2.57

KS-156xE-6

18.15**

16.74**

21

KS-256xE-6

1.84

1.30

4
5

KS-175xAP-1
KS-175xARKEL

0.08
7.83**

0.64
6.73**

22
23

KS-204xAP-1
KS-204xARKEL

-2.25
-2.92

-1.32
-2.19

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1
KS-149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1
AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1
AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1
AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

9.00**
10.48**
2.22
0.96
15.83**
16.67**
1.51
20.42**
18.42**
3.13
9.65**
7.66**
0.81

7.22**
9.45**
1.24
0.42
12.34**
13.26**
31.35**
17.28**
16.80**
2.20
7.38**
6.43**
0.64

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1
KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1
KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1
KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1
KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

2.31
-0.17
-0.83
0.93
15.83**
17.50**
6.25**
-1.50
-0.67
1.90
2.67
2.58
13.85**

1.33
0.88
-0.48
0.76
13.59**
14.54**
5.26**
-1.33
-0.44
1.47
2.12
2.46
11.21**

Continue
100 seed weight (g)
MP

S.
No.

Cross

BP

MP

2.71

1.24

19

KS-256xAP-1

10.86**

8.70**

KS-156xARKEL

9.57**

8.77**

20

KS-256xARKEL

2.54

2.40

KS-156xE-6

11.94**

9.54**

21

KS-256xE-6

-1.85

-1.13

KS-175xAP-1

16.81**

14.37**

22

KS-204xAP-1

16.81**

14.43**

KS-175xARKEL

1.81

1.22

23

KS-204xARKEL

14.76**

12.08**

6
7

KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1

2.43
16.86**

2.07
14.14**

24
25

KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1

21.24**
1.24

2.49
0.97

8
9
10

KS-149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1

2.42
14.95**
2.65

2.07
12.94**
2.59

26
27
28

KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1

-1.68
1.72
-2.32

-1.58
1.73
-1.38

11
12
13

AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1

15.99**
18.03**
22.16**

12.87**
16.30**
1.81

29
30
31

KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1

-1.24
17.32**
-1.10

-0.17
14.30**
-0.94

14
15
16

AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1

15.56**
16.38**
-1.28

14.95**
13.10**
-0.49

32
33
34

KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1

-2.25
-257
13.09**

-1.76
-2.54
11.21**

17
18

AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

-1.53
-2.82

0.79
-1.71

35
36

KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

-0.69
-2.19

-0.17
-1.54

S.
No.

Cross

BP

KS-156xAP-1

Continue

Seed Yield/ Plant


S.
No.

Cross

KS-156xAP-1

18.20**

17.19**

19

KS-256xAP-1

-0.30

-0.76

KS-156xARKEL

34.94**

27.31**

20

KS-256xARKEL

22.37**

12.82**

KS-156xE-6

34.08**

37.59**

21

KS-256xE-6

30.90**

26.39**

KS-175xAP-1

22.03**

14.98**

22

KS-204xAP-1

13.39**

15.71**

KS-175xARKEL

30.40**

26.00**

23

KS-204xARKEL

22.39**

27.75**

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

KS-175xE-6
KS-149xAP-1
KS-149xARKEL
KS-149xE-6
AP-5xAP-1
AP-5xARKEL
AP-5xE-6
AP-2xAP-1
AP-2xARKEL
AP-2xE-6
AP-3xAP-1

33.43**
-1.65
1.46
21.04**
15.43**
-0.63
41.76**
2.41
16.21**
30.34**
0.26

31.45**
-2.33
1.77
19.01**
13.81**
-0.23
35.11**
2.89
13.16**
23.60**
0.94

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

KS-204xE-6
KS-216xAP-1
KS-216xARKEL
KS-216xE-6
KS-205xAP-1
KS-205xARKEL
KS-205xE-6
KS-159xAP-1
KS-159xARKEL
KS-159xE-6
KS-150xAP-1

0.12
1.34
0.42
50.14**
30.05**
-0.29
51.67**
1.71
31.15**
-0.05
1.20

0.59
1.74
33.06**
42.78**
24.77**
-0.34
48.88**
1.26
26.60**
-0.74
33.56**

17
18

AP-3xARKEL
AP-3xE-6

20.18**
33.24**

19.94**
30.40**

35
36

KS-150xARKEL
KS-150xE-6

25.71**
35.14**

17.28*8
28.64**

(25)

(23)

BP

MP

S.
No.

Cross

BP

MP

Analysis of variance for all the genotypes in different


characters indicating wide spectrum of variation.
PCV and GCV were high (more than 25%) observed for
plant height, number of pods per plant, pod length, number
of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield per
plant.
Moderate (10-25%) PCV and GCV was observed for
productive branches per plant, days to flowering and days
to maturity.
Low (<10%) PCV and GCV was observed for pod width.
High heritability (>60%) were observed for plant height,
productive branches per plant, number of pods per plant,
pod length, pod width, number of seeds per pod, 100- seed
weight and seed yield per plant.

Conti
In general, high heritability coupled with high genetic
advance were observed for, plant height, productive
branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length,
number of seed per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield
per plant showing the influence of additive gene action on
these traits hence, may be useful for effective selection.

Seed yield exhibited significant and positive association


with number of pods per plant followed by pod length, pod
width, number of seed per pod, 100 seed weight at
genotypic and phenotypic level. The present study on
correlation indicated that higher seed yield can be obtained
by increasing number of pods per plants, pod length, pod
width, number of seed per pod and 100 seed weight.

Conti

Path coefficient analysis revealed high positive and direct


influence of 100 seed weight followed by number of pods
per plants, pod length, number of seed per pod and plant
height.
Indirect contributed towards seed yield mainly via pod
length. Thus, effectiveness of selection for high seed yield
could be enhanced by inclusion of pod length as a selection
criterion along with the number of pods per plant and seeds
per pod. Besides, selection on the basis of 100 seed weight
and plant height can lead to considerable improvement of
seed yield in garden pea.
Among lines KS-156 and KS-256 were identified as good
general combiner for all the characters.
Line KS-175 for the characters plant height and number of
pod per plant.

Conti
Line KS-149, AP-2, KS-205 and KS-150 for plant height, number of pods
per plant, number of seed per pod, 100- seed weight and seed yield per
plant.
Line AP-5 are good general combiner for all the characters except
productive branches per plant, number of seed per pod, pod length and pod
width.
Line AP-3 for days to flowering and days to maturity.
Line KS-204 for number of pod per plant and number of seed per pod.
Line KS-216 for days to maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant and
seed yield per plant.
Line KS-159 for plant height and number of seed per pod were identified as
good general combiner.
The crosses KS-175 X E-6 had the highest SCA for seed yield. Both the
parents involved in these crosses is average general combiners, thus these
crosses can be exploited for seed yield by heterosis breeding programme.

THANKS