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Moral Development

Group 9 :
RISKA AULIA 12218 EVALIA BATUBARA 12196 AGNES PERTIWI HERTIA 96516

MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Moral development is concern rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people. Reason or think Behave Feel

Moral thoughts

Piaget (1932), observed and interviewed children from 4- 12 years. Piaget concluded that children think in to two distinct ways about morality 1. Heteronomous morality 2. Autonomous morality

Heteronomous Morality

The first stage of moral development in Piagets theory, occurring from 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.

Autonomous morality
The second stage of moral development in Piagets theory, displayed by older children ( about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actors intention as well as the consequences.

Lets consider
Heteronomous thinker
1. judges the rightness and goodness of behavior by considering the sequence of the behavior not the actor 2. Believes that rules are unchangeable and are handed down by all powerful authorities 3. Believes in immanent justice, if a rule broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

autonomist
1. The reverse, the actors intentions assume paramount importance. 2. Accept change and recognize that rules are merely convenient, socially agreed upon conventions, subject to change by consensus 3. Recognize that punishment is socially mediated and occurs only if a relevant person witnesses the wrongdoing and that, even then punishment s not inevitable

Kohlbergs ideas Believed that moral development is based primarily on moral reasoning and unfolds in a series of stage. He using a unique interview with children. Based in the answers interviewees gave and other moral dilemma. Kohlberg believed that 3 levels of moral, each of which is characterized by two stages internalization

Kohlbergs level 1: Preconventional Reasoning


At this level, the child shows no internalization of moral value moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments Stage 1: punishment and obedience development Stage 2: individualism and purpose

Continuous
Stage 1: punishment and obedience development Moral thinking is based on punishment, children obey because adults tell them to obey Stage 2: individualism and purpose Moral thinking is based on reward and self interest. Children obey if they want to obey and when it is in their best interest to obey

Kohlbergs Level 2: Conventional Reasoning


At this level, childrens internalization is intermediate. The child abides by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society Stage 3: interpersonal norms Stage 4 : social system morality

Continuous
Stage 3: interpersonal norms Children value trust, caring and loyalty to others as the basis of moral judgments Stage 4 : social system morality Moral judgment are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, duty

Kohlbergs level 3: post conventional reasoning


At this level, morality is completely internalized and not based on other standards. Stage 5: community rights versus individual right Stage 6: universal ethical principles

Continuous Stage 5: community rights versus individual right The person understand that values and laws are relative and that standards may vary from one person to another Stage 6: universal ethical principles One has developed a moral standard based on universal human rights