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Lesson 1.1: Understanding waves

Lesson 1.2: Reflection of waves

Lesson 1.3: Refraction of Waves

Lesson 1.4: Diffraction Waves

Lesson 1.5: Interference of Waves

Lesson 1.6: Sound Waves

Lesson 1.7: Electromagnetic Waves

1.1 Understanding Waves
a) Motion of waves
b) Propagation of waves
c) Type of waves
d) Wavefronts
e) Wave profile
f) Graph= Displacement vs (distance)(time)
g) Wave speed
h) Damping and resonance
1.1 Understanding Waves

“An oscillating or vibrating motion in which

a point or body moves back and forth
along a line about a fixed central point
produces waves”

An oscillating or vibrating system acts as

the source of waves which transfer energy
from one point to another (without
transferring matter)
A wave is a disturbance that transfers
energy between two points through
vibrations in a the two points medium,
without transferring matter between the
two points.
Examples of the waves:
a) Light waves are produced as a
result of vibrations of electrons in
an atoms.
b) Sound waves are produced by
vibrating mechanical bodies such
as guitar strings or a tuning fork.
c) Water waves are produced by a
disturbance (or vibration) on a still
water surface.
Gelombang melintang

Transverse Wave

Dalam gelombang melintang, zarah zarah medium di anjakkan

pada arah berserenjang dengan arah gerakkan gelombang.

A transverse wave is a wave in which

particles of the medium move in a direction
perpendicular to the direction which the wave
Transverse waves on a string are another example. The string is
displaced up and down as the wave travels from left to right, but the string
itself does not experience any net motion.
Contoh gelombang membujur

Example of a
longitudinal wave.

Penala bunyi yang bergetar memampatkan udara dalam

paip pergi balik ke arah yang selari dengan arah
pemindahan tenaga. Bunyi adalah gelombang
A vibrating tuning fork will force air within a pipe to
begin vibrating back and forth in a direction parallel to
the energy transport; sound is a longitudinal wave
Have you ever "done the wave" as part of a large crowd at a football or baseball game? A group of people jumps up
and sits back down, some nearby people see them and they jump up, some people further away follow suit and pretty
soon you have a wave travelling around the stadium. The wave is the disturbance (people jumping up and sitting back
down), and it travels around the stadium. However, none of the individual people the stadium are carried around with
the wave as it travels - theyall remain at their seats.

Examples which illustrate the definition

Longitudinal sound waves in air behave in much the same way. As the
wave passes through, the particles in the air oscillate back and forth about
their equilibrium positions but it is the disturbance which travels, not the
individual particles in the medium
Gelombang elektromagnetik adalah gelombang yang mampu
memindahkan tenaganya menerusi vakum. Gelombang
elektromagnetik di hasilkan oleh getaran elektron dalam atom
di permukaan matahari.

An electromagnetic wave is a wave which is

capable of transmitting its energy through a
vacuum (i.e., empty space). Electromagnetic
waves are produced by the vibration of
electrons within atoms on the Sun's surface.
- is an imaginary line
- A wavefront is a line that joints all the
points vibrating in phase, such as a line
passing through similar wave crests.
- Points in a wave are in phase if they
vibrate in the same direction with the
same displacement.
When aa wave
wave isis present
present in
in aa medium
medium (that
(that is,
is, when
there is
is aa disturbance
disturbance moving
moving through
through aa medium),
the individual
individual particles
particles of
of the
the medium
medium are are only
temporarily displaced
displaced from
from their
their rest
rest position


Check your understanding
1) If the vibration of a wave are at right angles to the
direction of the wave, it is called a _____________
An example of this type of wave is ____________.

2) If the vibration of a wave are along the direction of

the wave, it is called a ___________ wave.
An example of this type of wave is _______________.

3) A wave carries energy from ____________ to

_______________, without any transferring of the
• Equilibrium position is.
• One complete oscillation has occurred when
the bob has moved through positions A-B-C-B-
A, that is when it has returned to its starting
position and is moving in the same direction.

• Amplitude, a of an oscillation is the maximum

displacement from the mean position.
• Period, T of the oscillation is the time taken to
complete one oscillation.
• Frequency, f of the oscillation is the number of
complete oscillation made in one second.
Oscillating System
• Oscillating system consists of:
– Amplitude
– Period
– Frequency
– Wavelength
– Wave speed

Displacement – Time Graph

Amplitude, a



Displacement – Distance Graph

Amplitude, a



Frequency, f
Numbers of
oscillation in one

Unit : Hertz (Hz) A C

f =

Wave Speed, v
• Wave speed, v depends on wavelength, λ
and frequency, f.

• Wave speed, v = λf

• Wavelength, λ is the horizontal distance
between two successive equivalent points
on the wave.
• Wave speed, v is the distance travelled by
a wave in one second in the direction of
• Wave speed, v is the distance moved by a
crest in one second.
• Wave speed , v = fλ
Check your understanding
1) The wavelength of a wave is the
______________ between two successive
______________ or ______________.

2) The frequency is the number of

________________ oscillations made in
_____________ second. The unit for
frequency is _______________.

3) The velocity of wave is equal to

______________ multiplied by
• The time taken for a vibrating system to make a
complete oscillation is known as
• The number of complete oscillation made by a
vibrating system is known as
• The distance traveled by a wave in one second
is known as ______________.

• If the of an oscillating system is 0.2s and its

wavelength is 60 cm, what is the velocity of the
wave formed by this oscillating system?
Damping is said to have occurred in
an oscillating system when the
system loses energy to the
surroundings, usually in the form of
heat energy.