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Presented By H.

JAYAKUMAR

WHY GROUNDING IS REQUIRED?


GROUNDING PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION. EFFECTIVE GROUNDING IS NECESSARY FOR THE PROPER OPERATION AND COORDINATION OF PROTECTION SCHEMES IN THE POWER SYSTEM AS WELL AS FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY.

PURPOSE OF EARTHING

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
LOW VALUE OF EARTH RESISTANCE.

ACCEPTABLE SURFACE POTENTIAL GRADIENTS

INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES 1956. IS: 3043/1966, 1987 : CODE OF PRACTICE FOR EARTHING. BS : CP 1013:1965 CBI & P RECOMMENDATIONS IGRE APPLICATION GUIDE ANSI / IEEE STD.80/ 1961,1967,1986.

TYPES OF EARTHING

SYSTEM EARTHING. PROTECTIVE EARTHIN

SYSTEM EARTHING EFFECTIVELY EARTHED SYSTEM


(Xo / X1) < 3 (Ro / X1) < 1 Xo= ZERO SEQUENCE REACTANCE. X1= POSITIVE SEQUENCE REACTANCE. Ro= ZERO SEQUENCE RESISTANCE. UNDER THE FAULT CONDITIONS THE VOLTAGES OF THE OTHER TWO HEALTHY PHASES WILL NEVER BE MORE THAN 80% OF THE LINE TO LINE VOLTAGE OF THE SYSTEM. THIS IS ALSO CALLED CO-EFFICIENT OF EARTHING.

BENEFITS
Improved reliability
Improved fault protection Fewer Faults. Simplification of locating faults. Greater Safety

Limitation of transient over voltages.


Lower cost and less maintenance.

Function of Earthing Transformers


Holding the neutral shift within limits.
Permitting the circulation of unbalanced load current

in the neutral. To limit the current during ling to earth fault. To earth the system. To provide single phase line to neutral load. Can be used with resistance / reactance / arc suppression coil.

SPECIFICATION (IS:3151)
Voltage : Line to Line voltage of the system.
Current: The maximum neutral current. Time

: 10 sec for protection 60sec for feeders.

Reactance: This quantity is a function of the

positive sequence short circuit reactance of the


power system or

x1