Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING & INNOVATION

Agenda of discussionCreative Problem Solving


Creativity

Innovation
Definition
Forms of Innovation Types of Innovation Sources of Innovation

Problem
Types of Problem Creative Problem Solving Process

Creativity Techniques
Brainstorming Heuristics

Synectics
Value Analysis

Creativity Creativity is an act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain or that transform an existing domain into a new one. OR Creativity is the discovery of something that is novel but also useful or relevant or economical or valuable. Creativity requires passion and commitment. It brings to our awareness what was previously hidden and points to new life.

Problem It is simply a perceived gap between the existing state and a desired state, or a deviation from a norm, standard or status.

Types of Problem1. One Right Answer Problem:- finding one best answers from the available alternatives.

2. Insight Problem:-Requires the examinee to shift his or her perceptive and view the problem in a novel way in order to achieve the solution.
3. Wicked Problem:-ill-defined, ambiguous and associated with strong moral, political and professional issues. 4. Vicious Problem:-A condition in which a disorder or disease gives rise to another that subsequently affects the first.

5. Fuzzy Problem:- fuzzy logic usually uses IF-THEN rules, or constructs that are equivalent

Creative Problem Solving Creative problem solving is the mental process of creating a solution to problem. It is special form of problem solving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance. It always involve creativity. OR Creative problem solving is a method of finding innovative approach for problem resolution. The problem may be any of a number of situation or needs.

Agenda of discussionCreative Problem Solving


Creativity

Innovation
Definition
Forms of Innovation Types of Innovation Sources of Innovation

Problem
Types of Problem Creative Problem Solving Process

Creativity Techniques
Brainstorming Heuristics

Synectics
Value Analysis

Creative Problem Solving Techniques Creativity techniques are methods that encourage original thoughts and divergent thinking. Some techniques require group of two or more people while other techniques can be accomplished alone. Creativity techniques can be used to develop a new materials for artistic purposes or to solve problem.

Brainstorming-

Brainstorming is a group creativity technique


designed to generate a large numbers of ideas for the solution of a problem. This method was firstly popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called Applied Imagination. The four basic rules of brainstorming are as under-

1. No criticism is allowed.
2. Freewheeling is always welcome. 3. Quantity is desirable.

4. Combination and improvement are sought from the members.

HeuristicIt is an adjective for experience based technique that help in problem, learning and discovery. A heuristic method is particularly used to rapidly come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer or optimal solution. Heuristic are educated guesses, intuitive judgments or simply common sense. Heuristic are based on trial & error.

Refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery.


Where an exhaustive search is impractical, heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution.

Examples of this method include using a "rule of thumb", an educated guess, an intuitive judgment, or common sense.

Synectics Synectics is a technique developed by Gordon for improving creative problem solving. The word synectics means joining together different and apparently unconnected or irrelevant elements. In synectics, problem are defined by making the strange familiar. Synectics uses four types of metaphors1. Personal Analogy.

2. Direct Analogy.
3. Symbolic Analogy. 4. Fantasy Analogy.

Personal analogy can involve:


Personal analogy is the use of emotions and feelings to identify an individual with the subject of a problem. (a) describing the object by listing its basic characteristics and relating these to the problem; (b) describing the emotions the object might have in a given situation; (c) describing how someone feels when using the object; (d) describing what it feels like to be the given object.

CONTINUED
The direct analogy compares the problem with homogeneous facts, information or technology. A direct analogy is a mechanism by which we try to make comparisons with analogous facts, information or technology. In making use of this device we have to search our experiences and knowledge to collect together phenomena that seem to exhibit familiar relationships to those in the problem in hand.

Symbolic analogy is the use of objective and personal images.


Symbolic analogy involves making use of objective and personal images to describe a problem. Fantasy analogy is based on Freuds notion that creative thinking and wish fulfilment are strongly related. It is usually prefaced by the words How do we in our wildest fantasy...

The synectic ways of working: 1.Synectics is based on the fusion of opposites. 2. Synectics is based on analogical thinking. 3. Synectics is synergistic.

A typical session might involve:


1.State and restate the problem.
2.Choose a keyword. 3.Take the keyword on an excursion into a different world e.g. Nature asking for examples of the keyword in that world. 4.Ask what it feels like to be that example in the different world personal analogy. 5. See if any of the material listed so far gives insights into the problem. 6. If required, continue with more excursions .

Value Analysis Value analysis is a cost reduction and problem solving technique that analyses an existing product or services in order to reduce or eliminate any cost that do not contribute to value or performance. Value analysis usually focuses on design, issues relating to the function of product or services ,looking at the properties that make it work, or which are unique selling points.

CONTINUED
Value analysis endeavours to maximize the usefulness of a product via the most cost effective means:

1. Identify its Basic Function e.g. a glass to hold a fluid, if it cannot hold a fluid is it unusable .
2.Identify its Secondary Function e.g. strength or colour of glass are not essential to hold the fluid, i.e. the fluid could be in a bag. 3.Identify its Supporting Functions i.e. colour, design on glass, non essential, but make the product look more desirable .

CONTINUED
4. Cost-Effectiveness calculate how much it costs to implement each function.

5. Ideas to Improve each Function Systematically go through each function and try to generate more effective and cheaper ways to achieve them.
This bit by bit methodology helps to break down the bigger picture (overall problem) enabling a better understanding. The technique can be used in situations where an expensive commodity exists but is thought to possibly be of little value.

When to use value analysis?

1.To analyze and understand the detail of specific situations. 2.To find a focus on key areas for innovation. 3.Use it in reverse to identify specific solutions to detail problems. 4.It is particularly suited to physical and mechanical problems, but can also be used in other areas.

Agenda of discussionCreative Problem Solving


Creativity

Innovation
Definition
Forms of Innovation Types of Innovation Sources of Innovation

Problem
Types of Problem Creative Problem Solving Process

Creativity Techniques
Brainstorming Heuristics

Synectics
Value Analysis

Innovation Innovation implies doing new things or doing of things that are already being done in a new way. It include introduction of new products, creation of new markets, application of new method of production, discovery of new and better sources of raw materials and developing a new and better form of industrial organization. Innovation is Heart & Soul of entrepreneurship.

Forms of Innovation1) The opening of a new market.

2) The introduction of new goods.


3) The introduction of new methods of production. 4) The consequence of a new source of supply of raw material.

5) The carrying out of the new form of organization of any industry.

Types of Innovation1) Innovation. 2) Extension. 3) Duplication.

4) Synthesis

Sources of Innovation1) Process needs.

2) Industry and market changes.


3) Demographic changes. 4) Perceptual changes. 5) Knowledge based concept.