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Protein Structure and Function

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
FOURTH EDITION

SCOTT FREEMAN
Lectures by Stephanie Scher Pandolfi
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concepts
Most cell functions depend on proteins. Proteins are made of amino acids. Amino acids vary in structure and function. The structure of a protein can be analyzed at four levels: 1. Amino acid sequence 2. Substructures called -helices and -pleated sheets 3. Interactions between amino acids that dictate a proteins overall shape 4. Combinations of individual proteins that make up larger, multiunit molecules In cells, most proteins are enzymes that function as catalysts.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Revisiting the Theory of Chemical Evolution


Modern life arose through a series of endergonic chemical reactions.

1. Production of small organic compounds i.e., formaldehyde (H2CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) 2. Formation of mid-sized molecules from these small compounds i.e., amino acids, simple sugars These molecules combined with ocean water to form prebiotic soup. 3. Mid-sized building blocks combine to form large molecules. i.e., proteins, complex carbohydrates 4. Life became possible when one of these large molecules selfreplicated.
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Early Origin-of-Life Experiments


Could the first steps of chemical evolution have occurred on ancient Earth?

To find out, Stanley Miller combined methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen (H2) in a closed system with water, and applied heat and electricity as an energy source. The products included hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and formaldehyde (H2CO), important precursors for more-complex organic molecules and amino acids.
In more recent experiments, amino acids and other organic molecules have been found to form easily under these conditions.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Structure of Amino Acids


All proteins are made from just 20 amino acid building blocks. All amino acids have a central carbon atom that bonds to NH2, COOH, H, and a variable side chain (R-group). In water (pH 7), the amino and carboxyl groups ionize to NH3+ and COO, respectivelythis helps amino acids stay in solution and makes them more reactive.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Nature of Side Chains


The 20 amino acids differ only in the unique R-group attached to the central carbon. The properties of amino acids vary because their R-groups vary.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Functional Groups Affect Reactivity


R-groups differ in their size, shape, reactivity, and interactions with water. 1. Nonpolar R-groups: hydrophobic; do not form hydrogen bonds; coalesce in water 2. Polar R-groups: hydrophilic; form hydrogen bonds; readily dissolve in water

Amino acids with hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl, or sulfhydryl functional groups in their side chains are more chemically reactive than those with side chains composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Monomers and Polymers


Many mid-size molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides, are individual units called monomers. They link together (polymerize) to form polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Macromolecules are very large polymers made up of many monomers linked together.
Thus, proteins are macromolecules consisting of linked amino acid monomers.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Assembling and Breaking Apart Polymers


Polymerization requires energy and is nonspontaneous. Monomers polymerize through condensation (dehydration) reactions, which release a water molecule. Hydrolysis is the reverse reaction, which breaks polymers apart by adding a water molecule. In the prebiotic soup, hydrolysis is energetically favorable and thus would predominate over condensation. However, polymers clinging to a mineral surface are protected from hydrolysis, and thus polymerization of the amino acids into proteins may have occurred spontaneously.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Condensation and Hydrolysis Reactions

Web Activity: Condensation and Hydrolysis Reactions

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Peptide Bond


Condensation reactions bond the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another to form a peptide bond.

A chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds is called a polypeptide.


Polypeptides containing fewer than 50 amino acids are called oligopeptides (peptides). Polypeptides containing more than 50 amino acids are called proteins.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Building Proteins

BLAST Animation: Building Proteins

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Polypeptide Characteristics
Within the polypeptide, the peptide bonds form a backbone with three key characteristics:

1. R-group orientation Side chains can interact with each other or water. 2. Directionality Free amino group, on the left, is called the N-terminus. Free carboxyl group, on the right, is called the Cterminus. 3. Flexibility Single bonds on either side of the peptide bond can rotate, making the entire structure flexible.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Do Proteins Do?


Proteins are crucial to most tasks required for cells to exist: Catalysis enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Defense antibodies and complement proteins attack pathogens. Movement motor and contractile proteins move the cell or molecules within the cell. Signaling proteins convey signals between cells. Structure structural proteins define cell shape and comprise body structures. Transport transport proteins carry materials; membrane proteins control molecular movement into and out of the cell.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Do Proteins Look Like?


Proteins can serve diverse functions in cells because they are diverse in size and shape as well as in the chemical properties of their amino acids. All proteins have just four basic levels of structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Primary Structure
A proteins primary structure is its unique sequence of amino acids. Because the amino acid R-groups affect a polypeptides properties and function, just a single amino acid change can radically alter protein function.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

(a) Normal amino acid sequence


Pro 5
Normal red blood cells

(b) Single change in amino acid sequence


Pro 5
Sickled red blood cell

Glu 6

Glu 7

Val 6

Glu 7

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Protein Primary Structure

BLAST Animation: Protein Primary Structure

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Secondary Structure
Hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another form a proteins secondary structure. A polypeptide must bend to allow this hydrogen bonding, forming: -helices -pleated sheets

Secondary structure depends on the primary structure. Some amino acids are more likely to be involved in -helices; others, in -pleated sheets. The large number of hydrogen bonds in a proteins secondary structure increases its stability.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Protein Secondary Structure

BLAST Animation: Protein Secondary Structure

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Alpha Helix

BLAST Animation: Alpha Helix

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tertiary Structure
The tertiary structure of a polypeptide results from interactions between R-groups or between R-groups and the peptide backbone. These contacts cause the backbone to bend and fold, and contribute to the distinctive three-dimensional shape of the polypeptide. R-group interactions include hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, covalent disulfide bonds, and ionic bonds.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

R-group Interactions That Form Tertiary Structures


Hydrogen bonds form between hydrogen atoms and the carbonyl group in the peptide-bonded backbone, and between hydrogen and negatively charged atoms in side chains. Hydrophobic interactions within a protein increase stability of surrounding water molecules by increasing hydrogen bonding. van der Waals interactions are weak electrical interactions between hydrophobic side chains. Covalent disulfide bonds form between sulfur-containing Rgroups. Ionic bonds form between groups that have full and opposing charges.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Quaternary Structure
Many proteins contain several distinct polypeptide subunits that interact to form a single structure; the bonding of two or more subunits produces quaternary structure.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Protein Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

BLAST Animation: Protein Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summary of Protein Structure


Note that protein structure is hierarchical. Quaternary structure is based on tertiary structure, which is based in part on secondary structure. All three of the higher-level structures are based on primary structure. The combined effects of primary, secondary, tertiary, and sometimes quaternary structure allow for amazing diversity in protein form and function.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Folding and Function


Protein folding is often spontaneous, because the hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions make the folded molecule more energetically stable than the unfolded molecule. A denatured (unfolded) protein is unable to function normally. Proteins called molecular chaperones help proteins fold correctly in cells.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Unfolding and Refolding a Protein

BLAST Animation: Unfolding and Refolding a Protein

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Prions and Protein Folding


Prions are improperly folded forms of normal proteins that are present in healthy individuals. Amino acid sequence does not differ from a normal protein, but shape is radically different.

Prions can induce normal protein molecules to change their shape to the altered form.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to Catalysis
Catalysis may be the most fundamental of protein functions. Reactions take place when: Reactants collide in precise orientation Reactants have enough kinetic energy to overcome repulsion between the electrons that come in contact during bond formation Enzymes perform two functions: 1. Bring substrates together in precise orientation so that the electrons involved in the reaction can interact 2. Decrease the amount of kinetic energy reactants must have for the reaction to proceed
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Activation Energy and Rates of Chemical Reactions


The activation energy (Ea) of a reaction is the amount of free energy required to reach the intermediate condition, or transition state. Reactions occur when reactants have enough kinetic energy to reach the transition state. The kinetic energy of molecules is a function of their temperature. Thus, reaction rates depend on: The kinetic energy of the reactants The activation energy of the particular reaction (the free energy of the transition state)
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Catalysts and Free Energy


A catalyst is a substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction and increases the rate of the reaction.

Catalysts lower the activation energy of a reaction by lowering the free energy of the transition state.
Catalysts do not change G and are not consumed in the reaction.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Activation Energy and Enzymes

Web Activity: Activation Energy and Enzymes

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Activation Energy and Enzymes

BLAST Animation: How Enzymes Work: Activation Energy

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Enzymes
Enzymes are protein catalysts and typically catalyze only one reaction. Most biological chemical reactions occur at meaningful rates only in the presence of an enzyme. Enzymes: 1. Bring reactants together in precise orientations 2. Stabilize transition states Protein catalysts are important because they speed up the chemical reactions that are required for life.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

How Do Enzymes Work?


Enzymes bring substrates together in specific positions that facilitate reactions, and are very specific in which reactions they catalyze.

Substrates bind to the enzymes active site.


Many enzymes undergo a conformational change when the substrates are bound to the active site; this change is called an induced fit. Interactions between the enzyme and the substrate stabilize the transition state and lower the activation energy required for the reaction to proceed.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Reaction Types and the Specificity of Enzymes

BLAST Animation: How Enzymes Work: Reaction Types and Specificity

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Steps of Enzyme Catalysis


Enzyme catalysis has three steps: 1. Initiation Substrates are precisely oriented as they bind to the active site. 2. Transition state facilitation Interactions between the substrate and active site Rgroups lower the activation energy. 3. Termination Reaction products are released from the enzyme.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Do Enzymes Act Alone?


Some enzymes require cofactors to function normally. These are either metal ions or small organic molecules called coenzymes. Most enzymes are regulated by molecules that are not part of the enzyme itself.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Enzyme Regulation
Competitive inhibition occurs when a molecule similar in size and shape to the substrate competes with the substrate for access to the active site. Allosteric regulation occurs when a molecule causes a change in enzyme shape by binding to the enzyme at a location other than the active site. Allosteric regulation can activate or deactivate the enzyme.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Modification and Enzyme Regulation

BLAST Animation: Enzyme Regulation: Chemical Modification

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Competitive Inhibition and Enzyme Regulation

BLAST Animation: Enzyme Regulation: Competitive Inhibition

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Allosteric Enzyme Regulation

BLAST Animation: Enzyme Regulation: Allosteric

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Limits the Rate of Catalysis?


Enzymes are saturable; in other words, the rate of a reaction is limited by the amounts of substrate present and available enzyme. The speed of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction increases linearly at low substrate concentrations. The increase slows as substrate concentration increases The reaction rate reaches maximum speed at high substrate concentrations. All enzymes show this type of saturation kinetics. At some point, active sites cannot accept substrates any faster, no matter how large the concentration of substrates gets.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Physical Conditions Affect Enzyme Function


Enzymes function best at some particular temperature and pH. Temperature affects the movement of the substrates and enzyme. pH affects the enzymes shape and reactivity.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Rate of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions


To summarize, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends on: 1. Substrate concentration 2. The enzymes intrinsic affinity for the substrate 3. Temperature 4. pH

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Was the First Living Entity a Protein?


Several observations argue that the first self-replicating molecule on Earth was a protein:

1. Amino acids were abundant in the prebiotic soup. 2. Proteins are the most efficient catalysts known. 3. A self-replicating molecule had to act as a catalyst for the assembly and polymerization of its copy.
However, the first self-replicator probably needed to have a mold or a templatesomething not found in proteins.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.