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The United Nations Organization

You have created a great instrument for peace and security and human progress in the world. The world must now use it.
President Truman at the closing session of the San Francisco Conference 1945.

How was the U.N.O formed


1940- President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill outlined the war and peace aims in the Atlantic Charter. 1942- 26 nations signed the UN Declaration 1945- Yalta Conference- Hitler was being cornered- met to discuss that and the establishment of the UNO as well as Veto power April 1945- San Francisco Conference-. At this conference, the UN charter was signed by 51 nations. More were added soon (India despite not being independent was a signatory). This organization was founded upon the principal of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states. January 1946- first meeting of the General Assembly (51 nations) held in London. The US had not joined the League of Nations but this time they did not shirk their responsibility.

Aims of the U.N.O

The UN flag is the world as seen from the North Pole surrounded by the twin olive branches.

Aims
To preserve peace and eliminate war To encourage economic, social, educational, scientific and cultural progress throughout the world and remove the causes of conflict. To safeguard the rights of all individual human beings, and the right of peoples and nations.

Structure of the UNO:


The General Assembly (all nations) The Security Council The Secretariat The Economic and Social Council The International Court of Justice. The Trusteeship Council (for management of colonies and to help them just after they achieved independence. It was considered a trustee of colonies. Now it has mostly finished its work as most nations are independent)

The General Assembly: It consists of all states that have signed the Charter. All states, however small, have a vote e.g. Kuwait in1963its population was 350,000. Each nation sends 5 representatives but has only one vote. Meets once a year in September and the session lasts for three months but special sessions maybe called at any time. It debates issues, makes proposals about international problems, makes the budget, and elects members of the Security Council.

The Security Council

The Security Council.


It has 11 members- 5 are permanent (USA, Britain, Russia, France, and China) and the other six are elected by the General Assembly for a period of 2 years. The Security Council has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. Unlike the General Assembly it sits in permanent session. It has the authority to investigate disputes and recommend methods for their settlement. It can also recommend and enforce economic measures against aggressor nations. It may also take any action by air, naval or land forces. All member states are required by the Charter to provide for security forces as decided by the Council. In emergencies, air force contingents are to be kept ready. The permanent members have veto powers. No action can be taken without the unanimous decision of these five nations.

The Secretariat
Takes care of the administrative work of the U.N.O. It is headed by the Secretary-General appointed for a five year term. The Secretary-General is the spokesperson for the UN. Current SG is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea (2007). Trygvie Lie of Norway the first SG (1946-52)

The International Court of Justice


Situated in the Hague in Holland Has fifteen Judges of different nationalities Deals with international disputes. Has successfully settled border disputes between Belgium and Holland and fishing rights disputes between Britain and Norway

The ECOSOC
The Economic and Social council has 27 members elected by the General Assembly. One of the most successful bodies of the UN it has organized projects connected with health education and other social and economic matters. The some of the specialised agencies of ECOSOC are the ILO, WHO, FAO, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNRWA (Relief and Works Agency) By 1980, more than 90% of the expenditure of the UN went to ECOSOC activities.

Imp. Work of the ECOSOC

Has the UN been successful?


There has not been another World War BUT Many conflicts all around the world have not been settled by the UN Nations of the world continue to build up arms. The Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 may be counted as one of its successes.

Still more to do..