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Internal combustion engines

Heat Engines
Any type of engine or machine which derives Heat Energy from the combustion of the fuel or any other source and converts this energy into Mechanical Work is known as a

Heat Engine.
Classification : 1. External Combustion Engine (E. C. Engine) : Combustion of fuel takes place outside the cylinder. e.g. Steam Turbine, Gas Turbine

Steam Engine, etc.

Heat Engines
2. Internal Combustion Engine (I.C. Engine) : Combustion of fuel occurs inside the cylinder. e.g. Automobiles, Marine, etc.

Heat Engines
Advantages of External Combustion Engines over Internal Combustion Engines : 1. Starting Torque is generally high. 2. Due to external combustion, cheaper fuels can be used (even solid fuels !). 3. Due to external combustion, flexibility in arrangement is possible . 4. Self Starting units. Internal Combustion Engines require additional unit for starting the engine ! Advantages of Internal Combustion Engines over External Combustion Engines : 1. Overall efficiency is high. 2. Greater mechanical simplicity. 3. Weight to Power ratio is low. 4. Easy Starting in cold conditions. 5. Compact and require less space.

Classification of I. C. Engines
A. Cycle of Operation : 1. Two Stroke Engine. 2. Four Stroke Engine

B. Cycle of Combustion : 1. Otto Cycle (Combustion at Constant Volume). 2. Diesel Cycle (Combustion at Constant Pressure). 3. Dual Cycle (Combustion partly at Constant Volume + Constant Pressure).

Classification of I. C. Engines
C. Arrangement of Cylinder : 1. Horizontal Engine. 2. Vertical Engine

3. V type Engine

4. Radial Engine

Classification of I. C. Engines
D. Uses : 1. Automobile Engine. 2. Marine Engine

3. Stationary Engine

4. Portable Engine

Classification of I. C. Engines
E. Fuel used : 1. Oil Engine. 3. Gas Engine 2. Petrol Engine 4. Kerosene Engine

F. Speed of Engine :

1. High Speed

2. Low Speed

G. Method of Cooling :

1. Air Cooled Engine.

2. Water Cooled Engine

Classification of I. C. Engines
G. Method of Ignition : 1. Spark Ignition (S.I.) Engine. 2. Compression Ignition (C.I.) Engine

Classification of I. C. Engines
I. No. of cylinders : 1. Single Cylinder Engine. 2. Multi - Cylinder Engine

Application of I. C. Engines

Road vehicles.

Aircrafts. Locomotives.

Generators for Hospitals, Cinema Hall, and Public Places.

APPLICATIONS
Pumping Sets Construction Equipments

Diesel Cycle
In S. I. Engines, max. compression ratio (r) is limited by self ignition of the fuel. This can be released if air and fuel are compressed separately and brought together at the time of combustion. i.e. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder with compressed air at high temperature. i.e. Fuel ignites on its own and no special device for ignition is required. This is known as Compression Ignition (C. I.) Engine. Ideal Cycle corresponding to this process is known as Diesel Cycle. Main Difference : Otto Cycle Heat Addition at Constant Volume. Diesel Cycle Heat Addition at Constant Pressure.

Dual Cycle
Combustion process is neither Constant Volume nor Constant Pressure Process. Real engine requires : 1. Finite time for chemical reaction during combustion process.

Combustion can not take place at Constant Volume.

2. Rapid uncontrolled combustion at the end.

Combustion can not take place at Constant Pressure.

Hence, a blend / mixture of both the processes are proposed as a compromise.

Four Stroke / Compression Ignition (C.I.) Engine

Four Stroke / Compression Ignition (C.I.) Engine

FOUR STROKE ENGINES


FIRST STROKE SUCTION STROKE

While the inlet valve is open ,the descending piston draws fresh petrol and air mixture into the cylinder.

Fig.

FOUR STROKE ENGINES


FIRST STROKE SUCTION STROKE

While the inlet valve is open ,the descending piston draws fresh petrol and air mixture into the cylinder.

IN LET VALVE OPEN POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

FOUR STROKE ENGINES


FIRST STROKE SUCTION STROKE

While the inlet valve is open ,the descending piston draws fresh petrol and air mixture into the cylinder.

IN LET VALVE OPEN POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

FOUR STROKE ENGINES


FIRST STROKE SUCTION STROKE

While the inlet valve is open ,the descending piston draws fresh petrol and air mixture into the cylinder.

IN LET VALVE OPEN POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

FOUR STROKE ENGINES


FIRST STROKE SUCTION STROKE

While the inlet valve is open ,the descending piston draws fresh petrol and air mixture into the cylinder.

IN LET VALVE OPEN POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

SECOND STROKE-COMPRESSION STROKE While the valves are closed,the rising piston compresses the mixture to a pressure about 7-8atm; the mixture is then ignited by the spark plug.

IN LET VALVE CLOSE POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

SECOND STROKE-COMPRESSION STROKE While the valves are closed,the rising piston compresses the mixture to a pressure about 7-8atm; the mixture is then ignited by the spark plug.

IN LET VALVE CLOSE POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

SECOND STROKE-COMPRESSION STROKE While the valves are closed,the rising piston compresses the mixture to a pressure about 7-8atm; the mixture is then ignited by the spark plug.

IN LET VALVE CLOSE POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

SECOND STROKE-COMPRESSION STROKE While the valves are closed,the rising piston compresses the mixture to a pressure about 7-8atm; the mixture is then ignited by the spark plug.

IN LET VALVE CLOSE POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE POSITION

Fig.

THIRD STROKE-POWER STROKE While the valves are closed the pressure of the burned gases of the combustion forces push the piston downwards.

IN LET VALVE CLOSE POSITION

EXHAUST VALVE OPEN POSITION

Fig.

Two Stroke / Spark Ignition (S.I.) Engine

Two Stroke / Spark Ignition (S.I.) Engine

When the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C the inlet port is closed, the mixture is compressed and transferred the into the cylinder through transfer port.

piston

exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

When the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C the inlet port is closed, the mixture is compressed and transferred the into the cylinder through transfer port.

piston

exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

When the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C the inlet port is closed, the mixture is compressed and transferred the into the cylinder through transfer port.

piston

exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

When the piston is moving upward ,the mixture is compressed. At the same time,air and fuel mixture is coming into the crankcase.

exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

NO FUEL MIXTURE AVAILABLE

When the piston is moving upward ,the mixture is compressed. At the same time,air and fuel mixture is coming into the crankcase.

Compressed mixture exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

At the end of the compression stroke, a spark is given by a spark plug.The fuel mixture expands rapidly.A high power is produced. This power forces the piston downwards.So the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C

Burning the fuel mixture exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

When the piston comes down, the exhaust port opens and exhaust gases are going out.At the same time,the transfer port also opens and the fresh mixture comes inside the cylinder

exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

Thus the four strokes are completed in two strokes of the engine

When the piston comes down, the exhaust port opens and exhaust gases are going out.At the same time,the transfer port also opens and the fresh mixture comes inside the cylinder

exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port

Thus the four strokes are completed in two strokes of the engine

Comparison : Two Stroke Vs. Four Stroke


Sr. No.
1.
2. 3. 4. 5. Power for same Engine Size 6. 7. Flywheel Cooling / Lubrication

Particulars
Cycle Completion
Power Strokes Volumetric Efficiency Thermal and Part Load Efficiency

Four Stroke Cycle


4 strokes / 2 revolutions
1 in 2 revolutions High High Small; as 1 power stroke for 2 revolutions Heavier Lesser

Two Stroke Cycle


2 strokes / 1 revolution
1 per revolution Low Low Large; as 1 power stroke per revolutions Lighter Greater

8. 9.

Valve Mechanism Initial Cost

Required Higher

Not Required Lower

Comparison : S.I. Vs. C.I. Engines


Sr. No.
1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Particulars
Thermodynamic Cycle
Fuel Used Air : Fuel Ratio Compression Ratio Combustion Fuel Supply Operating Pressure Operating Speed Calorific Value Running Cost Maintenance Cost

S. I. Engine
Otto
Gasoline 6 : 1 20 : 1 Avg. 7 9 Spark Ignition Carburettor 60 bar max. Up to 6000 RPM 44 MJ/kg High Minor

C. I. Engine
Diesel
Diesel 16 : 1 100 : 1 Avg. 15 18 Compression Ignition Fuel Injector 120 bar max. Up to 3500 RPM 42 MJ/kg Low Major

Comparison : Gasoline Vs. Diesel Engines


Sr. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Gasoline Engine
Working : Otto Cycle Suction Stroke : Air / Fuel mixture is taken in Spark Plug Spark Ignition generates Power Thermal Efficiency 35 % Compact Running Cost High Light Weight Fuel : Costly Gasoline : Volatile and Danger Less Dependable

Diesel Engine
Working : Diesel Cycle Suction Stroke : only Air is taken in Fuel Injector Compression Ignition generates Power Thermal Efficiency 40 % Bulky Running Cost Low Heavy Weight Fuel : Cheaper Diesel : Non-volatile and Safe. More Dependable

Performance of I.C. Engines


Engine Performance Indication of Degree of Success for the work assigned.
(i.e. Conversion of Chemical Energy to useful Mechanical Work)

Basic Performance Parameters :

1. Power & Mechanical Efficiency 3. Specific Output 5. Air : Fuel Ratio 7. Thermal Efficiency and Heat Balance 9. Specific Weight

2. Mean Effective Pressure & Torque 4. Volumetric Efficiency 6. Specific Fuel Consumption

8. Exhaust Emissions

Performance of I.C. Engines


A. Power and Mechanical Efficiency :
Indicated Power Total Power developed in the Combustion Chamber, due to the combustion of fuel.

n pi (10 5 ) L A k N I .P. 10 3 60
n = No. of Cylinders Pmi = Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (bar) L = Length of Stroke (m)

(kW )

A = Area of Piston
k = for 4 Stroke Engine, = 1 for 2 Stroke Engine N = Speed of Engine

(m2)

(RPM)

Performance of I.C. Engines


A. Power and Mechanical Efficiency :
Brake Power Power developed by an engine at the output shaft.

B.P.

2 N T 60 X 10 3

(kW )

N = Speed of Engine T = Torque

(RPM) (N m) Frictional Power (F. P.) = I. P. B. P.

B.P. mech I .P.

Performance of I.C. Engines


B. Mean Effective Pressure :
Mean Effective Pressure Hypothetical Pressure which is thought to be acting on the Piston throughout Power Stroke. Imep MEP based on I.P. Bmep MEP based on B.P. Fmep MEP based on F.P. Fmep = Imep Bmep Power and Torque are dependent on Engine Size. Thermodynamically incorrect way to judge the performance w.r.t. Power / Torque. MEP is the correct way to compare the performance of various engines.

Performance of I.C. Engines


C. Specific Output :
Specific Output Brake Output per unit Piston Displacement.

B.P. Sp. Output AX L

D. Volumetric Efficiency :
Volumetric Efficiency Ratio of Actual Vol. (reduced to N.T.P.) of the Charge

drawn in during the suction stroke, to the Swept Vol. of the Piston.
Avg. Vol. Efficiency = 70 80 % Supercharged Engine 100 %

Performance of I.C. Engines


E. Fuel : Air Ratio :
Fuel : Air Ratio Ratio of Mass of Fuel to that of Air, in the mixture.

Rel. Fuel : Air Ratio Ratio of Actual Fuel : Air Ratio to that of Schoichiometric Fuel : Air Ratio.

F. Sp. Fuel Consumption :


Sp. Fuel Consumption Mass of Fuel consumed per kW Power.

m s. f .c (kg / kW.hr ) B.P.

Performance of I.C. Engines


G. Thermal Efficiency :
Thermal Efficiency Ratio of Indicated Work done, to the Energy Supplied by the fuel.

m f mass of fuel used

(kg / sec)

C.V . CalorificValue of fuel ( MJ / kg)

Indicated Thermal Efficiency , th ( I . P.)

I .P.

m f X C.V .

Brake Thermal Efficiency , th ( B. P.)

B.P.

m f X C.V .

Performance of I.C. Engines


H. Heat Balance :
Heat Balance Indicator for Performance of the Engine.

Procedure : 1. Engine run at Const. Load condition. 2. Indicator Diagram obtained with help of the Indicator. 3. Quantity of Fuel used in given time and its Calorific Value are measured. 4. Inlet and Outlet Temperatures for Cooling Water are measured. 5. Inlet and Outlet Temperatures for Exhaust Gases are measured.

Performance of I.C. Engines


H. Heat Balance :

Heat Supplied by Fuel = Heat equivalent of I.P. =

m f X C.V . (kJ )

I .P. X 60 (kJ )
mw X Cw X T2 T1 (kJ )
(kg/min) (kJ/kg.C) (C) (C) mw = Mass of Cooling Water used Cw = Sp. Heat of Water T1 = Initial Temp. of Cooling Water T2 = Final Temp. of Cooling Water

Heat taken away by Cooling Water =

Heat taken away by Exhaust Gases =

me X C Pg X Te Tr (kJ )

me = Mass of Exhaust Gases (kg/min) CPg = Sp. Heat of Exhaust Gases @ Const. Pr. (kJ/kg.C) Te = Temp. of Exhaust Gases (C) Tr = Room Temperature (C)

Performance of I.C. Engines


H. Heat Balance :
Sr. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. Total A 100 Input Heat Supplied by Fuel

Amount (kJ)
A

Per cent (%)


100

Output Heat equivalent to I.P. Heat taken by Cooling Water Heat taken by Exhaust Gases Heat Unaccounted E = A (B+C+D) Total

Amount (kJ)
B C D E A

Per cent (%)


100