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INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS AND

EXPERT SYSTEMS

robot: (noun)

What is a robot?
Jacques de Vaucanson
(1709-1782)
Master toy maker who won
the heart of Europe.
Flair for inventing the
mechanical revealed itself
early in life.
He was impressed by the
uniform motion of the
pendulum of the clock in his
parents hall.
Soon he was making his own
clock movements.
The Origins of Robots
Mechanical horse

Pre-History of Real-World
Robots:
The earliest remote control vehicles were built
by Nikola Tesla in the 1890's.

Tesla is best known as the inventor of AC
power, induction motors, Tesla coils, and
other electrical devices.
Robots
of the
media
History of Robotics?
- RUR
- Metropolis(1927)
- Forbidden planet(1956)
- 2001 A Space Odyssey(1968)
- Logans Run(1976)
- Aliens(1986)

Popular culture influenced by these
ideas
The U.S. military
contracted the "walking
truck" to be built by the
General Electric
Company for the U.S.
Army in 1969.

Walking robots
Unmanned Ground Vehicles
Three categories:
Mobile
Humanoid/animal
Motes

Famous examples
DARPA Grand Challenge
NASA MER
Roomba
Honda P3, Sony Asimo
Sony Aibo

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Three categories:
Fixed wing
VTOL
Micro aerial vehicle
(MAV), which can be
either fixed wing or
VTOL
Famous examples
Global Hawk
Predator
UCAV
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Categories
Remotely operated
vehicles (ROVs), which
are tethered
Autonomous underwater
vehicles, which are free
swimming

Examples
Persephone
Jason (Titanic)
Hugin

Discussion of Ethics and
Philosophy in Robotics

Can robots become conscious?
Is there a problem with using robots in military
applications?
How can we ensure that robots do not harm
people?
Isaac Asimovs Three Laws of Robotics
Isaac Asimov and Joe
Engleberger
Two fathers
of robotics
Engleberger
built first
robotic arms
Asimovs Laws of Robotics

First law (Human safety):
A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow
a human being to come to harm.

Second law (Robots are slaves):
A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where
such orders would conflict with the First Law.

Third law (Robot survival):
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection
does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

These laws are simple and straightforward, and they embrace the essential
guiding principles of a good many of the worlds ethical systems.

But: They are extremely difficult to implement
The Advent of Industrial Robots -
Robot Arms
There is a lot of motivation to use robots
to perform task which would otherwise
be performed by humans:
Safety
Efficiency
Reliability
Worker Redeployment
Cheaper
Industrial Robot Defined
A general-purpose, programmable machine
possessing certain anthropomorphic
characteristics
Hazardous work environments
Repetitive work cycle
Consistency and accuracy
Difficult handling task for humans
Multishift operations
Reprogrammable, flexible
Interfaced to other computer systems
What are robots made of?


Effectors:
Manipulation
Degrees of Freedom
Robot Anatomy
Manipulator consists of joints and links
Joints provide relative motion
Links are rigid members between joints
Various joint types: linear and rotary
Each joint provides a degree-of-
freedom
Most robots possess five or six
degrees-of-freedom
Robot manipulator consists of two
sections:
Body-and-arm for positioning of
objects in the robot's work volume
Wrist assembly for orientation of
objects
Base
Link0
Joint1
Link2
Link3
Joint3
End of Arm
Link1
Joint2
Manipulator Joints
Translational motion
Linear joint (type L)
Orthogonal joint (type O)

Rotary motion
Rotational joint (type R)
Twisting joint (type T)
Revolving joint (type V)
Polar Coordinate
Body-and-Arm Assembly

Notation TRL:






Consists of a sliding arm (L joint) actuated relative
to the body, which can rotate about both a vertical
axis (T joint) and horizontal axis (R joint)
Cylindrical Body-and-Arm
Assembly
Notation TLO:

Consists of a vertical
column, relative to
which an arm assembly
is moved up or down
The arm can be moved
in or out relative to the
column
Cartesian Coordinate
Body-and-Arm Assembly

Notation LOO:

Consists of three sliding
joints, two of which are
orthogonal
Other names include
rectilinear robot and x-y-
z robot
Jointed-Arm Robot

Notation TRR:
SCARA Robot
Notation VRO
SCARA stands for
Selectively Compliant
Assembly Robot Arm
Similar to jointed-arm
robot except that vertical
axes are used for shoulder
and elbow joints to be
compliant in horizontal
direction for vertical
insertion tasks
Wrist Configurations
Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm
End effector is attached to wrist assembly
Function of wrist assembly is to orient end
effector
Body-and-arm determines global position of
end effector
Two or three degrees of freedom:
Roll
Pitch
Yaw
Notation :RRT

An Introduction to
Robot Kinematics

Renata Melamud
Kinematics studies the motion of bodies

An Example - The PUMA 560
The PUMA 560 has SIX revolute joints
A revolute joint has ONE degree of freedom ( 1 DOF) that is
defined by its angle
1
2
3
4
There are two more
joints on the end
effector (the gripper)
Other basic joints
Spherical Joint
3 DOF ( Variables - Y
1
, Y
2
, Y
3
)
Revolute Joint
1 DOF ( Variable - Y)
Prismatic Joint
1 DOF (linear) (Variables - d)
We are interested in two kinematics topics

Forward Kinematics (angles to position)
What you are given: The length of each link
The angle of each joint

What you can find: The position of any point
(i.e. its (x, y, z) coordinates

Inverse Kinematics (position to angles)
What you are given: The length of each link
The position of some point on the robot

What you can find: The angles of each joint needed to obtain
that position





Quick Math Review
Dot Product:
Geometric Representation:
A
B

cos B A B A = -
Unit Vector
Vector in the direction of a chosen vector but whose magnitude is 1.
B
B
u
B
=
(

y
x
a
a
(

y
x
b
b
Matrix Representation:
y y x x
y
x
y
x
b a b a
b
b
a
a
B A + =
(

-
(

= -
B
B
u
Quick Matrix Review

Matrix Multiplication:

An (m x n) matrix A and an (n x p) matrix B, can be multiplied since
the number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.

Non-Commutative Multiplication
AB is NOT equal to BA
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

-
(

dh cf dg ce
bh af bg ae
h g
f e
d c
b a
Matrix Addition:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

+
(

h d g c
f b e a
h g
f e
d c
b a
Basic Transformations
Moving Between Coordinate Frames

Translation Along the X-Axis
N
O
X
Y
P
x

V
N

V
O

P
x
= distance between the XY and NO coordinate planes
(

=
Y
X
XY
V
V
V
(

=
O
N
NO
V
V
V
(

=
0
P
P
x
P
(V
N
,V
O
)
Notation:
N
X
P
V
N

V
O

Y
O
Y
NO
O
N
X XY
V P
V
V P
V + =
(

+
=
Writing in terms of
XY
V
NO
V
X
N
V
N

V
O

O
Y
Translation along the X-Axis and Y-Axis
(

+
+
= + =
O
Y
N
X NO XY
V P
V P
V P V
(

=
Y
x XY
P
P
P
(

-
-
=
(
(

=
(
(

=
(

=
o V
n V
) cos(90 V
cos V
sin V
cos V
V
V
V
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
O
N
NO
NO
V
o
n
Unit vector along the N-Axis
Unit vector along the N-Axis
Magnitude of the V
NO
vector
Using Basis Vectors
Basis vectors are unit vectors that point along a coordinate axis
N
V
N

V
O

O
n
o
Rotation (around the Z-Axis)
X
Y
Z
X
Y
Y
V
V
X
V
Y
(

=
Y
X
XY
V
V
V
(

=
O
N
NO
V
V
V
Y = Angle of rotation between the XY and NO coordinate axis
X
Y
Y
V
V
X
V
Y
o
Unit vector along X-Axis
x
x V cos V cos V V
NO NO XY X
- = = =
NO XY
V V =
Can be considered with respect to
the XY coordinates or NO coordinates
V
x ) o V n (V V
O N X
- - + - =
(Substituting for V
NO
using the N and O
components of the vector)
) o x V n x V V
O N X
- + - = ( ) (
) )
)
(sin V (cos V
90)) (cos( V (cos V
O N
O N
=
+ + =
Similarly.
y V ) cos(90 V sin V V
NO NO NO Y
- = = =
y ) o V n (V V
O N Y
- - + - =
) o y ( V ) n y ( V V
O N Y
- + - =
) )
)
(cos V (sin V
(cos V )) (cos(90 V
O N
O N
+ =
+ =
So.
) ) (cos V (sin V V
O N Y
+ =
) ) (sin V (cos V V
O N X
=
(

=
Y
X
XY
V
V
V
Written in Matrix Form
(


=
(

=
O
N
Y
X
XY
V
V
cos sin
sin cos
V
V
V
Rotation Matrix about the z-axis
X
1

Y
1

Y
V
XY

X
0

Y
0

V
NO

P
(


+
(

=
(

=
O
N
y
x
Y
X
XY
V
V
cos sin
sin cos
P
P
V
V
V
(V
N
,V
O
)
In other words, knowing the coordinates of a point (V
N
,V
O
) in some coordinate
frame (NO) you can find the position of that point relative to your original
coordinate frame (X
0
Y
0
).
(Note : P
x
, P
y
are relative to the original coordinate frame. Translation followed by
rotation is different than rotation followed by translation.)
Translation along P followed by rotation by u
(


+
(

=
(

=
O
N
y
x
Y
X
XY
V
V
cos sin
sin cos
P
P
V
V
V
HOMOGENEOUS REPRESENTATION
Putting it all into a Matrix
(
(
(

(
(
(


+
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
1
V
V
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
1
P
P
1
V
V
O
N
y
x
Y
X
(
(
(

(
(
(


=
(
(
(

=
1
V
V
1 0 0
P cos sin
P sin cos
1
V
V
O
N
y
x
Y
X
What we found by doing a
translation and a rotation
Padding with 0s and 1s
Simplifying into a matrix form
(
(
(


=
1 0 0
P cos sin
P sin cos
H
y
x
Homogenous Matrix for a Translation in
XY plane, followed by a Rotation around
the z-axis
Rotation Matrices in 3D OK,lets return from
homogenous repn
(
(
(


=
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
R
z
(
(
(

=
cos 0 sin
0 1 0
sin 0 cos
R
y
(
(
(

=
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
R
z
Rotation around the Z-Axis
Rotation around the Y-Axis
Rotation around the X-Axis
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 a o n
0 a o n
0 a o n
H
z z z
y y y
x x x
Homogeneous Matrices in 3D
H is a 4x4 matrix that can describe a translation, rotation, or both in one matrix
Translation without rotation
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
P 1 0 0
P 0 1 0
P 0 0 1
H
z
y
x
P
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
O
N
A
O
N
A
Rotation without translation
Rotation part:
Could be rotation around z-axis,
x-axis, y-axis or a combination of
the three.
(
(
(
(
(

=
1
A
O
N
XY
V
V
V
H V
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
1
A
O
N
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
XY
V
V
V
1 0 0 0
P a o n
P a o n
P a o n
V
Homogeneous Continued.
The (n,o,a) position of a point relative to the
current coordinate frame you are in.
The rotation and translation part can be combined into a single homogeneous
matrix IF and ONLY IF both are relative to the same coordinate frame.
x
A
x
O
x
N
x
X
P V a V o V n V + + + =
Finding the Homogeneous Matrix
EX.
Y
X
Z
T
P
(
(
(

A
O
N
W
W
W
(
(
(

A
O
N
W
W
W
(
(
(

K
J
I
W
W
W
(
(
(

Z
Y
X
W
W
W
Point relative to the
N-O-A frame
Point relative to the
X-Y-Z frame
Point relative to the
I-J-K frame
(
(
(

(
(
(

+
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

A
O
N
k k k
j j j
i i i
k
j
i
K
J
I
W
W
W
a o n
a o n
a o n
P
P
P
W
W
W
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

1
W
W
W
1 0 0 0
P a o n
P a o n
P a o n
1
W
W
W
A
O
N
k k k k
j j j j
i i i i
K
J
I
Y
X
Z
T
P
(
(
(

A
O
N
W
W
W
(
(
(

(
(
(

+
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

k
J
I
z z z
y y y
x x x
z
y
x
Z
Y
X
W
W
W
k j i
k j i
k j i
T
T
T
W
W
W
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

1
W
W
W
1 0 0 0
T k j i
T k j i
T k j i
1
W
W
W
K
J
I
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
Z
Y
X
Substituting for
(
(
(

K
J
I
W
W
W
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

1
W
W
W
1 0 0 0
P a o n
P a o n
P a o n
1 0 0 0
T k j i
T k j i
T k j i
1
W
W
W
A
O
N
k k k k
j j j j
i i i i
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
Z
Y
X
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

1
W
W
W
H
1
W
W
W
A
O
N
Z
Y
X
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
P a o n
P a o n
P a o n
1 0 0 0
T k j i
T k j i
T k j i
H
k k k k
j j j j
i i i i
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
Product of the two matrices
Notice that H can also be written as:
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 a o n
0 a o n
0 a o n
1 0 0 0
P 1 0 0
P 0 1 0
P 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 k j i
0 k j i
0 k j i
1 0 0 0
T 1 0 0
T 0 1 0
T 0 0 1
H
k k k
j j j
i i i
k
j
i
z z z
y y y
x x x
z
y
x
H = (Translation relative to the XYZ frame) * (Rotation relative to the XYZ frame)
* (Translation relative to the IJK frame) * (Rotation relative to the IJK frame)
The Homogeneous Matrix is a concatenation of numerous
translations and rotations
Y
X
Z
T
P
(
(
(

A
O
N
W
W
W
One more variation on finding H:
H = (Rotate so that the X-axis is aligned with T)
* ( Translate along the new t-axis by || T || (magnitude of T))
* ( Rotate so that the t-axis is aligned with P)
* ( Translate along the p-axis by || P || )
* ( Rotate so that the p-axis is aligned with the O-axis)
This method might seem a bit confusing, but its actually an easier way to
solve our problem given the information we have. Here is an example
F o r w a r d K i n e m a t i c s
The Situation:
You have a robotic arm that
starts out aligned with the x
o
-axis.
You tell the first link to move by Y
1

and the second link to move by Y
2
.

The Quest:
What is the position of the
end of the robotic arm?
Solution:
1. Geometric Approach
This might be the easiest solution for the simple situation. However,
notice that the angles are measured relative to the direction of the previous
link. (The first link is the exception. The angle is measured relative to its
initial position.) For robots with more links and whose arm extends into 3
dimensions the geometry gets much more tedious.

2. Algebraic Approach
Involves coordinate transformations.
X
2

X
3

Y
2

Y
3

Y
1

Y
2

Y
3

1
2 3
Example Problem:
You are have a three link arm that starts out aligned in the x-axis.
Each link has lengths l
1
, l
2
, l
3
, respectively. You tell the first one to move by Y
1

, and so on as the diagram suggests. Find the Homogeneous matrix to get the
position of the yellow dot in the X
0
Y
0
frame.

H = R
z
(Y
1
) * T
x1
(l
1
) * R
z
(Y
2
) * T
x2
(l
2
) * R
z
(Y
3
)

i.e. Rotating by Y
1
will put you in the X
1
Y
1
frame.
Translate in the along the X
1
axis by l
1
.
Rotating by Y
2
will put you in the X
2
Y
2
frame.
and so on until you are in the X
3
Y
3
frame.

The position of the yellow dot relative to the X
3
Y
3
frame is
(l
1
, 0). Multiplying H by that position vector will give you the
coordinates of the yellow point relative the the X
0
Y
0
frame.
X
0

Y
0

Slight variation on the last solution:
Make the yellow dot the origin of a new coordinate X
4
Y
4
frame
X
2

X
3

Y
2

Y
3

Y
1

Y
2

Y
3

1
2 3
X
0

Y
0

X
4

Y
4

H = R
z
(Y
1
) * T
x1
(l
1
) * R
z
(Y
2
) * T
x2
(l
2
) * R
z
(Y
3
) * T
x3
(l
3
)

This takes you from the X
0
Y
0
frame to the X
4
Y
4
frame.

The position of the yellow dot relative to the X
4
Y
4
frame
is (0,0).
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

1
0
0
0
H
1
Z
Y
X
Notice that multiplying by the (0,0,0,1) vector will
equal the last column of the H matrix.
More on Forward Kinematics
Denavit - Hartenberg Parameters
Denavit-Hartenberg Notation
Z
(i - 1)

X
(i -1)

Y
(i -1)

o
( i - 1)

a
(i - 1 )

Z
i

Y
i

X
i

a
i

d
i

Y
i

IDEA: Each joint is assigned a coordinate frame. Using the Denavit-
Hartenberg notation, you need 4 parameters to describe how a frame (i)
relates to a previous frame ( i -1 ).
THE PARAMETERS/VARIABLES: o, a , d, Y
The Parameters
Z
(i - 1)

X
(i -1)

Y
(i -1)

o
( i - 1)

a
(i - 1 )

Z
i

Y
i

X
i

a
i

d
i

Y
i

You can
align the
two axis
just using
the 4
parameters
1) a
(i-1)

Technical Definition: a
(i-1)
is the length of the perpendicular between the joint
axes. The joint axes is the axes around which revolution takes place which are the
Z
(i-1)
and

Z
(i)
axes. These two axes can be viewed as lines in space. The common
perpendicular is the shortest line between the two axis-lines and is perpendicular
to both axis-lines.

a
(i-1) cont...

Visual Approach - A way to visualize the link parameter a
(i-1)
is to imagine an
expanding cylinder whose axis is the Z
(i-1)
axis - when the cylinder just touches the
joint axis i the radius of the cylinder is equal to a
(i-1).
(Manipulator Kinematics)

Its Usually on the Diagram Approach - If the diagram already specifies the
various coordinate frames, then the common perpendicular is usually the X
(i-1)

axis. So a
(i-1)
is just the displacement along the X
(i-1)
to move from the (i-1) frame
to the i frame.

If the link is prismatic, then a
(i-1)

is a variable, not a parameter.


Z
(i - 1)

X
(i -1)

Y
(i -1)

o
( i - 1)

a
(i - 1 )

Z
i

Y
i

X
i

a
i

d
i

Y
i

2) o
(i-1)

Technical Definition: Amount of rotation around the common perpendicular so that
the joint axes are parallel.

i.e. How much you have to rotate around the X
(i-1)
axis so that the Z
(i-1)
is pointing
in the same direction as the Z
i
axis. Positive rotation follows the right hand rule.

3) d
(i-1)

Technical Definition: The displacement
along the Z
i
axis needed to align the a
(i-1)

common perpendicular to the a
i
common
perpendicular.

In other words, displacement along the
Z
i
to align the X
(i-1)
and X
i
axes.

4) Y
i

Amount of rotation around the Z
i
axis needed to align the

X
(i-1)
axis with the X
i

axis.
Z
(i - 1)

X
(i -1)

Y
(i -1)

o
( i -
1)

a
(i - 1 )

Z
i

Y
i

X
i

a
i

d
i

Y
i

The Denavit-Hartenberg Matrix
(
(
(
(

1 0 0 0
cos cos sin cos sin sin
sin sin cos cos cos sin
0 sin cos
i 1) (i 1) (i 1) (i i 1) (i i
i 1) (i 1) (i 1) (i i 1) (i i
1) (i i i
d
d
a
Just like the Homogeneous Matrix, the Denavit-Hartenberg Matrix is a
transformation matrix from one coordinate frame to the next. Using a series of
D-H Matrix multiplications and the D-H Parameter table, the final result is a
transformation matrix from some frame to your initial frame.

Z
(i -
1)

X
(i -
1)

Y
(i -
1)

o
( i
- 1)

a
(i -
1 )

Z

i

Y
i

X

i

a
i

d

i

Y
i

Put the transformation here
3 Revolute Joints
i
o
(i-1)
a
(i-1)
d
i

u
i
0 0 0

0
u
0

1 0 a
0
0
u
1

2 -90 a
1
d
2

u
2



Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
1

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

a
0
a
1

Denavit-Hartenberg Link
Parameter Table
Notice that the table has two uses:
1) To describe the robot with its
variables and parameters.
2) To describe some state of the
robot by having a numerical values
for the variables.
Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
1

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

a
0
a
1

i
o
(i-1)
a
(i-1)
d
i

u
i
0 0 0

0
u
0

1 0 a
0
0
u
1

2 -90 a
1
d
2

u
2



(
(
(
(
(

=
1
V
V
V
T V
2
2
2
0 0 0
Z
Y
X
Z Y X
T) T)( T)( ( T
1
2
0
1 0
=
Note: T is the D-H matrix with (i-1) = 0 and i = 1.
(
(
(
(


=
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos
T
0 0
0 0
0
i
o
(i-1)
a
(i-1)
d
i

u
i
0 0 0

0
u
0

1 0 a
0
0
u
1

2 -90 a
1
d
2

u
2



This is just a rotation around the Z
0
axis
(
(
(
(


=
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 cos sin
a 0 sin cos
T
1 1
0 1 1
0
1
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
0 0 cos sin
d 1 0 0
a 0 sin cos
T
2 2
2
1 2 2
1
2
This is a translation by a
0
followed by a
rotation around the Z
1
axis
This is a translation by a
1
and then d
2

followed by a rotation around the X
2
and


Z
2
axis
T) T)( T)( ( T
1
2
0
1 0
=
I n v e r s e K i n e m a t i c s
From Position to Angles
A Simple Example
Y
1

X
Y
S
Revolute and
Prismatic Joints
Combined
(x , y)
Finding Y:
)
x
y
arctan( =
More Specifically:
)
x
y
( 2 arctan =
arctan2() specifies that its in the
first quadrant
Finding S:
) y (x S
2 2
+ =
Y
2

Y
1

(x , y)
l
2

l
1

Inverse Kinematics of a Two Link Manipulator
Given: l
1
, l
2
, x , y

Find: Y
1
,

Y
2

Redundancy:
A unique solution to this problem
does not exist. Notice, that using the
givens two solutions are possible.
Sometimes no solution is possible.

(x , y)
The Geometric Solution
l
1

l
2

Y
2

Y
1

o
(x , y) Using the Law of Cosines:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
=
+ = +
+ =
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2 2 2
2
arccos
2
) cos(
) cos( ) 180 cos(
) 180 cos( 2 ) (
cos 2
l l
l l y x
l l
l l y x
l l l l y x
C ab b a c
2
2
2 2
2
Using the Law of Cosines:
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
+
=
+

=
=
x
y
2 arctan

y x
) sin(
y x
) sin(180 sin
sin sin
1 1
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1
l
c
C
b
B
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
x
y
2 arctan
y x
) sin(
arcsin
2 2
2 2
1
l
Redundant since u
2
could be in the
first or fourth quadrant.
Redundancy caused since u
2
has two possible
values
( ) ( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ + =
+ + + =
+ + + + + =
= + = +
+ +
+ + + +
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2 2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1 1 2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1 2 1 1 2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
2
y x
arccos
c 2
) (sin s ) (c c 2
) (sin s 2 ) (sin s ) (c c 2 ) (c c
y x ) 2 ( (1)
l l
l l
l l l l
l l l l
l l l l l l l l
The Algebraic Solution
l
1

l
2

Y
2

Y
1

Y
(x , y)
2 1
2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1
1 2 2 1
1 1
(3)
sin s y (2)
c c x (1)
) cos( c
cos c
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
+
+
+
l l
l l
Only Unknown
) )(sin (cos ) )(sin (cos ) sin(
) )(sin (sin ) )(cos (cos ) cos(
:
a b b a b a
b a b a b a
Note
+

+
+

=
=
) )(sin (cos ) )(sin (cos ) sin(
) )(sin (sin ) )(cos (cos ) cos(
:
a b b a b a
b a b a b a
Note
+

+
+

=
=
) c ( s ) s ( c
c s c s s
sin s y
) ( ) c ( c
c c c
c c x
2 2 1 1 2 2 1
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1
2 2 1 2 2 1 1
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1
l l l
l l l
l l
s l s l l
s s l l l
l l
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+
+
We know what u
2
is from the previous
slide. We need to solve for u
1
. Now
we have two equations and two
unknowns (sin u
1
and cos u
1
)
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 1
1
2 2 1
2
2
2
1 1 2 2
2 2 1
2 2 1 1 2 2
2 2 1
2 2 1
2 2 1
2 2 1
1
y x
x ) c ( y
s
) c 2 ( s x
) c (
1

) c ( s ) s (
) c (
) ( x
y

) c (
) ( x
c
+
+
=
+ + +
+
=
+ +
+
+
=
+
+
=
s l l l
l l l l s l
l l
l l l
l l
s l s
l l
s l s
Substituting for c
1
and simplifying
many times
Notice this is the law of cosines
and can be replaced by x
2
+ y
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
2 2
2 2 2 2 1
1
y x
x ) c ( y
arcsin
s l l l
Joint Drive Systems
Electric
Uses electric motors to actuate individual joints
Preferred drive system in today's robots
Hydraulic
Uses hydraulic pistons and rotary vane
actuators
Noted for their high power and lift capacity
Pneumatic
Typically limited to smaller robots and simple
material transfer applications
Robot Control Systems
Limited sequence control pick-and-
place operations using mechanical stops to
set positions
Playback with point-to-point control
records work cycle as a sequence of
points, then plays back the sequence
during program execution
Playback with continuous path control
greater memory capacity and/or
interpolation capability to execute paths
(in addition to points)
Intelligent control exhibits behavior
that makes it seem intelligent, e.g.,
responds to sensor inputs, makes
decisions, communicates with humans
End Effectors
The special tooling for a robot that enables it to perform a
specific task
Two types:
Grippers to grasp and manipulate objects (e.g., parts) during
work cycle
Tools to perform a process, e.g., spot welding, spray
painting

Grippers and Tools
Industrial Robot Applications
1. Material handling applications
Material transfer pick-and-place, palletizing
Machine loading and/or unloading
2. Processing operations
Welding
Spray coating
Cutting and grinding
3. Assembly and inspection
Robotic Arc-Welding Cell
Robot performs
flux-cored arc
welding
(FCAW)
operation at one
workstation
while fitter
changes parts at
the other
workstation
Servo Robots
A more sophisticated level of control can be
achieved by adding servomechanisms that can
command the position of each joint.
The measured positions are compared with
commanded positions, and any differences are
corrected by signals sent to the appropriate
joint actuators.
This can be quite complicated

Teach and Play-back Robots
Robotic Vision system

The most powerful sensor, which can equip a robot with large
variety of sensory information is ROBOTIC VISION.
Vision systems are among the most complex sensory system in
use.
Robotic vision may be defined as the process of acquiring
and extracting information from images of 3-d world.
Robotic vision is mainly targeted at manipulation and
interpretation of image and use of this information in robot
operation control.
Robotic vision requires two aspects to be addressed
1. Provision for visual input
2. Processing required to utilize it in a computer based
systems.

Why UVs Need AI
Sensor interpretation
Bush or Big Rock?, Symbol-ground problem, Terrain
interpretation

Situation awareness/ Big Picture

Human-robot interaction

Open world and multiple fault diagnosis and recovery

Localization in sparse areas when GPS goes out

Handling uncertainty

Manipulators

Learning
Artificial Intelligent Robots
All Have 5 Common Components
Mobility: legs, arms, neck, wrists
Platform, also called effectors
Perception: eyes, ears, nose, smell, touch
Sensors and sensing
Control: central nervous system
Inner loop and outer loop; layers of the brain
Power: food and digestive system
Communications: voice, gestures, hearing
How does it communicate (I/O, wireless, expressions)
What does it say?


7 Major Areas of AI
1. Knowledge representation
how should the robot represent itself, its task, and the world
2. Understanding natural language
3. Learning
4. Planning and problem solving
Mission, task, path planning
5. Inference
Generating an answer when there isnt complete information
6. Search
Finding answers in a knowledge base, finding objects in the
world
7. Vision
Upper brain or cortex
Reasoning over information about goals
Middle brain
Converting sensor data into information

Spinal Cord and lower brain
Skills and responses
Intelligence and the CNS
AI Focuses on Autonomy
Automation
Execution of precise, repetitious actions or
sequence in controlled or well-understood
environment
Pre-programmed
Autonomy
Generation and execution of actions to meet a
goal or carry out a mission, execution may be
confounded by the occurrence of unmodeled
events or environments, requiring the system
to dynamically adapt and replan.
Adaptive
So How Does Autonomy Work?
In two layers
Reactive
Deliberative

3 paradigms which specify what goes in
what layer
Paradigms are based on 3 robot primitives:
sense, plan, act
AI Primitives within an Agent
SENSE PLAN ACT
LEARN
Reactive
ACT SENSE
ACT SENSE
ACT SENSE
PLAN
Users loved it because it worked
AI people loved it, but wanted
to put PLAN back in
Control people hated it because
couldnt rigorously prove it
worked


Thank you all