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Chapter 7 Shaft Coupling Devices

All

manufacturing plants have at least 2 things in common. These are: Electric motors and. Couplings.
There are many different types, sizes and styles. We will discuss the most common types.

All

couplings; 1. Connect 2 shafts together. 2. Require safety guards. Most couplings; 1. Do more than 1 function at a time. 2. Connect 2 shafts together. 3. Allow for minor misalignment. 4. Allow for axial movement.

Physically couple together two rotating shafts for efficient transmission of mechanical power, transferring the torque of one shaft to the other, directly and with constant velocity.
Torque

Compensate for all types of misalignment between rotating, connected shafts without inducing abnormal stresses and loads on connected equipment and without tangible loss of power.

Angular

Compensate for end or axial movement of the coupled shafts, preventing either shaft from exerting excessive thrust on the other and allowing each to rotate in its normal position.

Some

couplings will also do these special functions in addition to their normal functions; 1. Dampen vibration 2. Absorb torque 3. Provide electrical insulation

Simple

hand tools will generally be all that is required for coupling installation and removal. What types of tools??? Shaft alignment should always be done to the best of your ability. Why????

Parallel

misalignment in the vertical plane Parallel misalignment in the horizontal plane Angular misalignment in the vertical plane Angular misalignment in the horizontal plane Combination parallel and angular misalignment

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Two

styles; Solid hub--have a plain bore than will slide onto the shaft end. Usually locked with keys, set screws, locking rings, etc. Bushed hubs--have removable tapered sleeves (bushings).

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Two

major classes; Solid couplings (also called rigid or sleeve couplings) Flexible couplings

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Accept

no misalignment, usually for smaller shafts Require exact alignment Types of solid couplings include; Split-ribbed coupling, jaw couplings Flanged couplings, sleeve couplings Universal joints

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Generally

used to connect long line shafts, such as those on over-head cranes. Long shafts will allow the ends to be aligned fairly easy. Ribs are added for strength. Generally made of cast iron.

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Split

Key

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The

2 parts of the coupling make metal to metal contact, Used in low speed applications Alignment is very important to minimize wear of the load bearing surfaces

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Usually

have flat faces but may have a male/female design to aid in alignment. Alignment is very important.

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Flanged coupling ??? What do you think this is?

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Basically,

a piece of heavy walled pipe with set screws to grip the shafts Some may have keyways/keys Alignment is very important

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Sleeve coupling

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Allows

non-parallel shafts to be coupled. Considered to be a variation of a solid coupling. Generally, requires lubrication.

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Industrial applications operate continuously and with high torque loads. This demands maximum strength and long life of the universal joint components. The modern universal joint has become much more complex than its simple ancestor. The universal joints manufactured by Ameridrives are made for demanding industrial applications.

Universal joints have several unique features that make them ideal for a variety of applications. Most significant is the ability of the universal joint to operate at high misalignment angles. Operating angles up to 25 degrees are not uncommon.
Another feature of the universal joint is the bearing and seal design that resists lubrication loss and contamination. This makes Ameridrives Universal Joints suitable for applications where severe atmospheric conditions would put other couplings at a distinct disadvantage. When compared to other high misalignment couplings, universal joints operate with negligible backlash or radial clearance. The difference can be significant on applications where backlash is critical.

Ameridrives Universal Joint yokes are precisely engineered using the latest design technologies. They are manufactured as a onepiece, closed bearing eye design, assuring the highest degree of strength and minimum distortion under load.

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Industrial applications operate continuously and with high torque loads. This demands maximum strength and long life of the universal joint components. The modern universal joint has become much more complex than its simple ancestor. The universal joints manufactured by Ameridrives are made for demanding industrial applications. Universal joints have several unique features that make them ideal for a variety of applications. Most significant is the ability of the universal joint to operate at high misalignment angles. Operating angles up to 25 degrees are not uncommon. Another feature of the universal joint is the bearing and seal design that resists lubrication loss and contamination. This makes Ameridrives Universal Joints suitable for applications where severe atmospheric conditions would put other couplings at a distinct disadvantage. When compared to other high misalignment couplings, universal joints operate with negligible backlash or radial clearance. The difference can be significant on applications where backlash is critical. Ameridrives Universal Joint yokes are precisely engineered using the latest design technologies. They are manufactured as a onepiece, closed bearing eye design, assuring the highest degree of strength and minimum distortion under load.
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The universal joint can be used as a single joint or it can be used in pairs. When used as a single joint, only angular misalignment is accommodated. Since nearly every installation requires the coupling to also accommodate offset misalignment, universal joints should be used in pairs. Using universal joints in pairs also corrects for non-uniform angular velocity caused by the rotational characteristics of a single joint.
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VL Mill Spindles Amerigear Spindles Americardan U-Joints

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Ameridrives U3600 FT Universal Joints on a large section mill

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Can

accept some misalignment depending on the style of coupling and the manufacturer. Examples include; Jaw coupling with a flexible insert. Modified flange couplings with a flexible insert. Rubber tire coupling, gear couplings, bushed couplings.

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Other

examples: Chain couplings, metal disk couplings Grid couplings

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Flexible sleeve coupling

Flexible center

Hub
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Has

a rubber-like insert between the coupling halves. The inserts are called; Spiders, cushions, blocks or inserts. Inserts are made of different materials for different applications, heat ranges, environments, etc. Allows some misalignment.

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Jaw

couplings are generally used to connect continuous-duty electric motors with driven machinery, pumps, and gearboxes. typically accommodate angular shaft misalignment up to 1 degree and parallel misalignment up to 0.015 in.
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They

.
The

spider is the key determinant of the torque rating of each jaw coupling. also can make a significant difference in the coupling's response to vibration, temperature, chemicals, misalignment, high RPM, space limitations and ease of installation or removal.
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It

Selecting

the right type of spider is just as important as selecting the right type and size of coupling. that reason, users will benefit from a fuller understanding of the different spider constructions and materials available, when specifying new or maintaining existing couplings
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For

Urethane

-- has 1.5 times the torque capacity of NBR with very good chemical and oil resistance, but less damping capability (90 Shore A hardness) and narrower operating temperature range of 30F to +160F (-39C to +71C).

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Urethane

spiders are good choices when the application calls for greater torque in a confined space, or for resistance to atmospheric effects such as ozone, sunlight, and hydrolysis in tropical conditions.

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Hytrel

-- designed for high operating temperature (-60F to +250F, (-51C to +121C)), with excellent resistance to oils and chemicals; can carry 3 times the torque of standard NBR.

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Also

provides resistance to ozone, sunlight, and hydrolysis in tropical conditions. With hardness of 55 Shore D, however, Hytrel cuts angular misalignment ratings in half, and damping capacity is low

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Bronze

-- Not exactly elastomeric, these rigid, porous, oil-impregnated metal inserts are used only for slow speed (250 RPM maximum) applications requiring high torque or high temperature resistance. Bronze spiders can withstand virtually all chemicals and temperatures from -40 to +450F (-40 to +232C), but their rigidity offers zero damping capacity.
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Spider

Hubs
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Jaw Coupling

insert

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Jaw Coupling

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Model number

Shaft (bore) diameter

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Spiders/inserts
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Brass spider

Neoprene spider

Which one is wore out?


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Insert Hub

Jaw Coupling
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May

be called a pin coupling. Each half has pins that go into holes in an insert. The insert may be a rubber material or leather. Allows some small amount of misalignment.

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Set screw

Leather insert
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Pins

Leather insert
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Taper hub

Flexible insert

Pins

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Also

called a horse-shoe coupling. The flexible part is made of a molded rubber . Dampens vibration and torque. May provide electrical isolation. Accepts some misalignment.

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Taper hub

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Two

types; Rubber gear type- Accepts some misalignment, Requires no lubricant May provide electrical isolation

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Metal

gear couplings; Made of steel Accepts some misalignment, Requires lubrication and seals Can be extremely large

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Locking ring

Seals

This coupling requires lube.


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Locking ring
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Metal gear coupling

Nylon sleeve
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Rubber gear coupling

Hub
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Rubber

or neoprene bushings mounted in a steel housing. Allows some misalignment. Small shafts usually with light loads. Requires no lubricant.

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Rubber bushing
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Metal

chain wrapped around toothed hubs. Chain can be a roller chain or silent chain. Requires lubrication, seals and a cover. Will accept some misalignment.
Delrin

chain (plastic) requires no lube.

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Sprocket

teeth are cut to fit the chain. The tops of the teeth are cut square and hardened. In an emergency, stock drive chain sprockets can be used in place of coupling sprockets.

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Pusher hole

Key way

Taper hub

Master link
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Silent chain coupling

Teeth are a different shape!

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Plastic chain coupling

Taper hub

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Lubrication opening

Square cut teeth

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Taper hub

Square cut teeth


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Metal

disk packs are made of thin sheets of steel. Will accept some misalignment. Does not require lubrication. Smooth power transmission with no backlash. Disk packs can be installed/removed without moving the hubs.
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Each

hub has slotted flanges A spring steel grid fits in the slots Requires lubrication, seals and a cover The grid can be replaced without moving the hubs

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Threaded hole

Lube seals

Gasket
Grid Coupling Flexible Steel Grid
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Grid

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Designed

to shear a soft pin when a mechanical overload occurs. Pins are designated by their shear value. Pins can be straight, necked or notched.

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90

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Shear coupling

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Shear coupling

This was a $12,000 coupling.


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Shear insert

This key is designed to shear.


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Flexible Shear coupling

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Beamed Couplings

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Spacer Coupling
Spacer Jaw coupling

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Set screw

This hub mounts on the shaft.


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10 0

Assorted Couplings

10 1

10 2