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AUTOMOTIVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Introduction Process Types of Transmission System (Rear & Front) Components of Transmission in Automobiles 1. Hydraulic System 1. Oil Pump 2. Valve Body 3.Clutch Packs 4. Bands 2. Seals and Gaskets 3. Torque Converter 4. Governor, Vacuum Modulator, Throttle Cable 5. Computer Controls

CONTENTS

The transmission is a device that is connected to the back of the engine and sends the power from the engine to the drive wheels. The main aim of an automotive transmission system is to provide high torque at the time of starting the engine, hill climbing, accelerating and pulling the engine at high loads. The job of the transmission is to change the speed ratio between the engine and the wheels of an automobile.

INTRODUCTION

POSITION OF TRANSMISSION

T R A N S M I S S I O N

S Y S T E M

THE 6L50 TRANSMISSION IS A HYDRA-MATIC SIX-SPEED REAR AND ALL-WHEEL DRIVE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION PRODUCED BY GM. SEE MORE TRANSMISSION

An automobile engine runs at its best at a certain RPM range and it is the transmission's job to make sure that the power is delivered to the wheels while keeping the engine within that range.
The transmission uses a range of gears -- from low to high To make more effective use of the engine's torque as driving conditions change. The gears can be engaged manually or automatically.

PROCESS

Rear wheel drive

Front wheel drive

TYPES

The transmission is usually mounted to the back of the engine. Power flow on this system is simple and straight forward going from the engine, through the torque converter , then through the transmission and drive shaft until it reaches the final drive where it is split and sent to the two rear wheels .

REAR WHEEL DRIVE

REAR WHEEL DRIVE LAYOUT

On a front wheel drive car, the transmission is usually combined with the final drive to form what is called a transaxle.
Transaxle is a device set up in the transmission gear box, clutch, final drive, combined in a single unit. Front wheel drive layouts are those in which the wheels of the vehicle are driven. Front axles are connected directly to the transmission to provide power to the front wheels. This layout is typically chosen for its compact packaging.

FRONT WHEEL DRIVE

FRONT WHEEL DRIVE LAYOUT

Planetary Gear Sets Hydraulic System

Seals and Gaskets Torque Converter Governor Computer Controls

Oil Pump Valve Body Clutches Band

COMPONENTS OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

A gear set in which all of the gears are in one plane, grouped around each other like the planets around the sun. The central gear is called the "sun gear". In mesh with it is a circular grouping of gears, called "planet gears", mounted on a rotating carrier. The planet gears also engage teeth on the inner periphery of the "ring gear". By holding any one of the three gear elements motionless, different ratios can be produced between the other two. Planetary gear sets are common in automatic transmissions.

PLANETARY GEAR SETS

SIDE VIEW

A clutch is a mechanical device which provides for the transmission of power (and therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member).

The simplest application clutches are employed in devices which have two rotating shafts.

CLUTCH PACKS

A band is a steel strap with friction material bonded to the inside surface.
One end of the band is anchored against the transmission case while the other end is connected to a servo.

A flexible metal ring fits around the outside of the clutch housing. It tightens to engage the gears, and loosens to release them.

BANDS

TORQUE CONVERTER
A torque converter is a fluid coupling that is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating driven load.

The Hydraulic system is a complex maze of passages and tubes that sends transmission fluid under pressure to all parts of the transmission and torque converter It works with some components.

Oil Pump
Valve Body

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

The transmission oil pump(not to be confused with the pump element inside the torque converter) is responsible for producing all the oil pressure that is required in the transmission. The oil pump is mounted to the front of the transmission case and is directly connected to a flange on the torque converter housing.

OIL PUMP

The valve body is the control center of the automatic transmission. It contains a maze of channels and passages that direct hydraulic fluid to the numerous valves which then activate the appropriate clutch pack or band servo to smoothly shift to the appropriate gear for each driving situation

VALVE BODY

The computer uses sensors on the engine and transmission to detect such things as throttle position, vehicle speed, engine speed, engine load, brake pedal position, etc. to control exact shift points as well as how soft or firm the shift should be. Once the computer receives this information, it then sends signals to a solenoid pack inside the transmission

COMPUTER CONTROLS

Governor Vacuum

Modulator

Throttle
Seals

Cable

and Gaskets

NON-COMPUTERIZED TRANSMISSIONS

An automatic transmission has many seals and gaskets to control the flow of hydraulic fluid and to keep it from leaking out. There are two main external seals: The front seal The rear seal.

SEALS & GASKETS

The front seal seals the point where the torque converter mounts to the transmission case. This seal allows fluid to freely move from the converter to the transmission but keeps the fluid from leaking out. The rear seal keeps fluid from leaking past the output shaft. A gasket is a type of seal used to seal two stationary parts that are fastened together.

FRONT & REAR SEAL

These three components provide the inputs that tell the transmission when to shift. Governor regulates the mean speed of the engine. The Throttle Cable simply monitors the position of the gas pedal through a cable that runs from the gas pedal to the throttle valve in the valve body.

The Vacuum Modulator monitors engine vacuum by a rubber vacuum hose which is connected to the
engine.

GOVERNOR, VACUUM MODULATOR & THROTTLE CABLE