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ENGI 4969 Degree Project

IEEE 14-Bus Transmission System Analysis

Project Supervisor
Dr. Xiaoping Liu

Group Members
Jonathan Evangelista
Tyler Ross
Romair Wong
Francis Idehen

Presentation Subject Matter


Introduction
Topics of Analysis
1. Loadflow and State Estimation
2. Transient Stability Analysis
3. Fault Analysis
4. Economic Dispatch
Conclusion
Question Period

IEEE 14 Bus Test System

Load Flow and State Estimation

Load Flow: Results


Load Flow: Verification
Load Flow: Design Issues & Resolutions
State Estimation: Justification
State Estimation: Results
State Estimation: Future Work

Load Flow

Load Flow Results & Verification


Our Load Flow Results

Verification Results: Capacitor Bank Susceptance =0.095

|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total MW

Total MVAR

Bus 1

1.06

232.383

-16.9783

Bus 1

1.06

232.4232

-16.5455

Bus 2

1.0192

-10.3343

-47.8

3.9

Bus 2

1.0177

-10.313

-47.6246

4.0096

Bus 3

1.0205

-8.7835

-7.6

-1.6

Bus 3

1.0195

-8.7774

-7.8563

-1.6539

Bus 4

1.07

-14.2012

-11.2

-31.6245

Bus 4

1.07

-14.221

-11.291

-30.2953

Bus 5

1.0691

-13.3736

Bus 5

1.0615

-13.36

-0.0061

-12.4472

Bus 6

1.09

-13.3736

12.9585

Bus 6

1.09

-13.3596

0.0046

17.6355

Bus 7

1.0584

-14.9473

-29.5

-16.6

Bus 7

1.0559

-14.939

-29.5205

-12.6304

Bus 8

1.053

-15.1015

-9

-5.8

Bus 8

1.051

-15.0973

-8.9783

-5.7809

Bus 9

1.058

-14.7844

-3.5

-1.8

Bus 9

1.0569

-14.791

-3.5074

-1.8015

Bus 10

1.0554

-15.056

-6.1

-1.6

Bus 10

1.0552

-15.0576

-5.9094

-1.7403

Bus 11

1.0507

-15.1409

-13.5

-5.8

Bus 11

1.0504

-15.1563

-13.5668

-5.6964

Bus 12

1.0371

-16.0293

-14.9

-5

Bus 12

1.0355

-16.034

-14.9027

-5.0034

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9808

18.3

29.4137

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9826

18.3336

30.8398

Bus 14

1.01

-12.7161

-94.2

5.1746

Bus 14

1.01

-12.7251

-94.2055

6.0603

13.383

-35.356

13.3928

-35.0496

Total System Losses

|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total System Losses

Total MW

Total MVAR

Load Flow Results & Verification


Difference Between Results
|Voltage|

Percentage

Voltage Angle

Percentage

Bus 1

0.00%

0.00%

Bus 2

0.0015

-0.15%

-0.0213

-0.21%

Bus 3

0.001

-0.10%

-0.0061

-0.07%

Bus 4

0.00%

0.0198

0.14%

Bus 5

0.0076

-0.72%

-0.0136

-0.10%

Bus 6

0.00%

-0.014

-0.10%

Bus 7

0.00247

-0.23%

-0.0083

-0.06%

Bus 8

0.002

-0.19%

-0.0042

-0.03%

Bus 9

0.00109

-0.10%

0.0066

0.04%

Bus 10

0.0002

-0.02%

0.0016

0.01%

Bus 11

0.0003

-0.03%

0.0154

0.10%

Bus 12

0.00157

-0.15%

0.0047

0.03%

Bus 13

0.00%

0.0018

0.04%

Bus 14

0.00%

0.009

0.07%

Load Flow Design Issues & Resolutions


Our Load Flow Results: Capacitor Bank Susceptance=0.19
|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total MW

Verification Results: Capacitor Bank Susceptance = 0.19

Total MVAR

|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total MW

Total MVAR

Bus 1

1.06

232.3815

-17.5155

Bus 1

1.06

232.4232

-16.5455

Bus 2

1.0209

-10.367

-47.8

3.9

Bus 2

1.0177

-10.313

-47.6246

4.0096

Bus 3

1.0216

-8.7916

-7.6

-1.6

Bus 3

1.0195

-8.7774

-7.8563

-1.6539

Bus 4

1.07

-14.1069

-11.2

-36.202

Bus 4

1.07

-14.221

-11.291

-30.2953

Bus 5

1.0749

-13.4342

9.49E-14

-2.19E-13

Bus 5

1.0615

-13.36

-0.0061

-12.4472

Bus 6

1.09

-13.4342

-4.16E-14

9.3694

Bus 6

1.09

-13.3596

0.0046

17.6355

Bus 7

1.0699

-15.008

-29.5

-16.6

Bus 7

1.0559

-14.939

-29.5205

-23.2228

Bus 8

1.0625

-15.1374

-9

-5.8

Bus 8

1.051

-15.0973

-8.9783

-5.7809

Bus 9

1.0628

-14.7629

-3.5

-1.8

Bus 9

1.0569

-14.791

-3.5074

-1.8015

Bus 10

1.0562

-14.9641

-6.1

-1.6

Bus 10

1.0552

-15.0576

-5.9094

-1.7403

Bus 11

1.0524

-15.0704

-13.5

-5.8

Bus 11

1.0504

-15.1563

-13.5668

-5.6964

Bus 12

1.0444

-16.0215

-14.9

-5

Bus 12

1.0355

-16.034

-14.9027

-5.0034

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9801

18.3

27.6958

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9826

18.3336

30.8398

Bus 14

1.01

-12.71

-94.2

4.1137

Bus 14

1.01

-12.7251

-94.2055

6.0603

13.3815

-46.8386

13.3928

-45.642

Total System Losses

Total System Losses

Load Flow Design Issues & Resolutions


Our Load Flow Results: Inductor Bank = 0.25
|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total MW

Total MVAR

Bus 1

1.06

232.383

-16.9783

Bus 2

1.0192

-10.3343

-47.8

3.9

Bus 3

1.0205

-8.7835

-7.6

-1.6

Bus 4

1.07

-14.2012

-11.2

-3.002

Bus 5

1.0691

-13.3736

-5.30E-14

5.98E-13

Bus 6

1.09

-13.3736

-2.19E-14

12.9585

Bus 7

1.0584

-14.9473

-29.5

-16.6

Bus 8

1.053

-15.1015

-9

-5.8

Bus 9

1.058

-14.7844

-3.5

-1.8

Bus 10

1.0554

-15.056

-6.1

-1.6

Bus 11

1.0507

-15.1409

-13.5

-5.8

Bus 12

1.0371

-16.0293

-14.9

-5

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9808

18.3

29.4137

Bus 14

1.01

-12.7161

-94.2

5.1746

13.383

-6.7335

Total System Losses

State Estimation

State Estimation Justification


Our Load Flow Results

State Estimation Results with only Ammeters


|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total MW

|Voltage|

Total MVAR

Voltage Angle

Total MW

Total MVAR

Bus 1

1.06

232.4307

-17.0215

Bus 1

1.06

232.383

-16.9783

Bus 2

1.0191

-10.3413

-47.2628

3.5936

Bus 2

1.0192

-10.3343

-47.8

3.9

Bus 3

1.0205

-8.7859

-5.2704

-1.0163

Bus 3

1.0205

-8.7835

-7.6

-1.6

Bus 4

1.07

-14.4591

-14.0875

-30.8252

Bus 4

1.07

-14.2012

-11.2

-31.6245

Bus 5

1.0692

-13.4532

-0.5992

0.419

Bus 5

1.0691

-13.3736

Bus 6

1.09

-13.4532

2.06E-13

12.8902

Bus 6

1.09

-13.3736

12.9585

Bus 7

1.0583

-15.0312

-29.3543

-17.4161

Bus 7

1.0584

-14.9473

-29.5

-16.6

Bus 8

1.0532

-15.1995

-8.4753

-5.5637

Bus 8

1.053

-15.1015

-9

-5.8

Bus 9

1.0578

-14.9584

-3.5714

-2.0719

Bus 9

1.058

-14.7844

-3.5

-1.8

Bus 10

1.0553

-15.3063

-6.0599

-1.5662

Bus 10

1.0554

-15.056

-6.1

-1.6

Bus 11

1.0506

-15.3832

-13.8465

-5.9414

Bus 11

1.0507

-15.1409

-13.5

-5.8

Bus 12

1.0372

-16.1718

-14.7264

-4.902

Bus 12

1.0371

-16.0293

-14.9

-5

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9819

18.3457

29.4057

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9808

18.3

29.4137

Bus 14

1.01

-12.7178

-94.144

5.191

Bus 14

1.01

-12.7161

-94.2

5.1746

13.3787

-34.8248

13.383

-35.356

Total System Losses

Total System Losses

State Estimation Results


Measurement Tag

Error(%)

Total MVAR

21

23.4392

State Estimation Results


|Voltage|

Voltage Angle

Total MW

Bus 1

1.06

231.5597

-16.9621

51

10.7101

Bus 2

1.0188

-10.1864

-45.7472

1.0942

18

10.5085

Bus 3

1.0205

-8.6489

-5.4136

-1.4732

80

19.4064

Bus 4

1.07

-14.0739

-12.4318

-30.8687

40

14.7082

Bus 5

1.0697

-13.2223

-0.1336

2.0601

42

4.2677

Bus 6

1.09

-13.2223

-2.08E-15

12.5355

Bus 7

1.0579

-14.7869

-29.921

-18.9127

Bus 8

1.0535

-14.932

-9.2096

-4.11

Bus 9

1.0576

-14.5067

-1.5761

-3.2759

Bus 10

1.0554

-14.9276

-6.0775

-1.5762

Bus 11

1.0507

-15.0114

-13.6507

-5.9201

Bus 12

1.0374

-15.8773

-14.6957

-4.7037

Bus 13

1.045

-4.9902

14.2583

30.5225

Bus 14

1.01

-12.6292

-93.8491

5.2924

13.1121

-36.2979

Total System Losses

State Estimation Results


Identifying Good Data over Ten Iterations
Branch Information
Branch Tag #

Error Percentage on Fixed Specified Measurement

Branch Power

Load Flow Powers

20%:P1-13

20%:P2-3

20%:Q13-2

P1-3

75.5528

60%

60%

80%

100%

100%

90%

Q1-3

3.4136

90%

90%

100%

100%

100%

100%

P1-13

156.8302

0%

0%

70%

100%

80%

100%

Q1-13

-20.392

90%

80%

90%

100%

100%

100%

P2-3

-61.3705

70%

90%

0%

0%

100%

90%

Q2-3

17.2562

80%

100%

40%

80%

100%

100%

P2-5

28.246

90%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Q2-5

-24.1087

90%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

P2-7

16.0969

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

10

Q2-7

-6.7685

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

11

P2-13

-54.4895

80%

90%

100%

100%

100%

100%

12

Q2-13

3.8999

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

13

P2-14

23.7171

100%

100%

90%

90%

90%

90%

14

Q2-14

-3.9695

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

15

P3-1

-72.7896

60%

70%

100%

100%

100%

90%

16

Q3-1

2.6675

100%

90%

100%

100%

100%

100%

17

P3-2

61.8928

70%

90%

20%

40%

100%

90%

18

Q3-2

-15.6085

80%

100%

30%

50%

100%

80%

State Estimation Future Work


Creating a Database
Adjust for redundancy lower than one
Incorporate Phasor Measurement Units into
the algorithm

Transient Stability Analysis

What is Transient Stability?


Multimachine System
Classical Stability Model
5 Assumptions associated with a Classical
Stability Study
Test Bench (9-Bus System)
IEEE 14-Bus Test System

What is Transient Stability?


Transient disturbances
Mechanical analogy

This image is from Transient Stability of Large Scale Power Systems


by Vijay Vittal of Iowa State University.

Multimachine System
Equal area Criterion vs. Swing Equation
Single Machine System

Multi Machine System


(9-Bus Test Bench Model)

Classical Stability Model


Assumptions associated with this model:
1. Constant mechanical power input
during swing
2. Negligible damping power
3. Constant transient reactance in series
with constant transient internal
voltage
4. Internal generator voltage angle
coincides with mechanical rotor
angle
5. Constant load admittances

Classical Representation of a
Multimachine System

Calculations
The Swing Equation:

=
2

2 +

cos +
=1

Internal Generator Voltages:

= +
+

Constant Load Admittances:

= 2 2

9 Bus System - Test Bench

The 9 Bus transmission system which was used as a test bench was taken from Power
System Control and Stability 2nd Edition by Anderson and Fouad:

9 Bus System - Test Bench

9 Bus System - Test Bench

9 Bus System - Test Bench

Fault Analysis

FAULT ANALYSIS

Background
Objective
Methodology
Sample Calculations
GUI Flow Chart
Graphical User Interface
Extension of the project
Future Expansion
Problems Encounter

Fault Analysis (cont.)


Background
Causes of Faults
1.
2.
3.
4.

Insulation failure
Flashover
Physical Damage
Human error

Fault Analysis (cont.)


Types of fault
1. Symmetrical (Balanced)
2. Unsymmetrical (Unbalanced)

Module Objective
Build a dynamic software package to assist users
to perform fault analysis

Extension to the Project


Modification of an existing Z bus

Case 1: Adding Zb from a new bus P to reference node


Case 2: Adding Zb from a new bus P to an existing bus k
Case 3: Adding Zb from Existing bus k to the reference node
Case 4: adding Zb between two existing buses (j) and (k)

Kron Reductions

Methodology Flow Chart

Method of Calculation and Procedure


To illustrate, impedance matrix was used
Consider a bus Power system shown below

Method of Calculation(cont.)

Method of Calculation(cont.)
V = Y 1 bus I = Zbus I

Admittance Matrix
Y11
Y21
y31
y41

y12
y22
y32
y42

y13
y23
y33
y43

y14
y24
y34
y44

V1
Z11
VF
Z
= y21
V3
31
Z41
V4

V1
0
VF
I F
=
V3
0
V4
0

Current
I f =
During Fault Voltage
12
1 = 12
=

f
22
2 = =
32

3 = 32 I f =

22
42

4 = 42 I f =

22
I

Z12
Z22
Z32
Z42

Z13
Z23
Z33
Z43

Impedance Matrix
Z14
Z24
Z34
Z44

0
I f
0
0

22
Post Fault Voltages
12
12
Vf
1
V
22
22 f
V1
V1
Vf
Vf
Vf
Vf
V2
Vf
V2
Vf
32
=
+
=
+ 32 =

V3
Vf
Vf
V3
Vf
1
Vf
22
22
V4
Vf
Vf
V4
42
42
Vf
1
V
22
22 f

Method of Calculation(cont.)

GUI Flow Chart

MATLAB GUI Menu

MATLAB GUI Menu

Figure 1: shows the Impedance matrix

Figure 2: shows the current matrix after the fault

Figure 3: shows the post


fault voltages

Some Problems Encounter


Making the program dynamic
Expansion of the 4 cases

Summary
Future Expansion

And also implementation of a unsymmetrical fault, which could be the


continuation of this project to enhance the fault states of the network. This
causes a single line, line to line and double line fault to occur. A pop menu is
also created within the Graphical User Interface for this application
Addition of different zones around the network grid to aid in simulation of the
location of the faulted in order to gather information in the selection of
switchgears and relays.

Optimal Economic
Dispatch

Points to be covered

What is Optimal Economic dispatch?


Design Phases
Calculations
Findings
Summary

The Goal of Optimal


Economic dispatch

Design Phases
Phase 1: Devise Algorithm suitable for
calculation of the Loss or B-Coefficients
of the system.
Phase 2: Obtain Optimal Economic
Dispatch.

Transmission Loss

Obtaining an
Expression for Transmission loss
for the System
Overall
transmission loss
expression for the
system

Flowchart for
Obtaining Loss
Coefficients

Optimal Economic Dispatch

Classic Economic Dispatch


The goal of economic dispatch is to determine
the generation dispatch that minimizes the
instantaneous operating cost.

Minimize

Such That

Calculations
Incremental Production Cost

Incremental Transmission Loss


Condition for
Optimum Dispatch

Overall Expression

Taking into Account all Generators

Economic
Dispatch
Flowchart

Graphical User Interface

B-Coefficients and Power Loss

Optimal Economic Dispatch

Test bench used in comparisons/


verification

Discuss Results/Problems
These results Verified with Test-bench.
Graphs show after each iteration, the system starts from a max
value then gradually begins to decrease closer to an optimal
operating point.
The values and cost functions used in 14-bus economic dispatch
were from another 14-bus system (Port Land State University).
15.21MW total system loss - compared to the 13.386MW on
original 14-bus data sheet.
14 bus incremental losses, cost and overall economic dispatch left
questionable.
At 15th iteration during the calculations of incremental loss, cost and
overall economic dispatch, error message stating matrix singular
or badly scaled occurred.

Future Improvements
dynamic retrieval of voltage and powers from
the Load Flow module of the program.
Include generator limits
Include transmission limits were omitted from
the analysis system. Simply, we considered the
system without these restrictions.
contingency in place should stability and fault
issues severely impede its ability to function.

Conclusion

Demonstration

IEEE 14 Bus Test System


Pre-Post

Bus No.

Voltage Angle

Real Power

Reactive Power

-0.1299

-0.0577

0.0009

0.032

0.0002

-0.0203

-0.3685

2.0502

0.0022

0.2409

8.9359E-14

3.68549E-13

0.2409

1.2837E-14

-1.354

0.0041

0.354

0.0035

0.2269

0.002

-0.068

10

-0.0017

-0.5135

11

-0.0045

-0.619

12

0.015

1.0763

13

0.0095

-0.7228

14

0.032

-0.5035