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AC Motors

Presented by Tracy Baptiste

1. 2.
3. 4. 5.

At the end of Session 1 you will be able to: State the two types of AC motors State the advantages and disadvantages of induction motors Stipulate where induction are used identify the construction features of the stator and the rotors used in the induction motor Correlate the 3-phase current to the flux position and hence the rotor position in a 3phase induction motor

Introduction
1. Synchronous motor the magnetic field current is supplied by a separate DC power source; 2. Induction motor the magnetic field current is supplied by magnetic induction (transformer action) into their field windings.

The Induction Motor


Induction motors are used worldwide in many residential, commercial, industrial, and utility applications. It can be part of a pump or fan, or connected to some other form of mechanical equipment such as a winder, conveyor, or mixer.
Main Advantages : cheap and low maintenance Main Disadvantage: speed control is not easy
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Overview of Three-Phase Induction Motor

Induction Motor Stator Construction

Induction Motor Rotor construction


Two types: 1. Squirrel cage (SCIM): Rotor winding is composed of copper bars embedded in the rotor slots and shorted at both end by end rings This is the most common type Simple, low cost, robust, low maintenance

Squirrel cage Rotor

Short circuits all rotor bars.

/rotor winding

2. Wound rotor (WRIM): Rotor winding is wound by wires. The winding terminals can be connected to external circuits through slip rings and brushes. Easy to control speed, more expensive.

Arrangement of Rotor & Stator


The rotor fits inside the stator with a slight air gap separating it from the stator. There is NO direct physical connection between the rotor and the stator.
Stator
Rotor Air gap

The Induction principle


Coils placement in motor creates rotating, magnetic field in stator Rotating magnetic field cuts rotor bar and induces current in rotor Rotor current creates magnetic field on rotor Attraction of rotor to stator creates torque and, hence, horsepower
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3-phase stator-winding illustration

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
C 0 A 0

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
C

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
A 0 C 0

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
A

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
A 0 B 0

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
A B

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Principle of Operation
Torque producing mechanism
B

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Single-Phase Induction Motors (SPIM)


At the end of Session 2 you will be able to: 1. Describe a Universal Motor 2. Describe the Principle of Operation of SPIM 3. State the types of SPIM 4. Build a SPIM

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


Recall
In a series dc motor, when both the stator and rotor fields are reversed, the motor runs in the same direction 1. This principle is used in the universal motor

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


2. Shaded pole motor

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


3. Repulsion Induction motors

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


3. (a) Split-Phase Induction motors

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SPIM
The Centrifugal Switch

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


3. (b) Split-Phase Resistor-Start Induction motors

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


4. Capacitor Induction motors
a) Capacitor Start AC Induction Motor

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


4. Capacitor Induction motors
(b)Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) Induction Motor OR Capacitor Run AC Induction Motor

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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


4. Capacitor Induction motors
(c) Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Induction Motor

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Now to activity 2
L1

L2

N
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Session 3: Synchronous Speed


Generally,

Ns=120f/p, where p# poles

or Ns = 60f/p, where p # pole pairs (or pp)

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Slip
Slip is associated with synchronous speed. If the motor turned at the same RPM as the magnetic field, there would be no relative motion between the rotor and the field. Therefore, no current would be induced into the rotor, and no magnetic field would exist.

Rotor speed < synchronous speed


Slip(S) = synchronous speed(Ns) rotor speed(Nr) in rpm % slip = ( Ns Nr / Ns ) 100

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Session 4:

Synchronous motors

just as a DC generator can be used as a DC motor, so AC generators (or alternators) can be used as synchronous AC motors three phase motors use three sets of stator coils
the rotating magnetic field drags the rotor around with it

single phase motors require some starting mechanism


torque is only produced when the rotor is in sync with the rotating magnetic field
not self-starting may be configured as an induction motor until its gets up to speed, then becomes a synchronous motor
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Synchronous machines are AC machines that have a field circuit supplied by an external DC source. In a synchronous motor, a 3-phase set of stator currents produces a rotating magnetic field causing the rotor magnetic field to align with it. The rotor magnetic field is produced by a DC current applied to the rotor winding.

Field windings are the windings producing the main magnetic field (rotor windings for synchronous machines);
armature windings are the windings where the main voltage is induced (stator windings for synchronous machines).
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Synchronous rotor

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Synchronous Motors (continued)


Construction
Stator identical to that of a three-phase induction motor now called the armature Energize from a three-phase supply and develop the rotating magnetic field

Rotor has a DC voltage applied (excitation) Rotor could be a permanent-magnet type


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Construction of synchronous machines


Two common approaches are used to supply a DC current to the field circuits on the rotating rotor: 1. Supply the DC power from an external DC source to the rotor by means of slip rings and brushes; 2. Supply the DC power from a special DC power source mounted directly on the shaft of the machine.

Slip rings are metal rings completely encircling the shaft of a machine but insulated from it. One end of a DC rotor winding is connected to each of the two slip rings on the machines shaft. Graphite-like carbon brushes connected to DC terminals ride on each slip ring supplying DC voltage to field windings regardless the position or speed of the rotor.

Construction of synchronous machines


A rotor of large synchronous machine with a brushless exciter mounted on the same shaft.

Synchronous Motors (continued)


Constant speed fixed by system frequency

DC for excitation low starting torque: suited for low load applications
clocks, turn tables

Can improve power factor: suited for high electricity use systems
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Synchronous Motors (continued)


Operation
Magnetic field of the rotor locks with the rotating magnetic field rotor turns at synchronous speed

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Session 5: Direct-On-Line (D.O.L)/Across the Line(A.T.L.)

Motor Starter
M

L1
C.B. M
MOT OR

L2
M

L3
120V a.c.
C.B.
95

Pilot lamp

O/L
STOP 96

START M
A1 13 14 A2

M.

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D.O.L/A.T.L. Motor Starter Components

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Reduced voltage starting motor control

Star delta motor control circuit and power circuit

U1,W2

U2,V1

V2,W1

Star

Delta
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Reduced voltage starting Auto-Transformer closed transition starter

Induction motor control reduced voltage starting primary resistance starting

With one resistor

Reduced voltage starting Part winding starters


Two step starting: