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What is a Questionnaire?
A questionnaire is the vehicle used to

pose the questions

that the researcher

wants respondents
to answer.


A questionnaire is formal set of questions or statements designed to gather information from respondents that will accomplish the goals of the research.

Questionnaires measure peoples attitudes,

behavior and feelings toward just about



is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions people answer about their life

condition, beliefs or attitudes.








document that respondents fill out or as a list of

queries posed by an interviewer, who then

compiles interviewees answers either by writing

on a printed form or by recording the replies on

1. There is low cost even when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically. 2. It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in respondents' own words. 3. Respondents have adequate time to give well thought answers. 4. Respondents who are not easily approachable , can also be reached conveniently.

1. Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaires. 2. It can be used only when the respondents are educated and cooperating. 3. It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are

truly representative.
4. This method is time consuming and very slow in



The researcher must be well acquainted with the research problem. Rough draft of the Questionnaire should be prepared and questions must be in sequence.

Researcher must invariably re-examine, and in case of need may revise the rough draft for a better one. Technical defects must be identified and removed if any.

Questionnaire must contain simple but straight forward directions for the respondents so that they may not feel any difficulty in answering


1. Open Format Questions. Eg.

2. Closed Format Questions. Eg.-

3. Leading Questions. Eg.

4. Dichotomous Questins. Eg.

5. Likert Questions. Eg.

6. Importance Questions. Eg.

7. Bipolar Questions. E.g.

8. Rating Scale Questions. E.g.


Determine which information is being sought.

Choose a question type (structure and amount of disguise) and method of

administration (for example written form, e-mail, telephone, interview etc.).

Determine the general question content needed to obtain the desired


Determine the form of response Choose the exact question wording. Arrange the questions into an effective sequence. Specify the physical characteristics of the Questionnaire, such as paper type, number of questions per page, etc..


It should be user friendly. The questionnaire should look professional.

It should be valid.
It should be attractive and motivational in nature. The questionnaire should encourage respondents to answer honestly and accurately.

Questionnaire Design

Questionnaire design is a systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various

question formats, considers a number of

factors characterizing the survey at hand,

ultimately words the various questions very

carefully, and organizes the questionnaires layout.

The Functions of a Questionnaire

Translates the research objectives into specific


Standardizes those questions and the response categories

Fosters cooperation and motivation

Serves as permanent records of the research

Can speed up the process of data analysis

General Steps in the Questionnaire Development Process

Specific Questionnaire Development Process

Determine questionnaire objectives Target respondent characteristics Resource constraints Decide on data-collection method

Question format Number of response choices per question Questionnaire wording Organization and layout of questionnaire Obtain client approval

Pre-test Revise questionnaire based on pre-test results Administer questionnaire and tabulate results


Determine questionnaire objectives. What needs to be achieved from a data gathering effort?

Target respondents characteristics. What characteristics of our target respondents affect

questionnaire designs?

Resource constraints. What are the limits of our company resources?

Decide on data collection method. How should information be obtained? How should the research efforts be?


The utility of data . Effectiveness in producing data. Participants ability to answer accurately. Respondents willingness to answer accurately. Effect of external events


Open-Ended Questions
Close-Ended Questions

Dichotomous Questions
Multiple-Choice Questions

Ranking Questions
Checklist Questions

Open ended questions

No predefined response choices Also called infinite response or unsaturated type questions

Acts as a memory prompts

Useful when narrative answers required and when researcher is uncertain Freedom of response

Closed end questions






answers to pre-defined response options.

The uniformity of the questions makes them

easier to record and analyze results quantitatively.

They give respondents a finite set of specified

responses to choose from.







Dichotomous questions

Offers only two response choices Breaking category into two parts Understanding respondents demographic composition or behaviour inclination Not time consuming

Multiple-Choice Questions

Closed end questions that give respondents several choices. The three issues that must be considered are:

should be exhaustive Options should be worded carefully Response options should be distinct from one another


Example: How would you rate the food quality at the restaurant you last visited? -Excellent -Very good -Good -Fair -Poor

Ranking Questions

The respondent ranks the response options listed on a continuum basis in order of preference.


Factors that influence your buying from a particular

supermarket. Rank in order of preference

Conveniently located Helpful sales staff Availability of all requirements Regular discount offered

Checklist questions

The participant has the freedom to choose one or more of the response options available.
Different from multiple choice questions.

Question Wording

Factors to be looked into while framing questionnaires:

-Shared Vocabulary -Unsupported Assumptions -Frame of Reference -Biased Wording -Adequate Alternatives -Double barrelled questions -Positively & negatively worded questions -Generalizations & Estimates

Shared Vocabulary
Interactive language to be kept simple &

Highly technical language should be avoided as much as possible

Words used should not be ambiguous or vague.

Example: Vague: How satisfied are you with Sita


Better: How satisfied are you with the hospitality at

Unsupported Assumptions

Assumptions should be explicitly stated not implied.

Unsupported assumptions lead to exaggerated estimates.

Frame of Reference

A single word can have several connotations under different situations. The frame of desirability should be made clear. Example: capacity may be connotated differently by an industrialist & an educator.

Biased Wording

Biased Wording should be avoided.

Awareness of desirable response leads to shift of focus from actual response. Example: Biased: Do you think TV has negative effect on children? Unbiased: What are your views on the effect of TV on children?

Adequate Alternative

Every question should have ample number of alternatives.

They should be explicit rather than being implicit. Example: Do you prefer eating in restaurants? Which do you prefer eating in restaurants or eating at home.

Double- barrelled Questions

A single question that asks for two responses.

Interpretation of the responses not effective. Example: Do you believe most Japanese automobiles are comfortable and worth their price?

Positively/Negatively worded questions

Respondents are often guided by the directions of the questions. Responses are different when surveys are either exclusively positive or negative. Combination of both is desirable.

Generalizations & Estimates

Proper structuring of questions to avoid generalizations. Answers which require calculations should be avoided. Example: How many times have sales promotion influenced you to switch brands over the last one year? Better: How many times in the last month have sales promotion influenced you to switch brands?

Questionnaire Sequence
Important to elicit required information from the respondents. The sequencing steps are: -Lead-in questions -Qualifying questions -Warm-up questions -Specific questions -Demographic questions


Trial run of the questionnaire using a small sample from the target population. Helps to refine the instrument and identify errors. Two stages involved: Personal interviews -Protocol analysis -Debriefing Administer the survey

Revise the questionnaire

At this stage the flaws and ambiguity identified in the pre-test are eliminated. It also tests if right sample selection procedures are adopted. Preliminary indication of what to expect from the full test.

Administer Questionnaire & Tabulate Results

The interviewers should : -code the information -tabulate the data -conduct appropriate statistical tests -locate the relationships and differences among variables -draw conclusions

Developing Questions

Question development is the practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording questions so that they are understandable, unambiguous, and unbiased.

Developing Questions

Marketing research questions measure

Beliefs Behaviors Demographics

How wording affects answers

Did you see A broken headlight? The broken headlight?

Which generates more agreement?

Words to Avoid in Questionnaire Development

All Always Any Anybody Ever Every Never

Why Avoid These Words?

These words: all, any, anybody, best, ever, every, never, etc. are all EXTREME ABSOLUTES They place respondents in a situation where they must either fully agree or they must completely disagree with the extreme position in the question.

you always observe traffic signs? Would you say all cats have four legs?

Four Dos of Questionnaire Wording

Question evaluation refers to scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure the question is not biased and is worded such that respondents understand it and can respond to it with relative ease.

Four Dos of Questionnaire Wording


2. 3.


The question should be focused on a single issue or topic. What type of hotel do you stay in on a trip? Pleasure or business trip? En route or final destination? The question should be brief. The question should be grammatically simple, if possible. The question should be crystal clear.

Four Do Nots of Questionnaire Wording



The question should not lead the respondent to a particular answer. Dont you see any problem with using credit cards for online purchases? The question should not have loaded wording or phrasing. Use universal beliefsSince our Founding Fathers gave us the right to bear arms

Four Do Nots of Questionnaire Wording



The question should not be double-barreled. The question should not use words that overstate the conditiondo not use dramatics. Would you buy sunglasses that protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolent rays that cause blindness?

Questionnaire Organization

Questionnaire organization is the sequence of statements and questions that make up the questionnaire.
It is important because the questionnaire appearance and ease of flow affect the quality of the information gathered.

Questionnaire Organization

The introduction is called a cover letter if

the introduction is written to accompany a

mail survey or online survey.

Questionnaire Organization
Five functions:
Introduces Indicates Explains

yourself / surveyor

the purpose of the survey how the respondent was selected


for provides incentive for participation

if respondent is suitable



Incentives are offers to do something for the respondent to increase the probability that the respondent will participate in the survey.


Incentives may be monetary or non-monetary.


respondent assured name

not identified Confidentiality: respondents name is known by the researcher but not divulged to a third party Both are used as non-monetary incentives to increase participation

Screening Questions

Screening questions are used to ferret out respondents who do not meet research study qualifications.
Research objectives should specify who should and should not be included in the research study.

Screening Questions

Example: If you were conducting research on factors

consumers use in selecting a new car, wouldnt you

only want to talk to persons who have recently selected a new car?

If you were doing a study to determine the potential for an e-zine targeting college students, wouldnt you only want to talk to college students?

Screening or qualifying questions are asked to ensure

Question Flow

Question flow pertains to the sequencing of questions or blocks of questions.



Transitions Skip

questions and demographic questions


Question Flow in a Questionnaire

First Questions Screens/Qualifiers Have you shopped at Big Bazaar in the last month? Immediately following screens - Warmups How many major grocery shopping trips do you do in a month?

Question Flow in a Questionnaire

Prior to major sections - Transitions


you purchase any cereal on your last


you use coupons for groceries?

Middle of questionnaire - Complicated & Difficult-to-Answer


each of the following aspects of Big

Question Flow in a Questionnaire

Last Section Classification


is the highest level of formal education you have to your credit?

Performing the Pretest of the Questionnaire

A pretest involves conducting a dry run of the survey on a small, representative set of respondents in order to reveal questionnaire

errors before the survey is launched.

It is important to pretest on respondents that are representative of the target population to be studied.

Thank You, All!