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Esbjerg Campus, April 4-5, 2003

FISH
Global catch / harvest

Fish Abt. 20.000 known species Bony fish Cod, plaice Gristle fish Ray Shellfish Shrimp, lobster Bivalves mussel

After Catch
Decomposition

Composition of a fish Water 65 80 % Fat 1 20 % Protein 14 20 % Vitamins Minerals

Decompositon of fish 1) enzymatic spoilage 2) oxidative deterioration 3) bacterial spoilage

enzymatic spoilage (rigor) Lactic acid produced PH decrease

enzymatic spoilage (rigor) Lactic acid produced PH decrease Muscle becomes rigid Muscle becomes pliable

Species

trawled cod

Temper ature F in ice 37 42-44 62 87 37 in ice in ice in ice in ice in ice 53

Time from landing on deck to Time from landing on deck to entering rigor end of rigor hours hours 2-8 20-65 4-8 54-64 5 2-5 45 16-20 1-2 72-96 120 20 54-55 110 37 24

rested cod from aquarium trawled redfish trawled whiting trawled plaice trawled coalfish trawled haddock

14-15 22 1 7-11 18 2-4 2

oxidative deterioration rancid odors colour changes

Fatty acid composition of fish Min. Max. 14:0 6 8 16:0 10 19 16:1 6 11 18:0 1 4 18:1 9 28 18:2 1 2 18:3 1 2 18:4 2 5 20:1 2 13 20:2 0,2 0,6 20:4 1 2 20:5 5 18 22:1 1 21 22:5 1 3 22:6 7 13

Oil = mainly triglycerides


Triglycerides free fatty acids

peroxides Free fatty acids ketones aldehydes

bacterial spoilage
TMAO TMA + Formaldehyde Decomposition of proteines

Amino acid composition, fish, g/kg


Lysine Methionine Cystine Treonine Tryptofane Isoleucine Leucine Histidine Fenylalanine Tyrosine Valine Asparagine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Ornithine Arginine Hydroxyproline 12,3 4,7 1,5 6,6 2,0 7,0 11,2 3,6 6,0 5,1 8,4 14,3 6,9 20,6 5,7 8,2 8,8 0,1 8,7 0,7

Proteines poly-peptides Poly-peptides free amino acids

Free amino acids biogenic amines


Biogenic amines TMA, DMA, NH3

Amino acid decomposition Lysine cadaverine

Histidine histamine

Deterioration processes in fish

Lipids

Proteins

Chemical, bacterial and endogeneous enzyme reactions

Oxidation of fatty acids Hydrolysation of lipids to free fatty acids

Hydrolysation of proteins to peptides and amino acids Deamination of amino acids Decarboxylation of amino acids

THEREFORE:

Preservation

Preservation Salting Smoking

Cured Cod Water % Fat % 78 83 0,1-0,9 33 0,5 Protein % 15-19 42

Raw Salted

Smoked Haddock Water % Raw 79 84 Smoked 72 Fat % 0,1-0,6 0,9 Protein % 14-20 22

Preservation Salted Smoke Heat Cool

Preservation Salted Smoked Heated Cooled Fermented Dry

Fishmeal and fishoil production plant

Fishmeal and fishoil

Airdried

On the market

Quality changes during preservation

Heated Protein mink digestibility, in vivo tests Fishmeal A matter of time and temperature Drying temperature, C 100 70 70 (5 seconds) Mink digestibility, % 88 91 94

Heated Lipids

more or less unaffected if proper manufactured Otherwise risc of rancidity

Cool / freeze

Prolonged shelflife

Other preservation methods Method Salted Smoked Airdried Fermented Proteins No effects No effects Might deterioate Proteins peptides bitter taste Lipids Might rancid Might rancid Rancid Might get rancid

Vitamins in fish
A 50 - 5.000 I.U./g D 0 - 1.000 I.U./g Pantothenic 1 - 20 g/g
During heat processing the vitamins will be destroyed Depending upon the temperature

SUMMARY
Fishes are cold blooded vertebrates. Fish muscle is biochemically similar to mammals. Fish proteins breakdown more rapidly than mammals.

Fish muscle have certain associated problems like endogenous enzymes, free amino acids and small peptides etc. Lipids from fish contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The stability of fish lipids is short due to their polyunsaturated nature.

SUMMARY
Most spoilage of fish is due to bacterial breakdown. One spoilage characteristic found in fish and not in muscle foods is trimethylamine formation. This odoriferous amine is responsible for the fish smell associated with spoiling fish. fish meat has high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are unstable. Chilling of fish immediately after harvest is very important part of preservation.

The end
Hope you now have a better understanding of fish nature

Hope you understood my english

Hans Otto Srensen


Laboratory manager TripleNine Fish Protein Denmark