Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

Physiology of the Female Reproductive System

Liu Wei Department of Ob & Gy Ren Ji hospital

Physiological Stages
Neonatal period: birth---4 weeks Childhood: 4 weeks----12 years Puberty: 12 years---18 years Sexual maturation: 18 year---50 year Perimenopause: decline of ovarian function (40 years)----1 year postmenopause Postmenopause:

Menstruation
Menstruation cyclic endometrium sheds and bleeds due to cyclic ovulation Mense Endometrium is sloughed (progesterone withdrawal) Nonclotting menstrual blood mainly comes from artery (75%) Interval: 24-35 days (28 days). duration: 2-6 days. the first day of menstrual bleeding is consideredy by day 1 Shedding: 30-50 ml

1. 2.

3.
4.

Central reproductive hormones


Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary(H-P-O axis)

Central reproductive hormones


Neuroendocrine regulation 1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH 1) chemical structure
(pro)Glu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2

2) Synthesize and transport


nerve cells portal vein pitutary

anterior lobe

hypothalamus

Central reproductive hormones

Central reproductive hormones


3) Regulation of GnRH
Hypothalams GnRH

Pituitary FSH, LH

Ovary E,P

Central reproductive hormones


2. Gonadotropins 1) Composition (glycoprotein) Follicle stimulating hormone,FSH Luteinizing hormone,LH 2) Synthesize and transport Gonadotroph (pulse) Blood circulation ovary

Central reproductive hormones


3. Prolactin (PRL) Regulated by the prolactin inhibiting factor (PIF)

The Ovarian cycle


Function of ovary 1. Reproduction development and maturation of follicle; ovulation 2. Endocrine estrogens, progesterone, testosterone

The Ovarian cycle


1. 1) 2) Cyclic changes of ovary The development and maturation of follicle Primordial follicle: before meiosis Preantral follicle: zona pellucida, granulosa cells (FSH receptor) 3) Antral follicle: granulosa cells (LH receptor), E 4) Mature follicle: E,P Theca externa, theca interna, granulosa, follicular antrum, mound, radiate coronal 5) Follicular phase: day 1 to follicle mature (14 days)

The Ovarian cycle

The Ovarian cycle


2. Ovulation 1) First meiosis completed collagen decomposed oocyte ovulated 2) Regulation a) LH/FSH peak E2(mature follicle) GnRH (hypothalamus) LH/FSH peak (positive feedback) b) P cooperation LH P (follicle luteinized before ovulation) positive feedback

The Ovarian cycle


3. 1) 2) 3) Corpus luteum follicle luteinized after ovulation: luteal cells LH VEGF corpus hemorrhagicum Regression non fertilized corpus albicans 4) Luteal phase Ovulation to day 1

The Ovarian cycle


sex hormones secreted by ovary 1. Composition Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone 2. Chemical structure Steroid hormone 3. Synthesis Cholesterolpregnenoloneandrostenedione testosteroneestradiol 5 or 4 pathway of estrogen production

The Ovarian cycle


4. 5. 1) a) Metabolism: liver Cyclic change of E and P in ovary Estrogen E(day 7) E peak (pre-ovulate) E E (1 day after ovulate) E peak (day 7-8) E b) theca interna cells (LH receptor) testosterone c) Granulosa (FSH receptor) estrogen

The Ovarian cycle


2) Progesterone P (after ovulation) P peak (day 7-8) P granulosa
LH

progesterone

Ovarian responses

The Ovarian cycle


H-P-O axis 1. Positive feedback Sex hormones (E) GnRH or LH/FSH E peak (200pg/ml) LH/FSH peak ovulation 2. Negative feedback Sex hormones (E) GnRH or LH/FSH Follicular phase: E FSH Luteal phase: EP LH/FSH(formation) EP LH/FSH(regression)

The endometral cycle


Proliferative phase 1. E(mitogen) stroma thickens and glands become elongated proliferative endometrium 2. Duration: 2 weeks 3. Thickness: 0.5mm 5mm

The endometral cycle


Secretory phase 1. P(differentiation) secretory endometrium 2. Features stroma becomes loose and edematous blood vessels entering the endometrium become thickened and twisted glands become tortuous and contain secretory material within the lumina 3. Duration: 2 weeks 4. Thickness: 5-6mm

Change of Other genital organs


Cervix
endocervical glands (E) mucus(thin,clear, watery) maximal (ovulation) endocervical glands (P) mucus(thick, opaque, tenacious)

Vagina
Vaginal mucosa (E) thickening and secretory changes Vaginal mucosa (P) secrete

Physiological function of sex hormones


Estrogen

END