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Testing in its broadest sense means to examine a product and to ensure that it functions and exhibits the properties and capabilities that it was designed to possess. Main purpose of testing is to detect malfunctions in the product hardware and to locate their causes so that they may be eliminated.


These rely primarily on mechanical means and not on use of additional circuits in an otbT for the purpose of facilitating its testing. Examples include use of extra I/O for additional test points, improvement of test features. Characteristics: They are used for testing system parts only outside the system. They rely on feeding signals directly through the test interface during listing. They rely on the use of tester-driven timing.


Shortage of I/O points. Signal distortions in interface connections. Noise disturbances. Uncertainties in input feeding. Uncertainties in output sensing. (Rejection of good parts reduces apparent yield.) Difficulty in synchronizing test objects timing with tester timing. High costs for test equipment ,test generation and execution. Large volume of data to be processed.

If anything can go wrong, it will. Murphys Law

In any circuit composed of logic gates, there is the possibility of the occurrence of a fault. A fault is defined to have occurred when a circuit variable assumes a value(1,0 or X) which differs from that expected that is violates the original circuit equation. Fault Types: SAO : Stuck at 0 (short with ground rail) SA1 : Stuck at 1 (short with Vdd)


Examples of physical defects include Defects in silicon substrate. Photolithographic defects. Mask contamination and scratches. Process variation and abnormalities. Oxide defects. Electrical faults caused: Shorts, opens, transistor stuck-on or stuck-off, Resistive shorts and opens, Excessive change in threshold voltage and excessive change in steady state currents.

Need for Testing.

Circuit manufacturers must thoroughly test their products before delivering them to customers. The causes of circuit failure can be divided into two main categories: design errors and manufacturing defects. Design errors are caused by errors in the layout. If the errors can be eliminated by changing the layout, then it is considered a design error. We normally attempt to detect design errors by simulating the circuit and testing the simulation. No simulation can perfectly predict what a real circuit will do. For example, most simulations cannot predict whether or not latch up will occur. Thus, it is necessary to test a real circuit before we can be sure that all design errors have been fixed.

Manufacturing defects are caused by random variations in the manufacturing process that can cause malfunctions in circuit components. These defects can occur even in circuits that have no design errors. Typical defect for CMOS digital circuits are: stuck at faults bridging faults open faults excessive power delay fault.