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# H. Heck 2008 Section 5.

3 1
Topic 3: Crosstalk
OGI EE564
Howard Heck
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 2
Where Are We?
1. Introduction
2. Transmission Line Basics
3. Analysis Tools
4. Metrics & Methodology
1. Losses
2. Intersymbol Interference (ISI)
3. Crosstalk
4. Frequency Domain Analysis
5. 2 Port Networks & S-Parameters
6. Multi-Gb/s Signaling
7. Special Topics
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 3
Contents
Introduction
Circuit Models
Mutual Inductance
Mutual Capacitance
Effective Impedance and Velocity
Coupling Matrices
Noise Coupling On Passive Lines
Coupling Coefficient
Forward and Backward Crosstalk
Crosstalk on Passive Lines Example
Implementation Considerations
Homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous Media
Printed Circuit Boards
Minimization Techniques
Lossy Lines
Summary
References
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 4
Introduction
Recall the T.E.M. mode single line:
Two adjacent lines have two possible T.E.M. modes:
Even mode excited in phase with equal amplitudes.
H
E
E
H
E
H
Even Mode Odd Mode
Odd mode driven 180 out of phase with equal
amplitudes.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 5
Introduction #2
In general, for a system of n transmission
lines, there are n possible TEM modes.
transmission line interact with each other,
we get crosstalk.
Crosstalk can have the following impacts:
1. The characteristics (Z
0
, v
p
) of the driven lines
are altered.
2. Noise is coupled onto passive lines.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 6
Circuit Model
Single line (lossless): 2 coupled lines:
L
0
C
0
L
0
C
0
L
0
C
0
L
0
C
0
L
0
C
0
C
0
L
0
C
0
C
m
L
m
L
0
Line 1
Line 2
The mutual inductance, L
m
, causes the current in line 1
to induce a voltage on line 2 :
The mutual capacitance, C
m
, causes the voltage on
line 1 to induce a current in line 2 :
dt
dI
L V
m
1
2
=
[5.3.1]
I C
dV
dt
m 2
1
=
[5.3.2]
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 7
Mutual Inductance
L
0
L
0
L
m
I
1
I
2
+ V
1
-
+ V
2
-
dt
dI
L
dt
dI
L V
m
` 2 ` 1
0 1
+ =
[5.3.3]
dt
dI
L
dt
dI
L V
m
` 1 ` 2
0 2
+ =
[5.3.4]
( )
dt
dI
L L V V
m
+ = =
0 2 1
[5.3.5]
If the lines are driven in odd mode, . Then
dI
dt
dI
dt
dI
dt
1 2 ` `
= =
m odd
L L L =
0 [5.3.8]
( )
dt
dI
L L V V
m
= =
0 2 1 [5.3.7]
Effective inductances: L L L
even odd
> >
0
dI
dt
dI
dt
dI
dt
1 2 ` `
= = If the lines are driven in even mode, . Then
m even
L L L + =
0 [5.3.6]
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 8
Mutual Capacitance
Recall the even mode field diagram. Some fringing fields are lost due to
overlap between electrical field lines. So, even mode capacitance is
less than the total capacitance of a single PCB trace.
In a multi-conductor PCB, the effective capacitances obey the
relationship, , where C
0
is the total capacitance of the line.
C
0
C
0
C
m
V
2
V
1
I
1
I
2
[5.3.9]
( )
( )
dt
dV
C
dt
dV
C C
dt
V V d
C
dt
dV
C I
m m m
` 2 ` 1
0
` 2 1 ` 1
0 1
+ =

+ =
[5.3.10]
( )
( )
dt
dV
C
dt
dV
C C
dt
V V d
C
dt
dV
C I
m m m
` 1 ` 2
0
` 1 2 ` 2
0 2
+ =

+ =
[5.3.11]
dt
dV
C I I
0 2 1
= =
[5.3.12] 0
C C
even
=
Odd mode, . Then
dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
dt
1 2 ` `
= =
[5.3.13]
( )
dt
dV
C C I I
m
2
0 2 1
+ = =
[5.3.14]
m odd
C C C 2
0
+ =
C C C
even odd
< <
0
dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
dt
1 2 ` `
= = Even mode, . Then
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 9
Effective Impedance and Velocity
Even mode:
Odd mode:
( )
m
p
C C L
v
+
=
0 0
1
[5.3.16]
even even
even p
C L
v
1
,
=
[5.3.18]
even
even
even
C
L
Z =
, 0 [5.3.17]
odd odd
odd p
C L
v
1
,
=
[5.3.20]
odd
odd
odd
C
L
Z =
, 0 [5.3.19]
Since and , we get:
odd m even
C C C C < + <
0
L L L
even odd
> >
0
Z Z Z
even odd 0 0 0 , ,
> >
p
?
Typically, for microstrips.
Since all fields are contained within the dielectric
medium, there is no effect on v
p
for striplines.
v v v
p even p p odd , ,
s s
m
C C
L
Z
+
=
0
0
0 [5.3.15]
Recall:
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 10
Coupling Matrices
Capacitance:
1 2
C
s1
C
s2
C
12
C
Q
V
V
11
1
1
0
2
=
=
C
Q
V
V
22
2
2
0
1
=
=
C
Q
V
V
12
1
2
0
1
=

=
C
Q
V
V
21
2
1
0
2
=

=
Q
Q
C C
C C
V
V
1
2
11 12
21 22
1
2

(
=

( [5.3.21]
where
Total capacitance
(C
0
+ C
m
)
Mutual capacitance
(C
m
)
Note, C
ii
is the total capacitance capacitance (sum of
capacitance to ground plus mutual capacitances).
Mathematically :
C C C
s 11 1 12
= +
12 2 22
C C C
s
+ =
and
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 11
Coupling Matrices #2
Inductance:
Recall even and odd modes:
[5.3.22]
(
(
(

=
(

dt
dI
dt
dI
L L
L L
V
V
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
where L
11
and L
22
are self inductances
L
12
and L
21
are mutual inductances
C C C
C C
odd m
even
= +
=
0
0
2 L L L
L L L
odd m
even m
=
= +
0
0
Apply the matrices to the even and odd mode equations:
( )
12 11 12 12 1 0
2 C C C C C C C C
s m odd
+ = + + = + =
[5.3.26]
( )
12 11 12 12 1 0
C C C C C C C
s even
= + = =
[5.3.25]
12 11 0
L L L L L
m odd
= =
[5.3.24]
12 11 0
L L L L L
m even
+ = + =
[5.3.23]
where C
0
= C
s1
(total capacitance to ground)
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 12
Coupling Matrics n Line System
Inductance matrix:
L L L
L L
L L
N
N NN
11 12 1
21 22
1

(
(
(
(
Capacitance matrix:
C C C
C C
C C
N
N NN
11 12 1
21 22
1

(
(
(
(
L
ii
= self inductance of line i
L
ij
= mutual inductance between lines i and j
C
ii
= total capacitance seen by line i
= capacitance of conductor i to ground plus all
mutual capacitances to other lines.
C
ij
= mutual capacitance between conductors i and j
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 13
Effective Impedance & Velocity Again
The effective inductance and capacitance
can be calculated using the matrices for
arbitrary switching patterns.
For lines switching in-phase (even mode),
For lines switching out-of-phase (odd
mode), inductances subtract,
From this, the effective impedance and
propagation velocity can be
approximated.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 14
Lossless Example
Network:
PCB trace cross-section:
0.005"
0.005"
0.005"
0.0007"
0.0074"
0.002"
c
r
= 4.0
LC matrices:
in nH L /
632 . 10 191 . 1
191 . 1 350 . 10
(

=
in pF C /
553 . 2 217 . 0
217 . 0 553 . 2
(

=
60
O
60
O
Coupling
Line 1
Line 2
60
O
60
O
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 15
Lossless Example #2
Out-of-Phase
( )( )
( )( )
O =
+

=

5 . 57
217 . 0 553 . 2
191 . 1 35 . 10
1
1
in pF
in nH
Z
odd
( )( )( )( )
1 1 1
911 . 1 217 . 0 553 . 2 191 . 1 35 . 10

= + = ft ns in pF in nH
odd
t
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 2 4 6 8
time [ns]
v
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V
]
D1
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0.997V
D2
0.138V
0.003V
R1
0.981V
1.000V
R2
0.019V
0.000V
1.93ns
Coupled Model
Single Line Eq. Model
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 2 4 6 8
time [ns]
v
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a
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[
V
]

R
0.996V
D
0.939V
1.000V
1.912ns
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 16
Lossless Example #3
In-Phase
( )( )
( )( )
O =

+
=

3 . 70
217 . 0 553 . 2
191 . 1 35 . 10
1
1
in pF
in nH
Z
even
( )( )( )( )
1 1 1
970 . 1 217 . 0 553 . 2 191 . 1 35 . 10

= + = ft ns in pF in nH
even
t
Coupled Model
Single Line Eq. Model
D1
1.100V
1.001V
R1
0.990V
1.000V
R2
D2
0 2 4 6 8
time [ns]
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
v
o
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t
a
g
e

[
V
]

1.95ns
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 2 4 6 8
time [ns]
v
o
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t
a
g
e

[
V
]

D
R
1.039V
0.998V
1.000V
1.97ns
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 17
Noise Coupling Mechanism
2I
C
I
C
I
C
I
L
I
C
+I
L
I
C
- I
L
The total backward current is I
C
+ I
L
.
The total forward current is I
C
I
L
.
L
m
induces current I
L
traveling backward on the victim line.
I
C
splits into equal components traveling forward &
backward in the victim line.
Current I
C
flows through the mutual capacitance from the
driven line to the victim line.
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
V
S
L
0
L
0
L
m C
m
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 18
Coupling Coefficients
The capacitive coupling coefficient is the ratio of the
mutual capacitances to the total capacitance:
K
C
C
Cj
ij
i j
jj
=
=

[5.3.37]
The inductive coupling coefficient is the ratio of the mutual
inductances to the self inductance of the transmission line:
K
L
L
Lj
ij
i j
jj
=
=

[5.3.38]
We can rewrite the coupling coefficient from equation
[5.3.36] in terms of the capacitive and inductive coupling
coefficients:
K
K K
v
C L
=
+
2
[5.3.39]
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 19
Forward & Backward Crosstalk
We have seen that TEM modes cause forward & backward coupled
waves. How does that show up as noise at the ends of the network?
Noise currents (I
C
and I
L
) are proportional to the edge rate of the
signal (dV/dt).
I
C
has 2 equal components traveling in opposite directions.
I
L
has 1 component traveling backward.

Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0
Z
0 V
in
(t)
V
C
V
L
I
C
I
L
V
C
V
L
I
C
I
L
C
m
L
m
Noise voltages
V
L
has a backward
component with the
same polarity as V
C

and a forward
component which
has the opposite
polarity from V
C.

Therefore, V
L

subtracts from V
C

in the forward
to V
C
in the
backward direction.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 20
Far End (Forward) Crosstalk
Forward coupling coefficient:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
0 0 0 0
2
1
2 2 L
L
C
C
v L
L
C
C
K K K
m m
p
m m d
L C
d
F
t t
[5.3.40]
where: t
d
is the transmission line propagation delay per
unit length which equals 1/v
p
(propagation velocity).
Recall and . Then
d
Z L t
0 0
=
0
0
Z
C
d
t
=
K Z C
L
Z
F m
m
=
|
\

|
.
|
1
2
0
0
[5.3.41]
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 21
Far End (Forward) Crosstalk #2
Far end crosstalk noise:
[5.3.42]
where: l is the coupled line length and
Substitute:
[5.3.44]
( )
( )
V t K l
dV t t
dt
fe F
d
=

( )
dV t t
dt
V
t
d swing
r

~
[5.3.43]
( )
( )
V t K l
dV t t
dt
Z C
L
Z
l
V
t
fe F
d
m
m
swing
r
=

=
|
\

|
.
|

1
2
0
0
( ) V t
V l
t
Z C
L
Z
fe
swing
r
m
m
=
|
\

|
.
|
2
0
0
[5.3.45]
Pulse width of the noise:
) (or
f r
t t PW =
[5.3.46]
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 22
Near End (Backward) Crosstalk
Backward Coupling Coefficient:
[5.3.47]
Near end crosstalk pulse width:
[5.3.49]
[5.3.48]
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
0
0
0 0
4
1
4
1
4
1
Z
L
C Z
L
L
C
C
K K K
m
m
m m
L C B
Near End Crosstalk Noise:
( )
2
for
2
for 2

>
s
=
r
d swing B
r
d d
r
swing
B
ne
t
l V K
t
l l
t
V
K
t V
t
t t
Non-saturated
Saturated
PW l t
d
= 2
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 23
Near End vs. Far End Crosstalk
The magnitude of the backward (near end)
crosstalk coefficient is greater than that of
forward (far end) crosstalk.
The pulse width of backward crosstalk is
greater than that of forward crosstalk.
Why do we care about near end crosstalk?
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 24
Crosstalk Noise Example
Using the coupled lines from the even/odd mode
example:
0 2 4 6 8
time [ns]
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
v
o
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t
a
g
e

[
V
]

D1
R1
D2
R2
0.119V
-0.490V
0.981V
1.000V
1.93ns
3.86ns
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 25
Crosstalk Noise Example #2
The forward coupled pulse:
appears at the receiver at the same time as the driven signal.
has the opposite polarity from the driven signal.
has a pulse width equal to the rise time of the signal
The backward coupled noise pulse:
appears at the driver as soon as the driven signal propagates
onto the coupled lines.
has the same polarity as the driven signal.
has a pulse width of twice the prop delay.
0 2 4 6 8
time [ns]
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
v
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]

D1
R1
D2
R2
0.119V
-0.490V
0.981V
1.000V
1.93ns
3.86ns
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 26
Crosstalk in Homogenous Media
Relationship between inductive & capacitive coupling
matrices:
Where I is the identity matrix. Therefore, .
L C
v
I
p
=
1
2
L C =
1
Relationship of K
C
and K
L
:
From it follows that . K
C
= K
L
. L C =
1
C
C
L
L
m m
=
[5.3.50]
Forward Crosstalk:
Backward Crosstalk:
( )
K
t
K K
F
d
C L
= =
2
0
( )
K K K K
B C L C
= + =
1
4
1
2
[5.3.52]
[5.3.51]
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 27
Crosstalk on Non-Homogeneous Media
Relationship between inductive & capacitive coupling
matrices:
L C =
1
Relationship of K
C
and K
L
: K
C
= K
L

C
C
L
L
m m
=
Forward Crosstalk:
Backward Crosstalk:
K
F
= 0
K K
B F
>
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 28
Crosstalk in Printed Circuit Boards
Param Xtalk
c
r
l
t l l
w l
s l
h l l
w
s
w
t
h
1
h
2
c
r
What other parts of the
interconnect can act as sources
of crosstalk?
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 29
Techniques for Minimizing Crosstalk
In general, striplines have less crosstalk than
microstrips, due to the presence of the second
reference plane.
This is not always true. To design a stripline to the
same impedance as a microstrip may require you to
increase h for the stripline. This can actually cause the
crosstalk to be higher for the stripline.
Increase s:
For speeds of 100 MHz or higher: s > 2w
For speeds of 200 MHz or higher: s > 3w
Decrease h:
For 133 MHz & higher: h s w.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 30
Techniques for Minimizing Crosstalk #2
Limit the coupled trace length.
Remember, crosstalk can occur between adjacent
layers, too. Keep adjacent layers far apart. Route lines
on adjacent layers orthogonally, if possible.
Route guard traces between signal traces on PCBs.
Be careful with this one. You must tie use vias to connect the
guard traces to the adjacent reference layer at frequent points.
Lots of ground I/O in connectors and packages.
Use resistor packs instead of resistor networks.
V TT
S 1
S 4
S 3
S 2
V TT
S 1
S 4
S 3
S 2 S 5
S 7
S 6
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 31
Summary
Crosstalk arises from mutual capacitance and
inductance between transmission lines.
Crosstalk alters the impedance and
propagation velocity of transmission lines,
and creates noise on quiet lines.
Crosstalk can be expressed in terms of the
ratios of mutual capacitance to the total
capacitance and mutual inductance to the self
inductance.
Crosstalk noise travels in both directions.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 32
References
S. Hall, G. Hall, and J. McCall, High Speed Digital
System Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Wiley
Interscience), 2000, 1
st
edition.
H. Johnson and M. Graham, High-Speed Signal
Propagation: Advanced Black Magic, Chapters 2
& 3, Prentice Hall, 2003, 1
st
edition, ISBN 0-13-
084408-X.
W. Dally and J. Poulton, Digital Systems
Engineering, Chapters 4.3 & 11, Cambridge
University Press, 1998.
H.B.Bakoglu, Circuits, Interconnections, and
Packaging for VLSI, Addison Wesley, 1990.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 33
References #2
H. Johnson and M. Graham, High Speed Digital
Design: A Handbook of Black Magic, PTR
Prentice Hall, 1993.
R. Poon, Computer Circuits Electrical Design,
Prentice Hall, 1
st
edition, 1995.
R.E. Matick, Transmission Lines for Digital and
Communication Networks, IEEE Press, 1995.
Line Driving and System Design, National
Semiconductor Application Note AN-991, April
1995.
K.M. True, Data Transmission Lines and Their
Characteristics, National Semiconductor
Application Note AN-806, February 1996.
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 34
Noise Coupling from an Impedance Point of View
Coupling occurs when the initial wave travelling on
the active line reaches point z.
The noise waves are the sum of the even and odd
propagation modes.
We can derive a coupled noise coefficient as a
function of the even and odd mode impedances.
z
z
V
e
V
o
I
e
I
o
V
e
V
o
I
e
I
o
= 1
Active (Driven) Line
Passive (Quiet) Line
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H. Heck 2008
Section 5.3 35
Noise Coupling #2
Define coupling coefficient:
At z:
Substitute:
Apply KCL at z:
Substitute:
Use Ohms law:
Substitute:
K
V
V
v
Q
A
=
o e Q
V V V =
o e A
V V V + =
K
V V
V V
v
e o
e o
=

+
o o o
Z I V
0
=
e e e
Z I V
0
=
K
I Z I Z
I Z I Z
v
e e o o
e e o o
=

+
0 0
0 0
I I I
o e
= =
o e Q
I I I = = 0
K
Z Z
Z Z
v
e o
e o
=

+
0 0
0 0
[5.3.4a]
[5.3.3a]
[5.3.2a]
[5.3.1a]
[5.3.8a]
[5.3.7a]
[5.3.6a]
[5.3.5a]
[5.3.10a]
[5.3.9a]
z
z
V
e
V
o
I
e
I
o
V
e
V
o
I
e
I
o
= 1
Active (Driven) Line
Passive (Quiet) Line