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WELCOME

Spices
The true flavour of innovation
I.Nousheen Noorul-Iyn 07-816-203

ADVISORY COMMITTEE
SL.NO ADVISORY COMMITTEE NAME ,DESIGNATION & DEPARTMENT

1.

CHAIRMAN

Dr.P.Banumathi, Ph.D., Dean, Home Science College & Res. Instt., Madurai 625 104 Dr.S.Kanchana, Ph.D., Associate professor, Department of Food science and Nutrition, Home Science College & Res. Instt., Madurai 625 104 Dr.S.M. Ibrahim.,Ph.D., Professor and Head, Dept. of plant breeding and Genetics, Agricultural college & Res. Instt., Madurai 625 104 Dr.SP.Sundaram,Ph.D., Professor and Head, Dept. of Agricultural Microbiology, Agricultural college & Res. Instt., Madurai 625 104

2.

MEMBERS

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
WHAT ARE SPICES CLASSIFICATION AND GROUPING ORIGIN AND TYPES

PRODUCTION
SPICES HARVEST CHART NUTRIENT MAKE-UP MAIN COMPOUNDS

EXTRACTION METHODS
APPLICATIONS OF ESSENTIAL OIL HEALTH EFFECTS OF SPICES VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS AT HSC&RI,TNAU EXPORT SPICES PARK QUALITY STANDARDS CONCLUSION

What are spices


Vegetable products or mixtures thereof, free from extraneous matter, used for flavouring, seasoning and imparting aroma in foods (The Geneva-based, ISO) A spice as a product which enriches or alters the quality of a thing, for example altering the taste of a food to give it zest or pungency; a piquant or lasting flavouring; or a relish(Rosengarten) - Hand book of herbs and spices,2001 In the culinary arts the word spice refers to any dried part of a plant, other than the leaves, used for seasoning and flavouring a recipe, but not used as the main ingredient

A conventional classification of spices is based on degree of taste as: classes


Hot/pungent spices Mild spices Aromatic spices
Herbs Aromatic vegetables

spices
Chillies,pepper,ginger,mustard
Paprika,coriander Allspice,cardamom,cinnamon, dill,clove,cumin, mace, nutmeg Basil, bay leaves, dill leaves, marjoram, tarragon, thyme Onion, garlic, shallot, celery
Source: Peter (2001)

Spices can be grouped on botanical basis as:


Dried fruits or seeds, such as fennel, mustard, and black pepper,cumin,cardomum. Arils, such as mace. Barks, such as cinnamon and cassia. Dried flower buds, such as cloves. Stigmas, such as saffron. Roots and rhizomes, such as turmeric, ginger and galingale. Resins, such as asafoetida.

source: List of culinary herbs and spices,2000

Origin and types


Spices
Pepper (piper nigrum)

Origin
Southern states of India, Vietnam and Asian countries
North Africa and Middle east

Types
Black pepper, White pepper, green pepper and Red pepper
Black , Brown, white mustard seeds

Part used
Fruit

Mustard (Brassica alba, B.juncea, B.nigra) Cardomom (Elettaria cardamomum) Cumin (cuminum cyminum) Fennel (foeniculum vulgare)

Seed

East Asian countries

Small (green), Large Cordomom (malabar,mysore and vazhuka) Black (caraway seeds) and green cumin seeds Common fennel -sweet variety (french or Roman fennel) Indian fennel , florence

Seed

Eastern meditterenean region Southern Europe and south western Asia

Fruit

Fruit

Spices
Cinnamon (cinnamomum) Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)

Origin
South west India, Hills of Burma Indonesia

Types Origin and types


Indonesian, chinese, vietnamese Whole cloves, gound cloves and cloveoleoresin

Part used
Bark Flower bud

Turmeric (curcuma longa)

South or south east Asia,most probably from western India

Local Haldi, Alleppeyfinger (kerela), Erode and salem turmeric (Tamil Nadu), Kasturi and Kesari types, chinnanadan and periyanadan Madras types)
Ophioscordon and Sativum Riodejenerio,Thingpui,wynar d,Maran, Naida,Kurkumbadi (white ginger,kerala)

Rhizome

Garlic (Allium sativum) Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

South Western Asia Southern parts of China

Bulb Rhizome

Spices Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecumL.Leguminos ae) Chilli (Capsicum annum L.,Capsicum frutescens.L.) Coriander (coriandrum sativum)

Origin India and Northern Africa

Types Seeds-pale brown to golden yellow Seed

Part used

Mexico,Gautemala

Red chilli,Capsicum,papr ika Large seeded and small seeded

Fruit

North Africa and South West Asia

Fruit

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica )

Tropical Africa

Smaller(red coloured Fruit pulp) Larger(brownish pulp)


Kashmiri,persian,Mo Stigma roccan and Spanish saffron Bourbon,Mexican and Tahitan vanilla Milky white, Red asafoetida pod Oleo gum resin

Saffron (Crocus sativus) Vanilla (vanilla planifolia) Asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida)

South West Asia

Mexico Mediterranean region

Spice production in India and in major states


Production in Million Tonnes
6.00
5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 AP 1.24 1.27 1.07 Guj 0.75 0.73 0.79 Raj 0.57 0.59 0.67 Kar 0.39 0.45 0.46 MP 0.33 0.40 0.41 TN 0.29 0.29 0.34 AS 0.22 0.23 0.22 UP 0.21 0.21 0.22

Ind 2008-2009 5.08 2009-2010 5.24 2010-2011 5.67

Source:India stat.com (National Horticultural Board,2011)

Spices contribution in Indian production (2010-2011)


Fenugreek Fennel 2% Tamarind 2% 4% Cumin 6% Coriander 9% Chillies 23%

Ginger 14% Garlic 21%

Turmeric 19%

Source : Indiastat.com (National Horticulture Board,2011)

Spices contribution in Tamil Nadu production


Ginger coriander 2% 5%

Chilli 12%

Tamarind 26%

Turmeric 55%

Source:Indiastat.com (Spice Board, India)

Spices Harvest Chart

Source: Spices Board of India

Nutrient make up of spices


Very wide range of applications of spices in Indian foods makes the Indian population the highest spice consumer in the world. The annual per capita consumption being 3,140g as against 764g in the U.S.A Protein ---------- 4.5% (Rosemary leaves) to 31.5% (Mustard) Fat ---------- 0.6% (Garlic) to 42.6% (Mustard)

Ascorbic acid --- 50 to 400 mg/100g (Cloves,Paprika,Chilli,Turmeric)

Vitamin A ------ 1000 to6000 IU/ 100g (Fennel, Paprika, Chilli, all spice)
Dietary Fibre -- 43.3% (Chilli) , 36.23% (Coriander),33.5% (Fenugreek), 28.71% (Fennel), 27.8% (Black pepper),23.06% (cumin)

Contd
Ash content ----- 2.3% (Marjoram) to 6.7% (Basil leaves)

Minerals
Iron --------- 50mg/100g (Cumin ,Turmeric, Marjoram ) Calcium----- 1000 to 2500 mg/ 100g (Cumin,Fennel,poppy seed)

Potassium -- 2000 to 3600 mg/100g (Turmeric,cumin,Paprika , Chilli)


Sodium ----- 100 mg/100g

The main Compounds of spices


Volatile oils

Giving specific aroma Oleoresins Mixture of oil and resin (sticky agent extracted from plant) Spice Black Pepper Cardamom
Flavour compounds

Quantity of Spice powder 30 kg 40 kg 600 kg 10 kg

Output 1 kg black pepper oleoresin 1 kg cardamom oleoresin 1 kg chilli oleoresin 1 kg garlic oleoresin Source: FnBnews.com

Chilli
Colorants/pigments Active compounds

Garlic

Important Flavour compound of spices

Linalool
Cardamom

Cuminaldehyde
Coriander Cumin

piperine
pepper

Eugenol
Cinnamon
Clove

Turmerone
Turmeric

Gingerol
Ginger

Diallyl di sulfide
Garlic

Anethole
Fennel

Carvone
Chilli Caraway

Capsaicin

Myristicin Furanone
Nutmeg
Fenugreek

Safranol
Saffron Vanilla

Vanillin

Colour components of spices


Colour component
Carotenoid -carotene Cryptoxanthin Lutin Zeaxanthin Capsanthin Capsorbin Crocin Flavonoids Curcumin

Tint
Reddish orange Red Dark red Yellow Purple red Dark red
Yellowish orange Yellow Orange yellow

Spices
Red pepper, mustard, paprika, saffron Paprika, red pepper Paprika Paprika Paprika, red pepper Paprika, red pepper
Saffron Ginger Turmeric

Active plant constituents in spices


Acids: Sour, often antiseptic and cleansing

Alkaloids:
Often based on alkaline nitrogenous compounds and bitter Anthraquinones: Bitter, irritant Tannins:

Astringent, often antiseptic


Coumarines: Antibacterial, anticoagulant

Contd
Resins: Oleoresins -- acid,astringent,antiseptic, healing Saponins: Sweet, often anti-inflammatory Volatile oils: Aromatic, antiseptic, fungicidal

Spice Extraction Methods


Steam Distillation

Hydro Distillation
Solvent Distillation Supercritical carbon dioxide Extraction

Steam Distillation

Hydro Distillation

Solvent Distillation

Supercritical Carbon dioxide Extraction Supercritical Fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its Critical point.

Phase Diagram:

Supercritical Co2Extraction

Related studies
According toArya Jayathilaka et al.,2000steam distillation /solvent extraction is an efficient method for extracting semi volatile flavour and fragrance compounds from cinnamon.

With pentane as the extraction solvent and an extraction time of 1.5 h clean extracts were obtained prior to gas chromotography analysis in which presence of eugenol is identified and seperated from true cinnamon samples purchased from 7 countries.

Contd
Several sampling techniques based on, distillation methods have been compared for the determination of Korean garlic flavour components by gas chromatographymass spectrometry(GC-MS). Diallyldisulfide (97.77%), allylsulfide(0.17%), and diallyl trisulphide (0.10%) were found to be the predominant flavour components of garlic samples extracted by headspace solid-phase micro extraction methods.(Lee et al.,2003)

Application of Essential oils

Source: Book of Herbs, Spices and Essential oils,2005

Health effects of Spices


ANTIMICROBIAL (Turmeric, Asafoetida, Garlic) DIGESTIVE STIMULANT (Many spices) ANTI-DIABETIC (Fenugreek,Garlic,Onion, Turmeric)

SPICES
ANTI-MUTAGENIC ANTI-CANCER (Turmeric, Garlic, Ginger) ANTI-LITHOGENIC (Fenugreek, Garlic,Onion,Turmeric,Ch illi) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY (Garlic, Turmeric, Chilli)

ANTIOXIDANT (Garlic, Turmeric, Chilli,Clove,Onion)

Anti inflammatory property


Curcumin considered to be advantageous over aspirin because it selectively inhibits the bio-synthesis of the prostaglandin from arachidonic acid (TxA2) without affecting the synthesis of prostacyclin (PgI2) which is an important factor preventing vascular thrombosis.(Srivastava,2005)

Effect of curcumin (400mg) in patients undergone surgery for hernia/hydrocele was found comparable to that of phenylbutazone(100mg).(Satoskar,2000)

Ginger doses of 0.5-1.0 g per day have been found to be efficacious in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis . (Srinivasan,2008)

Health implications of Antioxidant property


Anti-inflammatory

Effective wound heal ant


Protection to Radiation- induced toxicity Hepatoprotective

Anti-mutagenic & Cancer preventive

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF

Anti-inflammatory

CURCUMIN
Anti-atherogenic & Cardio protective
Ameliorates oxidative stress in diabetes Protection to nicotineinduced lung toxicity

Renal protective Neuroprotective

Anti diabetic potential


Basch et al., 2003 reported that the aminoacid 4 hydroxyisoleucine in fenugreek seeds increased glucose induced insulin release in human and rat pancreatic islet cells; thus; exerting hypoglycemic effects.Fenugreek seeds also inhibits the activities of alpha amylase and sucrase involved in CHO metabolism. Fibre and gum of fenugreek (52%) which delay gastric emptying by direct interference with glucose absorption.(Srinivasan,2005)

Fenugreek seeds (25-50g), garlic(2-3 cloves) and onion(50g) and turmeric powder (1 pinch),1-6g of cinnamon incorporated in the daily diet of diabetics serve as an effective supportive therapy in the prevention and management of long term complications of diabetics.

Anti Cancer property potential of Spices


Free radical scavenging Suppression of lipid per oxidation ANTI CANCER Inhibition of phase-I enzymes PROPERTY Anti- inflammatory activity Down regulation of Anti apoptotic gene products Induction of Tumor suppressor genes

Induction of phaseII enzymes Activation of Caspases

Inhibiting of Reactive oxygen generating enzymes

Anti mutagenecity and anti cancer effect


A concentration of 2.5g of curcumin per milliliter was effective at reducing the acrylamide induced ROS production as well as preventing the fragmentation of DNA and effects of cyclotoxicity.(Swedish food administration ,2002) Allium products reduces the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers.Diallylsulphide of garlic is effective in the detoxification of carcinogens through its effects on phase I and phaseII enzymes.(Fleischaur and Arab,2001) Studies on smokers revealed that administration of curcumin (1.5g/day) for 30 days resulted in significant reduction in the urinary excretion of mutagens.(Srinivasan,2008)

Anti atherogenic and cardioprotective effect


Basch et al; 2003 reported a decrease in total cholesterol levels in five diabetic patients treated with fenugreek seed powder (25g orally per day) for 21 days Daily dosage of 300-900mg (equivalent to 1 clove of garlic) will have a cholesterol lowering effect upto10% A trial involving 780 patients taking 600-900mg standardized garlic extract per day as supplement that evidenced a modest 0.41mmol/L decreases in serum cholesterol. (Stevinson et al.,2006)

Value added products on spices at HSC&RI,TNAU


Improved dehydration techniques for processing of pepper (piper nigrum) - Dr.G.Gurumeenakshi and Dr.A. Susheela Thirumaran,2000

Standardization of blended and naturally flavour papaya ready to serve beverages G.Sindhumathi and Dr.M.R.Premalatha,2002
Dehydration of ginger and garlic paste - G.Rohini priya and Dr.S.Kanchana,2003 Processing and Preservation of onions - G.vijaya lakshmi and Dr.M.R.Premalatha,2004 Quality characteristics of green pepper cultivars and their changes during processing and storage - Lakshmi Bharathi and Dr.S.Amutha,2005

Contd
Impact of Entrepreneurship training to farmers on value added fruit products J.Selvi and Dr.P.Banumathi,2006 Processing of spiced pineapple Ready-to serve Beverages T.Amaravathi and Dr.P.Vennila,2007 Popularization and evaluation of spiced mango bar P.Lakshmi and Dr.P.Banumathi,2010 Study on application of chitosan coating to extend the shelf life of peeled small onions(Allium ascalonicum) E.Tamilselvi and Dr.T.Padmini,2011 Enhancing the shelf life of fresh cut fruits and vegetables using biopreservatives-G.Sindhumathi and Dr.S.Amutha, 2011

Ongoing Research projects-2012


Identification and standardization of spices based ethnic foods in cuisines of chettinadu Dr.P.Banumathi,Dr.R.Saravanakumar &Dr.M.Ilamaran Standardization of sous vide technology for chettinadu spice based ethnic cuisines A.Thangarajan & Dr.R.Saravanakumar

Export of Spices from India (0.528 Million tones)


pepper 5% Cumin 8% Fenugreek Tamarind 4% 4% Garlic 4%

Coriander 9%

Chillies 55%

Turmeric 11%

Estimated World trade in spices is 1.10 million tones valued at 3750 Mln US $

Indias share in world trade of spices 2010


Source: Spice Board of India,2011

Spices park
Definition: An industrial park for processing and value addition of Spices and Spice products which offers the processing facilities at par with the international standards
Concept: The Spice Board will allot the land to prospective private entrepreneurs for a period of 30 years initially and it can be extended on mutually agreed conditions. The Private entrepreneurs will develop their processing plants by availing the common facilities in the Spices Park.

Advantages: Can directly sell to the exporters Ensure better pricing for the produce

Spices parks in India


Sl No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Location/State
Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh Puttady, Kerala Guntur, Andhra Pardesh Sivaganga, Tamilnadu Guna, Madhya Pradesh Mehsana, Gujarat Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Spices Covered
Garlic & Chilly Pepper &Cardamom Chilli Turmeric, Chilli & Coriander Coriander, Fenugreek & Garlic

Status
Started functioning Started functioning Operational by JulAug, 2012 Operational by JulAug, 2012 Operational by NovDec, 2012

Cumin, Fennel & Coriander


Cumin, Coriander & Fenugreek

Waiting for land clearance


Completed

8
9

Kota, Rajasthan
Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh

Coriander, Cumin
Ginger & Turmeric

Operational by JanFeb, 2013


Waiting for land

10

Mint

Waiting for land

Quality Standards
Definition:
A standard is an agreed, repeatable way of doing something.Standard is a published document that contains a technical specification or other precise criteria designed to be used consistently as a rule, guideline, or definition.

Who frames the standard ?


Any standard is a collective work. Committees of manufacturers, users, research organizations, government departments and consumers work together to draw up standards that evolve to meet the demands of society and technology.

BIS has prescribed quality standards for 16 spices, spice powders, concentrates and oleoresins.
Standards Published
IS 1798:1982 IS 2322:1998 IS 13895:1994 IS 3576:1994 IS 1988:1993 IS 4404:1992 IS 2443:1994 IS 7826:1984 IS 13663:1993

Title
Black Pepper, whole and ground (1st revision) Chillies, whole and ground (powdered) (2nd revision) Tamarind powder Turmeric, whole (2nd revision) Ginger , whole and ground (2nd revision) Cloves, whole and ground (2nd revision) Coriander, whole and ground (2nd revision) Ginger Oleoresin (1st revision) Chillies oleoresin

Conclusion

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