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MGCF Principles and Flows


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The MGCF is a network entity for interworking between the IMS domain and the circuit switched domain (CS).

The logical functional entities (FEs) of the MGCF are developed based on the MSOFTX3000.

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After studying this course, you will be able to:

Master the networking of the MGCF. Master the typical service flows in MGCF networking.

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1. Overview of MGCF Networking

2. MGCF Interworking Model


3. Basic Service Flows of the MGCF

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1. Overview of MGCF Networking


1.1 Networking of the MGCF 1.2 MGCF 1.3 IM-MGW 1.4 SGW

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1.1 Networking of the MGCF

BGCF

Mj
BICC/ISUP ov er SCTP/IP

CSCF
Mg

MGCF

SGW
BICC/ISUP ov er MTP

Mn

BICC ov er SCTP/IP

GGSN/MR FP/AS

Mb

IMMGW

CS channels e.g. PCM

CS network

User plane Control plane

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1.2 MGCF
According to 3GPP TS 23.002, the functions of the MGCF are as follows:

The MGCF implements interworking between the control plane in the IMS domain and the control plane in the CS domain.
The MGCF controls the terminals and media streams carried by the IM-MGW based on the extended H.248 protocol of 3GPP.

The MGCF and the CS implement intra-MSC call control through ISUP/BICC signaling.
The MGCF supports the registration and fault recovery of the IM-MGW and can require the IM-MGW to report the terminal features actively. The MGCF interworks with the network entities such as the I-CSCF, S-CSCF, and BGCF in the IMS domain based on the extended SIP protocol of 3GPP.

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1.3 IM-MGW

The network entity IM-MGW is interworking equipment between the bearer plane (user plane) in the IMS domain and the bearer plane (user plane) in the CS domain. The IM-MGW is not responsible for processing any service logic. The IM-MGW supports media conversion, bearer control, and service switching, such as various voice codecs and ECs. The IM-MGW can accept a resource control command issued by the MGCF through H.248 signaling. The IM-MGW supports AAL2/ATM, TDM, and IP bearer in the CS domain and IP bearer in the IMS domain.

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1.4 SGW
The network entity SGW completes bidirectional conversion (SIGTRAN

M3UA /SCTP/IP <=> SS7 MTP3/2/1) of the signaling protocol stack of the MTP3 user at the transmission layer between the TDM-based narrowband SS7 network and the IP-based broadband signaling network.

The SGW performs adaptation for the conversion between broadband

bearer and narrowband bearer for the MTP3-based ISUP messages related to calls.

Physically, the SGW can be combined with the MGCF or IM-MGW.

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Summary

What are the functions of the MGCF?

What are the functions of the IM-MGW?


What are the functions of the SGW?

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2. MGCF Interworking Model


2.1 Important Interfaces 2.2 Interworking Between SIP and ISUP/BICC 2.3 Supplementary Services Supported by the MGCF

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2.1.1 Mn Interface
The Mn interface is a standard interface between the MGCF and the IM-

MGW. It is in compliance with the H.248 protocol formulated by ITU-T and IETF and the definitions of the H.248 extension transaction and package according to special 3GPP requirements.
The Mn interface provides static and dynamic resource capabilities

(including the terminal attribute, terminal connection and switching relation, and carried media streams) for the MGCF to control various transmission modes (IP, ATM, and TDM) of the IM-MGW in the call processing.
The Mn interface provides the IM-MGW state maintenance and

management capability that is independent of calls.


The protocol message code of the Mn interface adopts the ASN.1 BER or

text mode. The bottom-layer transmission mechanism adopts MTP3B (ATM-based signaling transmission) or SCTP (IP-based signaling transmission) to provide protocol bearer.
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2.1.2 Mj and Mg Interfaces


The Mj interface is a standard interface between the MGCF and the BGCF.

It adopts the SIP protocol extended in 3GPP.


A call originated from the IMS domain is routed to the CS domain through

the Mj interface.
The Mg interface is a standard interface between the MGCF and the I-

CSCF. It adopts the SIP protocol extended in 3GPP.


A call originated from the CS is routed to the IMS domain through the Mg

interface.

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2.1.3 Mb Interface
The Mb interface is an interface between the IM-MGW and the user plane

in the IMS domain. If the IMS is based on the GPRS, the peer entity is the GGSN.
The Mb interface is based on IP rather than UP. It supports multiple codec

types.

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2.2.1 Interworking Between SIP and ISUP

ISUP

ISUP
MTP 3 M3UA MTP 2 SCTP

ISUP SIP M3UA SCTP TCP / UDP / SCTP

SIP
SIP TCP / UDP / SCTP IP

MTP 3 MTP 2 L1

SS7

IP
L1 IP IP IP

IP

SS7 signaling function

Signaling gateway function

Media gateway control function

SIP signaling function

Control plane interworking between CS networks supporting ISUP and the IM CN subsystem

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2.2.1.1 I-MGCF
Scenario for sending an IAM message:
If the ISUP network supports continuity check, the I-MGCF sends an IAM

message immediately after receiving an INVITE message.


If the ISUP network does not support continuity check, the I-MGCF should

postpone sending an IAM message.


I-MGCF
INVITE I-MGCF

INVITE

IAM
SDP indicating preconditions met IAM

Receipt of an INVITE request (Continuity procedure supported on the ISUP network)

Receipt of an INVITE request (Continuity procedure not supported on the ISUP network)

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2.2.1.1 I-MGCF
The SIP preconditions of the IMS are met.

I-MGCF
SDP indicating preconditions met

COT

Sending of COT

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2.2.1.1 I-MGCF
Scenario for sending a 180 ringing message
The I-MGCF receives an ACM message indicating that the callee is idle. The I-MGCF receives a CPG message carrying the event indicator

Alerting.

I-MGCF ACM (Subscriber Free)

I-MGCF CPG (Alerting)

180 Ringing

180 (Ringing)

Receipt of ACM

Receipt of CPG (Alerting)

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2.2.1.1 I-MGCF
Scenario for sending a 200 OK message:
The I-MGCF receives an ANM message. The I-MGCF receives a CON message.

I-MGCF 200 OK (INVITE) ANM

Receipt of ANM

I-MGCF 200 OK (INVITE) CON

Receipt of CON

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2.2.1.1 I-MGCF
Scenario for sending an REL message
The I-MGCF receives a BYE message on the IMS side. The I-MGCF receives a CANCEL message on the IMS side.

The I-MGCF initiates call release during a call.

I-MGCF BYE REL

I-MGCF CANCEL REL

Receipt of the Bye method

Receipt of Cancel method

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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
Scenario for sending an INVITE message
The O-MGCF receives an IAM message. The digits of the called number carried in the IAM message are incomplete.

The O-MGCF receives an SAM message subsequently.


O-MGCF IAM

O-MGCF IAM

COT (NOTE) INVITE


Receipt of an IAM

SAM INVITE

Receipt of an IAM (Overlap signaling on the CS network)

(En bloc signaling on the CS network)

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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
In the case of overlap sending, the digits of a number are incomplete.

O-MGCF IAM

INVITE 404/484

SAM

INVITE 404/484

SAM

INVITE

Receipt of an IAM (Overlap signaling in CS and IMS network)

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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
Processing after receiving a CONTINUITY message (applicable to only the case that the COT does not send an INVITE message)

O-MGCF COT(success) 9
SDP indicating preconditions met

Receipt of COT (success)

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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
Scenario for sending an ACM message
The O-MGCF waits until the SAM timer T i/w1 expires on the ISUP side. The O-MGCF receives a 180 message on the SIP side.

The O-MGCF waits for a 180 message or 200 for INVITE message on the

SIP side, and the timer Ti/w2 expires.

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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
O-MGCF IAM SAM SAM ACM (no indication) Ring tone T i/w1 running T i/w1 running T i/w1 elapses INVITE

O-MGCF ACM (Subscriber Free) Ring tone 180 Ringing

Sending of ACM T i/w1 elapses

Sending of ACM (Receipt of first 180 ringing)

O-MGCF IAM ACM (no indication) Ring tone INVITE T i/w 2

Sending of ACM (Ti/w2 elapses)


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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
Scenario for sending a CPG message
After sending an Early ACM message, the O-MGCF receives a 180

message and converts it into a CPG message carrying Alerting.

O-MGCF CPG (Alerting) 180 Ringing

Sending of CPG (Alerting)

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2.2.1.2 O-MGCF
Scenario for sending an ANM message
After receiving the first 200 for INVITE message, the O-MGCF sends an

ANM message (if an ACM message has been sent) or a CON message (if an ACM message has not been sent) in the CS domain.

O-MGCF ANM 200 OK (INVITE)

O-MGCF CON 200 OK (INVITE)

Sending of ANM

Sending of CON

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2.2.2 Interworking Between SIP and BICC

BICC STC MTP3 MTP2 L1

BICC

BICC STC SIP TCP/ UDP/ SCTP IP

SIP SIP TCP/ UDP/ SCTP IP IP

MTP3 MTP2

M3UA SCTP IP

M3UA SCTP

SS7

L1

IP

IP

SS7 signaling function

Signaling gateway function

Media gateway control function

SIP signaling function

Control Plane interworking between CS networks supporting BICC over MTP3 and the IM CN subsystem

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2.2.2 Interworking Between SIP and BICC

BICC STC MTP3B SSCF SSCOP AAL5

BICC

BICC STC SIP TCP/ UDP/ SCTP IP

SIP SIP TCP/ UDP/ SCTP IP IP

MTP3B SSCF SSCOP

M3UA SCTP IP

M3UA SCTP

AAL5

AAL5

IP

IP

SS7 signaling function

Signaling gateway function

Media gateway control function

SIP signaling function

Control Plane interworking between CS networks supporting BICC over MTP3B over AAL5 and the IM CN subsystem

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2.2.2 Interworking Between SIP and BICC

BICC STCMTP M3UA SCTP

BICC

BICC
STCMTP

SIP SIP TCP/ UDP/ SCTP IP IP SIP TCP/ UDP/ SCTP IP

M3UA SCTP

IP
IP IP

SS7 signaling function

Media gateway control function

SIP signaling function

Control Plane interworking between CS networks supporting BICC over STC and M3UA and the IM CN subsystem

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2.2.3 Architecture of Interworking Between SIP and R2


Incoming trunk side CCB
SIPSL

Outgoing trunk side


R2

UGC3200

CRO
SIPAPP CRO MGRA

H.248/megaco

H.248/megaco

C&C08

SIP signaling

UMG 8900

R2signaling

RTP stream

UMG 8900

R2 signaling

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2.2.3.1 Architecture Flow Chart of Interworking Between SIP and R2

UGC3 200 IUALNK


IP network connection

SX3K

IUALNK IP network connection


Transmission over E1
30B+D

UMG

UMG

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2.2.4 Interworking Between SIP and PRA PRA

Primary rate adaptation (PRA): It is a network-user interface on the ISDN network. Currently, PRA is considered as an inter-MSC trunk that carries inter-MSC calls. PRA signaling belongs to common channel signaling. PRA signaling has two modes, namely, the "30B+D" mode and the "23B+D" mode. The difference between the two modes lies in the transmission media. One is 32-mode E1 transmission and the other is T1 transmission. A group of network-user interface protocols in the ISDN network are DSS1. PRA is one of the two interface protocols defined by DSS1. The other interface protocol is basic rate adaptation (BRA). PRA is similar to the A interface, except that the A interface is an interface between the MSC and the BSC. PRA is an interface between the MSC and the PBX or another network terminal. B channel: It is a logical data "pipe" in the ISDN line. It provides the transparent channel of 64 kbit/s. "Transparent channel" means that the bandwidth of the entire B channel is used to transmit data. The typical application of the B channel is circuit switching. The B channel can be used to transmit any two-layer or high-layer protocols. Generally, the B channel of the CSOFTX3000 is used for call connection. It also provides the halfpermanent connection in dedicated line mode. D channel: It is used to transmit call control signaling and maintenance management signaling. Compared with the B channel that functions as only a simple "pipe", the D channel is used to transmit the protocols at layers 2 and 3 in the ISO-OSI model.
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2.2.4.1 Interworking Between SIP and the PRA Overview

The PRA interface specifications include a series of protocols. Corresponding to the ISO-OSI model, the PRA interface specifications cover the physical layer, data link layer, and network layer. The following table describes the details.

Protocol Layer
Layers 47 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

Protocol and Standard ITU-T Q.932/Q.950957 ITU-T Q.931/Q.930 ITU-T Q.921/Q.920 ITU-T I.431

Description Protocol suite at the application layer Basic call control protocol Protocol at the link layer Protocol at the physical layer

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2.2.4.2 Interworking Between SIP and PRA Position of the PRA Module in the UGC3200
S IP H.323 ES L IS UP V5 R2

CCB

MGRA

CRO

DB

MGC MS

D O P R A

MT
IS DN APP LAYE R MANAGE

LOG BACK

Q931 S TACK

ALARM TRACE

PRA Module Scope

IUA

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2.2.5 Interworking Between SIP and PRA Functions of the PRA Module

(1) Q931 protocol stack Responsibilities of the Q931 protocol stack: Completing various functions defined in the Q931 protocol, such as interworking with the IUA module, event processing at the data link layer, and processing of incorrect conditions Maintaining the state machine for basic call control Implementing restart Implementing state query Exchanging standard Q931 messages at the ISDN application layer (2) ISDN application layer The ISDN application layer is responsible for implementing all supplementary services. That is, Interworking with the CCB through Q931 messages Interworking with the MGW through the CRO Interworking with the DB by processing instant messages Maintaining the state machine for bearer control Maintaining the state machine for supplementary service control Implementing the supplementary services of the PRA module In addition, the ISDN application layer needs to cooperate with ISDN layer management. (3) ISDN layer management ISDN layer management is responsible for implementing all the maintenance and management functions of the PRA module. That is, Maintaining the MGW state based on the events reported by the MGC Maintaining the state of PRA trunk circuits Interworking with the MT module Executing maintenance commands and implementing the software debugging function Interworking with ALARM, BACK UP, MS, LOG, and TRACE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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2.3 Supplementary Services Supported by the MGCF


CLIP/CLIR: calling line identification presentation/restriction COLP/COLR: connected line presentation and restriction Call Hold CFU/CFB/CFNR: The MGCF supports the interworking of call forwarding

(CF) services in a limited range. (The 3GPP 29163 standard does not define the interworking of the CF services between the IMS domain and the CS domain. The CF services are self-defined services.)
Call Barring: The MGCF supports the interworking of the call barring

service with limitations. (The 3GPP 29163 standard does not define the interworking of the call barring service between the IMS domain and the CS. The call barring service is a self-defined service. The MGCF supports only the scenario in which a call is originated by the CS domain to the IMS domain and the IMS domain instructs call barring.)

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2.3.1 Call Hold


MGCF

1. SIP: UPDATE [SDP, a=sendonly/ inactive] 2. BICC/ISUP: CPG (Hold) 3. SIP: 200 OK [SDP]

4. SIP: UPDATE [SDP, a=sendrecv/ recvonly]

5. BICC/ISUP: CPG (Retrieve)

6. SIP: 200 OK [SDP]

Session hold/resume initiated from the IM CN subsystem side


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2.3.1 Call Hold


MGCF

1. BICC/ISUP: CPG (Hold) 2. SIP: UPDATE [SDP, a=sendonly/ inactive]

3. SIP: 200 OK [SDP]

4. BICC/ISUP: CPG (Retrieve) 5. SIP: UPDATE [SDP, a=sendrecv/ recvonly]

6. SIP: 200 OK [SDP]

Session hold/resume initiated from the CS network side


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2.3.2 CF
CF services include CFNRy, CFNRc, CFB, and CFU.

MGCF
IAM

MGCF

IAM
Start the CFNRc timer

Start the CFNRc timer

INVITE 183/PRACK/200 OK 180/PRACK/200 OK

INVITE 181
Judge the CF type
ACM

181
If a 181 message is received after an 18X message is received, the CF service is CFNR.

ACM (CFU/CFNRc)

CPG (CFNR)

A call originated from the CS domain to the IMS domain is forwarded unconditionally.

A call originated from the CS domain to the IMS domain is forwarded because the callee does not answer the call.

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2.3.2 CF

MGCF
INVITE IAM
INVITE

MGCF

ACM

ACM(CFU) 181
181 CPG (CFB/CFNR)

A call originated from the IMS domain to the CS domain is forwarded unconditionally.

A call originated from the IMS domain to the CS domain is forwarded because the callee does not answer the call or the callee is busy.

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2.3.3 Call Barring


MGCF
IAM INVITE 603 REL(Call Reject)

A call is originated from the CS domain to the IMS domain, and the IMS domain instructs call barring.

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3. Basic Service Flows of the MGCF


3.1 Voice Interworking Between the IMS Domain and the CS Domain Supported by

the MGCF
3.2 Fallback of Video Calls to Voice Between the IMS Domain and the CS Domain

Supported by the MGCF

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3.1 Voice Interworking Between the IMS Domain and the CS Domain Supported by the MGCF
PLMN/PSTN IAM IM-MGW Add.req/Rsp
(C1, T1)

MGCF

I-CSCF

S-CSCF

P-CSCF

IMS-UE

Add.req/Rsp
(C1, T2)

INVITE (SDP1)

INVITE (SDP1)

INVITE (SDP1) 183 (SDP2)

183 (SDP2) Mod.req/Rsp


(C1, T2)

183 (SDP2)

INVITE (SDP1) 183 (SDP2)

PRACK

PRACK PRACK 200 for PRACK 200 for PRACK

200 for PRACK 180 180 180 ACM Mod.req/Rsp


(C1, T1)

180

PRACK PRACK 200 for PRACK 200 for INVITE 200 for INVITE PRACK 200 for PRACK

200 for PRACK 200 for INVITE Mod.req/Rsp


(C1, T1)

ANM

ACK for 200 ACK for 200 ACK for 200

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3.2 Fallback of Video Calls to Voice Between the IMS Domain and the CS Domain Supported by the MGCF
IMS-UE INVITE (ASDP1,VSDP1) P-CSCF INVITE (ASDP1,VSDP1) S-CSCF BGCF MGCF IM-MGW Add.req/Rsp
(C1, T1)

PLMN/PSTN

INVITE (ASDP1,VSDP1)

INVITE (ASDP1,VSDP1)

Add.req/Rsp 183 (ASDP2,VSDP2=0) 183 (ASDP2,VSDP2=0) 183 (ASDP2,VSDP2=0)


(C1, T2)

IAM

183 (ASDP2,VSDP2=0) PRACK

PRACK

PRACK 200 for PRACK ACM 180 180

200 for PRACK 180 PRACK

200 for PRACK 180

PRACK

PRACK 200 for PRACK

200 for PRACK

200 for PRACK 200 200 200

ANM

200 ACK for 200 ACK for 200 ACK for 200 ACK for 200

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