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An Overview of Digital Communications

Course Objectives
Understand basic digital modulation schemes, and trade-offs in using different modulation schemes, primarily bandwidth versus power trade-offs Understand the principles behind maximum likelihood receiver design Understand equalization theory Understand advanced techniques, like MCM and SS Develop the tools and know-how for performance analysis

Definition
Digital communications is the exchange of information using _________________ This is in contrast to the conventional technique of analog communications (as used in the telephone, FM radio, and television), which does not restrict the transmitted signal to a finite set.

Why Digital?
For sources of information that are _______________, such as ASCII characters from a computer keyboard, digital communications is a natural choice. Source encoding or data compression algorithms can ______________________ with a controlled amount of signal distortion.

Why Digital? (Contd)


Digital signals are more robust to channel impairments than analog signals because digital signals can be completely ________, but with analog signals, accumulated noise is bound to the signal. Digital modulation, coding, and signal processing techniques can ____________. __________ and ____________ is easier.

Figure 1.1

Pulse degradation and regeneration.

Why Digital? (Contd)


________: digital data can be accurately and rapidly stored and retrieved. (Recall the superiority of the CD to the LP or the magnetic audio tape; Instant random access, and no rewind delays.). In sum, advantages of digital communications are_______, _______ _________, ________, and _______.

A Basic Digital Communication System

Channel

Essential Optional

Types of Waveform Channels


Wireline channels, e.g., ______or _______ Fiber optic channels Wireless electromagnetic channels goundwave (MF band, 0.3-3 MHz, AM radio) skywave (HF band, 3-30 MHz, FM radio) Line-of-sight (______band, 30-300 MHz, TV; _____, 0.3-3 GHz, cellular systems) Uuderwater acoustic channels Storage channels, e.g., _______and ________

Digital vs Analog Performance Criteria


Criteria for analog communication system:
__________, such as _______________, _____________, or ______________ between the transmitted and received waveforms.

Criteria for digital communication system:


_______________

Figure 9.2

Normalized channel capacity versus channel SRN.

Figure 9.3

Normalized channel bandwidth versus channel SRN.

Figure 9.4

Normalized channel bandwidth versus channel Eb/No.

Assume W 3000Hz ; SNR 36dB C W log ( 1 SNR) 36000bps

Downstream with no AD/DA,SNR,C64kbps

References
C. E. Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, p.p. 79-423, 623-656, July, October, 1948. G. D. Forney and G. Ungerboeck, Modulation and Coding for Linear Gaussian Channels, IEEE Trans. On Information Theory, Vol. 44, No. 6, p.p. 2384-2415, 1998. Ezio Biglieri, J. Proakis, and S. Shamai, Fading Channels: Information-Theoretic and Communications Aspects, IEEE Trans. On Information Theory, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 26192692, 1998. Sergio Verdu, Fifty Years of Shannon Theory, IEEE Trans. On Information Theory, Vol. 44. No. 6, pp. 20572078, 1998.