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8_1 Derivative of a function

8_2 Rules of Differentiation


8_3 Implicit Differentiations
8_4 Differentiation of Exponential and
Logarithmic Functions
8_5 Parametric Differentiations
define the derivative of a function at a
point as
x
f(x) x) f(x
lim (x) ' f
0 x
+
=

interpret the derivative of a function
geometrically
define the derivative of a function at any
point as
a - x
f(a) f(x)
lim (a) ' f
a x

=

Derivative of a function
Suppose that we wish to find the gradient of
a curve y = f( x ) at a point P(x, y ) on
the curve.
Gradient of PQ
PN
QN
=
x x x
f(x) x) f(x
+
+
=
x
f(x) x) f(x +
=
P
Q
x
x x +
N f(x)
x) f(x
+
f(x)
x
If we move Q nearer to P , say to points Q
1
, Q
2
,
The gradient of PQ
1
, PQ
2
, will give better
approximations for the gradient of the tangent line
at P.
P
Q
x
x x +
N f(x)
x) f(x
+
f(x)
x
- Q
1
- Q
2
- Q
3
Thus, the gradient of
the curve y = f(x) at
P ( x , y ) is given by
(

x
f(x) x) f(x
lim
0 x
If P = ( x , y ) and Q = (x + ox , y + oy)
Gradient ,
(

+
+
=

x x x
y y y
x
o
o
o 0
lim
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
y
x
o
o
o 0
lim
dx
dy
dx
dy
Gradient function
Derived function
derivative of y with respect to x
The process of finding the derivative of
a function is called DIFFERENTIATION.
Sometimes , we can write as f(x) or y
dx
dy
The First Principle of Derivative
dx
dy
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
y
lim
0 x
(

+
=

x
f(x) x) f(x
lim
0 x
EXAMPLE
Find, from first principles, the derivative
of y with respect to x if y = x
2 .
(

+
=

x
x x x
x
o
o o
o
2
0
) ( 2
lim
=
dx
dy
(

x
x f x x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim
0
(
(

+
=

x
x x x
x
o
o
o
2 2
0
) (
lim
( ) x x 2 lim
0 x
c + =
o
= 2x
Solution
Find, from first principles, the derivative of
y with respect to x if
a ) f ( x ) = x
2
+ 1
b ) f ( x ) =
1 x +
c ) f( x ) =
2
x
4
d ) f( x ) =
3 2x
1
+
a ) f ( x ) = x
2
+ 1
x
x f x x f
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
0
+
=

x
x x x
x
o
o
o
) 1 ( 1 ) (
lim
2 2
0
+ + +
=

x
) 1 x ( 1 ) x ( x x 2 x
lim
2 2 2
0 x
o
+ + o + o +
=
o
x
x x x
x
o
o o
o
2
0
) ( 2
lim
+
=

x
x x x
x
o
o o
o
) 2 (
lim
0
+
=


x x
x
o
o
+ =

2 lim
0

x 2 =

b ) f ( x ) =
1 x +
x
x f x x f
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
0
+
=


x
x x x
x
o
o
o
1 1
lim
0
+ + +
=


1 1
1 1 1 1
lim
0
+ + + +
+ + + +

+ + +
=

x x x
x x x
x
x x x
x
o
o
o
o
o

) 1 1 (
) 1 ( 1
lim
0
+ + + +
+ + +
=

x x x x
x x x
x
o o
o
o

1 1
1
lim
0
+ + + +
=

x x x
x
o
o

1 x 2
1
+
=

c ) f( x ) =
2
x
4
x
x f x x f
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
0
+
=


x
x x x
x
o
o
o
2 2
0
4
) (
4
lim

+
=


x
x x x
x x x
x
o
o
o
o
2 2
2 2
0
) (
) ( 4 4
lim
+
+
=

) ) ( (
) ( 4 4
lim
2 2
2 2
0
x x x x
x x x
x
o o
o
o
+
+
=


) ) ( (
) ) ( 2 ( 4 4
lim
2 2
2 2 2
0
x x x x
x x x x x
x
o o
o o
o
+
+ +
=


) ) ( (
) ( 4 8 4 4
lim
2 2
2 2 2
0
x x x x
x x x x x
x
o o
o o
o
+

=


2 2
0
4 8
) (
lim
x x x
x x
x
c +
c
=
o

4
8
x
x
=

3
8
x
=
) ) ( (
) (
lim
2 2
0
4 8
x x x x
x x x
x
o o
o o
o
+
+
=

d ) f( x ) =
3 2x
1
+
x
x f x x f
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
0
+
=

x
3 x 2
1
3 ) x x ( 2
1
lim
0 x
o
+

+ o +
=
o
] 3 x 2 ][ 3 ) x x ( 2 [ x
] 3 ) x x ( 2 [ 3 x 2
lim
0 x
+ + c + c
+ c + +
=
o
] ][ ) [
lim
3 2 3 2 2
2
0
+ + c + c
c
=

x x x x
x
x o
] ][ ) [
lim
3 2 3 2 2
2
0
+ + c +

=

x x x
x o
) )( ( 3 2 3 2
2
+ +

=
x x
2
3 2
2
) ( +

=
x
EXAMPLE
If f(x) = 4x + 2x
2
, find f( x ) from
first principles and hence calculate
f( 2 ) and f( -2 ).



(

+
= =

x
x f x x f
dx
dy
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
0

(

+ + +
=

x
x x x x x x
x
o
o o
o
2 2
0
2 4 ) ( 2 ) ( 4
lim

(

+ +
=

x
x x x x
x
o
o o o
o
2
0
) ( 2 4 4
lim

| | x x
x
o
o
2 4 4 lim
0
+ + =

Since
x x f 4 4 ) ( ' + =
then
) 2 ( 4 4 ) 2 ( ' + = f


12 =

and
) 2 ( 4 4 ) 2 ( ' + = f

4 =
EXAMPLE
Find the derivative with respect to x

of
x x f = ) (
at x = 9


x
x f x x f
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
0
+
=


x
x x x
x
o
o
o
+
=
0
lim
( )( )
) (
lim
0
x x x x
x x x x x x
x
+ +
+ + +
=

o o
o o
o

) (
) (
lim
0
x x x x
x x x
x
+ +
+
=

o o
o
o
) (
lim
0
x x x x
x
x
+ +
=

o o
o
o

x x x
x
+ +
=

o
o
1
lim
0
x 2
1
=

6
1
) 3 ( 2
1
9 2
1
) 9 ( ' = = = f

Derivative of a function at any point x = a
Let a be a number in the domain of a function f.
If
a x
a f x f
a x

) ( ) (
lim
exists , we call this limit the derivative of f at
a and write it as f( a ) .
a x
a f x f
a f
a x

=

) ( ) (
lim ) ( '
** f (a) is the gradient of the tangents line
to the graph of f at ( a , f(a) )
EXAMPLE
Find f ( a ) for the given value of a
(a)
( ) x
3
4x
x f
3
=
,
1 = a
( ) 1 x x f + =
3 = a
( )
1
1
+
=
x
x f
,
(b)
,
(c)
8 = a
,
(a)
( ) x
3
4x
x f
3
=
,
1 = a
( ) a f '
=
( ) ( )
a x
a f x f
a x

lim

( ) 1 ' f
=
( ) ( )
1
1
1

x
f x f
x
lim
( )
1
1
3
1 4
3
4
3 3
1

(

x
x
x
x
lim
=
1
3
1
3
4
3
1


=

x
x
x
x
lim
( ) 1 3
1 3 4
3
1


=

x
x x
x
lim
( )( )
( ) 1 3
1 1 4 4
2
1

+ +
=

x
x x x
x
lim
( )
3
1 4 4
2
1
+ +
=

x x
x
lim
( ) ( )
3
1 1 4 1 4
2
+ +
=
= 3
( ) 1 x x f + =
3 = a
(b)
,
( ) 3 ' f
( ) ( )
3
3
3

x
f x f
x
lim =
3
4 1
3

+
=

x
x
x
lim
( ) ( )
( ) 2 1
2 1
3
2 1
3
+ +
+ +

+
=

x
x
x
x
x
) (
lim
( )( ) 2 1 3
4 1
3
+ +
+
=

x x
x
x
lim
( )( ) 2 1 3
3
3
+ +

=

x x
x
x
lim
4
1
=
( )
1
1
+
=
x
x f
(c)
8 = a ,
( ) 8 ' f
( ) ( )
8
8
8

x
f x f
x
lim
=
8
1 8
1
1
1
3

+

+
=

x
x
x
lim
8
3
1
1
1
3

+
=

x
x
x
lim
( )( )
( )( )( ) 1 3 8 1 3
1 3 1 3
3
+ + +
+ + +
=

x x x
x x
x
lim
( )
( )( )( ) 1 x 3 8 x 1 x 3
1 x 9
lim
3 x
+ + +
+
=

) 1 x )(3 1 x 8)(3 (x
x 8
lim
3 x
+ + +

=

) 1 x )(3 1 x 8)(3 (x
8) (x
lim
3 x
+ + +

=

54
1
=