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Trigonometry is the study and solution of Triangles.

Solving a triangle means finding the value of each of its sides and angles. The following terminology and tactics will be important in the solving of triangles. Pythagorean Theorem (a2+b2=c2).
Only for right angle triangles

Sine (sin), Cosecant (csc or sin-1) Cosine (cos), Secant (sec or cos-1) Tangent (tan), Cotangent (cot or tan-1) Right/Oblique triangle

A trigonometric function is a ratio of certain parts of a triangle. The names of these ratios are: The sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, cotangent. Let us look at this triangle Given the assigned letters to the sides and angles, we can determine the following trigonometric functions.

B a C Sin= Cos Tan

c b
Side Opposite Hypothenuse Side Adjacent = Hypothenuse Side Opposite = Side Adjacent a c b c a b

The Cosecant is the inversion of the sine, the secant is the inversion of the cosine, the cotangent is the A inversion of the tangent. With this, we can find the sine of the value of angle A by dividing side a by side c. In order to find the angle itself, we must take the sine of the angle and invert it (in other words, find the cosecant of the sine of the angle).

= = =

Try finding the angles of the following triangle from the side lengths using the trigonometric ratios from the previous slide. B 6 C B 2 C 8 Click for the Answer 10 A
The first step is to use the trigonometric functions on angle A. Sin =6/10 Sin =0.6 Csc0.6~36.9 Angle A~36.9 Because all angles add up to 180, B=90-11.537=53.1

The measurements have changed. Find side BA and side AC


Sin34=2/BA 0.559=2/BA
The Pythagorean theorem when used in this triangle states that BC2+AC2=AB2 AC2=AB2-BC2 AC2=12.802-4=8.802 AC=8.8020.5~3

34

0.559BA=2 BA=2/0.559 BA~3.578

When solving oblique triangles, simply using trigonometric functions is not enough. You need The Law of Sines

a b c = = sin A sin B sin C


The Law of Cosines a2=b2+c2-2bc cosA b2=a2+c2-2ac cosB c2=a2+b2-2ab cosC

B c a C b It is useful to memorize these laws. They can be used to solve any triangle if enough measurements are given. A

When solving a triangle, you must remember to choose the correct law to solve it with. Whenever possible, the law of sines should be used. Remember that at least one angle measurement must be given in order to use the law of sines. The law of cosines in much more difficult and time consuming method than the law of sines and is harder to memorize. This law, however, is the only way to solve a triangle in which all sides but no angles are given. Only triangles with all sides, an angle and two sides, or a side and two angles given can be solved.

Solve this triangle Click for answers B c=6 a=4 C b

28

Because this triangle has an angle given, we can use the law of sines to solve it. a/sin A = b/sin B = c/sin C and subsitute: 4/sin28 = b/sin B = 6/C. Because we know nothing about b/sin B, lets start with 4/sin28 and use it to solve 6/sin C. Cross-multiply those ratios: 4*sin C = 6*sin 28, divide 4: sin C = (6*sin28)/4. 6*sin28=2.817. Divide that by four: 0.704. This means that sin C=0.704. Find the Csc of 0.704 . Csc0.704 =44.749. Angle C is about 44.749. Angle B is about 180-44.749-28=17.251. The last side is b. a/sinA = b/sinB, 4/sin28 = b/sin17.251, 4*sin17.251=sin28*b, (4*sin17.251)/sin28=b. b~2.53.

Solve this triangle: Hint: use the law of cosines B c=5.2 a=2.4 A b=3.5 C

Start with the law of cosines because there are no angles given. a2=b2+c2-2bc cosA. Substitute values. 2.42=3.52+5.22-2(3.5)(5.2) cosA, 5.76-12.25-27.04=-2(3.5)(5.2) cos A, 33.53=36.4cosA, 33.53/36.4=cos A, 0.921=cos A, A=67.07. Now for B. b2=a2+c2-2ac cosB, (3.5)2=(2.4)2+(5.2)2-2(2.4)(5.2) cosB, 12.25=5.76+27.04-24.96 cos B. 12.25=5.76+27.04-24.96 cos B, 12.25-5.76-27.04=-24.96 cos B. 20.54/24.96=cos B. 0.823=cos B. B=34.61. C=180-34.61-67.07=78.32.

Trigonometric identities are ratios and relationships between certain trigonometric functions. In the following few slides, you will learn about different trigonometric identities that take place in each trigonometric function.

What is the sine of 60? 0.866. What is the cosine of 30? 0.866. If you look at the name of cosine, you can actually see that it is the cofunction of the sine (co-sine). The cotangent is the cofunction of the tangent (co-tangent), and the cosecant is the cofunction of the secant (co-secant). Sine60=Cosine30 Secant60=Cosecant30 tangent30=cotangent60

The following trigonometric identities are useful to remember. Sin =1/csc Cos =1/sec Tan =1/cot Csc =1/sin Sec =1/cos Tan =1/cot (sin )2 + (cos )2=1 1+(tan )2=(sec )2 1+(cot )2=(csc )2

Degrees and pi radians are two methods of showing trigonometric info. To convert between them, use the following equation. 2 radians = 360 degrees 1 radians= 180 degrees
Convert 500 degrees into radians. 2 radians = 360 degrees, 1 degree = 1 radians/180, 500 degrees = radians/180 * 500 500 degrees = 25 radians/9

Write out the each of the trigonometric functions (sin, cos, and tan) of the following degrees to the hundredth place. (In degrees mode). Note: you do not have to do all of them

1. 45 2. 38 3. 22 4. 18 5. 95 6. 63

7. 90 8. 152 9. 112 10. 58 11. 345 12. 221

13. 47 14. 442 15. 123 16. 53 17. 41 18. 22

19. 75 20. 34 21. 53 22. 92 23. 153 24. 1000

Solve the following right triangles with the dimensions given

B 5 C B 9 C c A

B a C B 52 c A

22 20

13 c

18

8 C 12

Solve the following oblique triangles with the dimensions given

B 22 12 A 14 C A B c A 8 168 5 A C 25 28 b 31 a C

B c 35 24 15 C

Find each sine, cosecant, secant, and cotangent using different trigonometric identities to the hundredth place (dont just use a few identities, try all of them.).

1. 45 2. 38 3. 22 4. 18 5. 95 6. 63

7. 90 8. 152 9. 112 10. 58 11. 345 12. 221

13. 47 14. 442 15. 123 16. 53 17. 41 18. 22

19. 75 20. 34 21. 53 22. 92 23. 153 24. 1000

Convert to radians 34 52 35 46 74 15 36 37 94 53 156 174 376 324 163 272 532 631 856 428 994 732 897 1768 2000

Convert to degrees
3.2 rad 6.7 rad 3.14 rad 72.45 rad 52.652 rad

3.1 rad

7.9 rad

6.48 rad

93.16 rad

435.96 rad

1.3 rad

5.4 rad

8.23 rad

25.73 rad

14.995 rad

7.4 rad

9.6 rad

5.25 rad

79.23 rad

745.153 rad

Producer Director Creator Author Basic Mathematics Second edition MathPower Nine, chapter 6 Eric Zhao By Haym Kruglak, John T. Moore, Ramon Mata-Toledo