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# 5-9

## ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION DATA

OBJECTIVES
Determine the minimum skid speed using the skid mark formula. Determine the minimum skid speed using the yaw mark formula.

Slide 1

## Financial Algebra Cengage/South-Western

Key Terms
Accident reconstructionist skid speed formula, for straight Knowledge of both math & CSI skid marks S 30Dfn S speed, D skid distance skid mark f drag factor,n braking efficiency Road mark when tire is locked Light at 1st, then darkens until stop drag factor, f or collision Pull of the road on tires; shadow skid mark different surfaces create differing friction amounts The light part of the skid mark when driver 1st applies brakes braking efficiency, n anti-lock braking system (ABS) A decimal # pertaining to the condition of the front & rear Does not allow wheels to lock brakes continuously; brakes pulse & skid marks are uniform dashes

Slide 2

## Financial Algebra Cengage Learning/South-Western

Key Terms
skid distance, D, of straight skid marks
A function of the # of skid marks and their lengths If 4 marks of equal length are present, then that amount is used for D in the skid speed formula If the skid marks are of different length, or there are fewer than 4 marks, then the average of the lengths is used in the formula If only 1 skid mark is present, then that length is used in the formula

yaw mark
Curved skid mark from vehicle slipping sideways while continuing forward

## S 15fr S minimum speed,

f drag factor,r radius of arc The line segment that connects two points on an arc of a yaw mark

middle ordinate
The short line segment from the perpendicular bisector of the chord to the arc

Slide 3

## Financial Algebra Cengage Learning/South-Western

Example 1 A car is traveling on an asphalt road with a drag factor 0.78. The speed limit on this portion of the road is 35 mi/h. The driver just had his car in the shop and his mechanic informed him that the brakes were operating at 100% efficiency. The driver must make an emergency stop, when he sees an obstruction in the road ahead of him. His car leaves four distinct skid marks each 80 feet in length.

Slide 4

## Financial Algebra Cengage Learning/South-Western

Example 1 drag factor is f = 0.78, braking efficiency is n = 1, skid distance is D = 80, speed limit is 35 mph What is the minimum speed the car was traveling when it entered the skid? Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
S 30x80x.78x 1
S 1,872

S 43.3mph

Was the driver exceeding the speed limit when entering the skid?

## Yes, the driver was speeding & could be fined.

Slide 5
Financial Algebra Cengage Learning/South-Western

Example 2 Melissa was traveling at 50 mi/h on a concrete road with a drag factor of 1.2. Her brakes were working at 90% efficiency. To the nearest tenth of a foot, what would you expect the average length of the skid marks to be if she applied her brakes in order to come to an immediate stop?
50 30 D 1.2 0.9 50 32 .4 D

50

32.4D

## 2500 32.4D 77.2 D

Slide 6

Under the given conditions, you would expect the average of the skid marks to be about 77.2 feet.
Financial Algebra Cengage Learning/South-Western

EXAMPLE 3
An accident reconstructionist took measurements from yaw marks left at a scene. Using a 43-foot length chord, she determined that the middle ordinate measured approximately 4 feet. The drag factor for the road surface was determined to be 0.8. Determine the radius of the curved yaw mark to the nearest tenth of a foot. Determine the minimum speed that the car was going when the skid occurred to the nearest tenth. C2 M
r 8M 2
4

= 43

43 2 r 2 59 .8 ft 32
S 15 0.8 59 .8 26.8 mph

Slide 7

## Financial Algebra Cengage Learning/South-Western

Determine the minimum speed of a car at the point the brakes are immediately applied to avoid a collision based upon a yaw mark chord measuring 62.4 feet and a middle ordinate measuring 5 feet. The drag factor of the road surface is 1.2. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.

## f = 1.2, M = 5, C = 62.4, find r and then S

2 62 .4 5 r 99 .8 ft

40

S 15 1.2 99 .8 42 .4mph

Slide 8