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Air Conditioning

Ton of refrigeration is defined as the capacity of heat required to be removed from one ton of ice within 24 hours , when the initial condition of water is zero degree centigrade.

1 TR=3.50 KJ/sec=210 KJ/min

Definition: Any treatment of the environment air within a building is air conditioning. Air cooling is any process that reduces air temperature. Refrigerated air is produced by a mechanical refrigeration cycle. Examples: Air conditioning: fan that circulates air, filtering air, heating, cooling, humidifying, dehumidifying Air cooling: fan blowing, coolers, swamp coolers, open windows Refrigerated air: vapor compression, absorption cycles

Basic Refrigeration Cycle

Condenser
Compressor Expansion Valve Evaporator

Terminology
Dry Bulb Temperature
measure of the rate of movement of air molecules measures the sensible heat of air conventional thermometer is used as air molecules move faster
more energy more sensible heat

no common comfortable dry-bulb temperature 65-72 degrees F?

Wet Bulb Temperature


measure of the total content of the air (sensible plus latent heat). measured with a conventional mercury-in-glass thermometer is covered with a piece of cloth that is saturated with water and the thermometer is exposed to air.

How Hot or Cold?


Factor Age Sex Activity Clothing Diet Warm Older Female Sitting Light Low Calorie Temperature Cold Cooler Male Working Heavy High Calorie

Heat Load Factors


introducing new heat sources to the building without making appropriate reductions in the buildings heat load will strain the capacity of the system. reducing the heat load reduces energy operating costs and equipment operating time, which reduces system maintenance and repair and increases equipment life.

Transmission and Residual Heat Loads


Depends on
interior and exterior temperatures heat transmission coefficient surface areas exposed to the different temperatures

Heat transmission coefficient


based on the insulation of the walls and roof (U-value)

Insulation thickness
If cooling season is longer than the heating season, and summer temperature differences are greater than or equal to winter heating temperature differences, optimal is based on summer conditions.

If an air-cooling system is constantly on, the residual load has little effect on the cooling requirements.

Solar Heat Load


produced by direct and indirect solar heating of the building desirable during the heating season undesirable during the cooling season glass surfaces provide instantaneous heat gains non-glass surfaces can either reflect or absorb solar energy (E-value)

Occupant Heat Load


Managers must take into consideration:
Number of customers Number of employees Activity level Clothing

Infiltration Heat Load


movement of air
through window and door frames from the outside to the inside of the building through open doors and windows

Appliance Heat Load


heat generated by operating appliances can be reduced by:
limiting appliance operating hours smarter appliance choices using more efficient lighting systems reducing light intensity

Ventilation Heat Load


Heat removed from air as it is cooled Ventilation air can be:
fresh air re-circulated air or a mixture of the two

Cool air is allowed to circulate throughout the building by a ventilation system

Air cooling systems


evaporative cooler
very common system used in hospitality operations very economical
requires only two energy sources:
electricity to operate a fan water

total cooling energy required generally much less also filters air only work in dry climates be careful of harmful humidity works in kitchens

Refrigerated-Air Cooling Systems


Ensures:
Cool Dehumidified air will be available throughout the cooling season

Air moisture:
condenses from air when it strikes a cold surface releases its latent heat of evaporation.

Moist air has a high dew point.


The cold condensing surface (evaporator) must be below the dew-point temperature dehumidifies the air

Depending on:
Energy and initial cost preferences
the manager generally has two choices:
Vapor compression Absorption cooling

Types and Terms


Direct expansion
cools ventilation air directly at the evaporator can be used for most cooling requirements

Chilled water
common for medium or larger sized buildings uses basic water vapor system used to produce chilled water.

Absorption Cooling Systems


Historically
Used lithium bromide absorption refrigeration primarily used in large buildings now being used in smaller buildings i.e. hotels with less than 100 guestrooms.