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Terrorism

The Rise of Terrorism in the 21st Century

Terrorism
Definition(s)

Goals

Targets

Methods

Discussion: "Why Resort to Terrorism?"

Terror in the 20th and 21st Century

Case Study 1: The French Resistance

Case Study 2: September 11, 2001

Case Study 3: The PLO

Discussion: "Can The Use of Terrorism Ever Be Justified?"

What is "Terrorism"?
Work in pairs to come up with your own definition of Terrorism. Focus on: Who are Terrorists?

Who do they target?


What do they do to these targets?

How they do this?


And why do they do it?

Definition(s)
There is neither an academic nor an international legal consensus regarding the definition of the term "terrorism".

United States Code:

"premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents;"[53]

FBI:

"...the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives

US Department of Defence:

"the unlawful use of violence or threat of violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies. Terrorism is often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs and committed in the pursuit of goals that are usually political."

Goals
What the "terrorists" hope to achieve by implementing their plans. Not all "Terrorists" have the same goals. Can include: Political change Control Economic gain Freedom

Targets
What/who do the "Terrorists" choose to target? Targets will vary because of the goals of the "Terrorist" organisation. Can include: Civilian Targets Military Targets High profile individuals Infrastructure

Methods
How the "Terrorists" choose to implement their plans? Methods will vary because of the targets chosen and the goals of the "Terrorists". Can include: Assassination Military action Bombing

Discussion:

"Why Resort to Terrorism?"

Case Study 1: The French Resistance


When: During WWII Goals: Restore a democratic government in Nazi-occupied France. Targets: Nazi officers and ministers, Nazi buildings, military personnel, and French Nazi collaborators. Methods: Assassination, bombings, military action and propaganda. Why Resort to Terrorism?

Case Study 2: September 11 Terrorist Attacks


When: September 11, 2001 Goals: To spread the word of Allah, and show "The Western Devil" it's actions in the Middle East will not be tolerated. Targets: The Twin Towers, The Pentagon, American Civilian Aircraft (civilians, civilian and military infrastructure) Methods: Hijacking, hostages and bombing. Why Resort to Terrorism?

Case Study 3: The Israel-Palestine Conflict (PLO)


When: 1948-Present Goals: Regain land lost during various wars, and end the Israeli occupation of Palestinian land. Targets: Israeli officers and ministers, Israeli buildings, and civilian & military personnel. Methods: Assassination, bombings (suicide and car), rocket attacks and propaganda. Why Resort to Terrorism?

Discussion:

"Can The Use of Terrorism Ever be Justified?"