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USE OF FLY ASH IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

Presented
BY

Subhash Chandra
Sr. Engineer (AUD)

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Various areas of use of Ash

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Ash production and use in different countries


Country/ Region Ash Production (Million ton) 134.7 120.02 56.4 13.8 11.0 6.6 145 Ash Utilization (Mt) 55.6 69.6 52.4 2.5 10.7 2.3 78 Utilization Rate % 42.0 58.0 92.9 18.0 97.2 33.0 50 Year References

USA China EU 15 Australia Japan Canada India


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2008 2000 2008 2008 2006 2006 2009

ACAA, 2009 Wang, 2004 ECOBA, 2009 ADAA. 2009 JCOAL, 2010 CIRCA, 2010 FAU
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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Utilization of Ash in USA; Different avenues (based on ACAA, 2009)


Production 134.7 Million Ton Utilization 55.6 (42%) 1. Disposal 79.06

Concrete/Concrete Products /Grout 8%

2. Blended Cement/ Raw Feed for Clinker 3% 3. Structural Fills/Embankments 7% 4. Mining Applications 11%

8. Disposal 58% 5. Gypsum Panel Products 5% 6. Waste Stabilization/Solidifi cation Other 3% 4 Subhash Chandra7. Sr. 5% Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

2/22/2011

Cont

CCP Categories 1. Concrete/Concrete Products /Grout 2. Blended Cement/ Raw Feed for Clinker 3. Flowable Fill 4. Structural Fills/Embankments 5. Road Base/Sub-base 6. Soil Modification/Stabilization 7. Mineral Filler in Asphalt 8. Snow and Ice Control 9. Blasting Grit/Roofing Granules 10. Mining Applications 11. Gypsum Panel Products 12. Waste Stabilization/Solidification 13. Agriculture 14. Aggregate 15. Miscellaneous/Other

Fly Ash

Bottom Ash

Boiler Slag

FGD

Total

9.80 2.44 0.26 4.65 0.20 0.67 0.05 2.15 3.52 0.10 0.09 0.80

0.56 0.72 0.11 2.94 0.77 0.19 0.48 0.08 0.50 0.01 0.45 0.47

0.06 0.05 1.62 0.04 0.03 0.03

0.24 0.42 0.04 1.36 0.10 0.05 12.31 7.29 0.22 0.28 -

10.59 3.58 0.41 9.02 0.97 0.96 0.05 0.53 1.74 15.00 7.29 3.74 0.39 0.57 1.30

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Total Utilization Disposal

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

55.6 79.06

Utilization of Ash in Europe (EU15); Different avenues (based on ECOBA, 2009)


Production 56.42 Million Ton Utilization 54.8 (92.9%) Disposal 4.00 Disposal
7% Other uses 13%

Aerated concrete blocks 11% Grouting 7% Subgrade stabilisation 5% Pavement base course 9% Infill 9% Blasting grit 10%

Gypsum blocks 5%

Projection plaster 13% Set retarder for cement 11%

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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Cont
Total Production 56.42 Mt

Sector of use Cement raw material Blended cement Concrete addition Aerated concrete blocks Non-aerated concrete blocks Lightweight aggregate Bricks + ceramics Grouting Asphalt filler Subgrade stabilisation Pavement base course

Fly Ash 3.863 2.46 5.76 0.663 0.311

Bottom Ash 0.311 0.064 0.065 0.009 0.886

Boiler Slag

Other

0.005 0.13 0.049

0.093 0.346 0.095 0.128 0.003

0.019 0.015 0.161 0.122 0.412 0.067

0.057

0.01 0.091

1.556 0.516 2/22/2011 General engineering fill Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Cont

Structural fill Soil amendment Infill

1.841 0.04 0.446

0.182

0.019 0.002 0.064

Blasting grit
Plant nutrition Set retarder for cement Projection plaster Plaster boards

603

0.603
0.008 0.638 0.817 5.577

Gypsum blocks
Self levelling floor screeds Other uses Reclamation, Restoration Temporary stockpile Disposal 0.087 17.079 0.829 2.231 0.068 1.901 0.216 0.459 0.144

0.303
1.533 0.086 1.874 0.321 1.383

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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Utilization of Ash in Australia; Different avenues (based on ADAA, 2009)


Production 13.76 Million Ton Utilization 2.51 (18.0%) Disposal 11.25 Cetegory 3
Cetegory 2 4% Cetegory 1 11% 1% Sold 2%

Disposal 82%

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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Cont

Total Ash Produced

13.76

Mt

CCP Use (M Tonnes)


Category 1 Concrete/Concrete Products /Grout Cement/ Raw Feed for Clinker Mineral Fillers Category 2 Flowable Fill CLSM Structural Fills/Embankments Road Base/Sub-base Soil Modification/Stabilization

Fly Ash
1.55

Bottom Ash
0.02

Cenosp here
0.00

Combined

1.57

0.31

0.22

0.00

0.53

Mineral Filler in Asphalt


Agriculture Aggregate Category 3 Mining Applications (e.g. Backfill) 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.11

Waste Stabilization/Solidification
Miscellaneous/Other Total of All Beneficially Used in 2008 Total of All Sold in 2008 0.03 1.97 0.26 0.24 0.01 0.00 2.22 0.29 11.25

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Disposal

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

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Utilization of Ash in Japan; Different avenues (based on JCOAL, 2006)

Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries 1% Construction Works 4% Public Works 13%

Other 13%

Disposal 3%

Cement 66%

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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

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Cont

Item

Electric Power Utilities

General Industries

Total

Sector

Contents
Raw material Admixture Ready mixed Total

Qty
4816 103 109

%
61.64 1.32 1.4

Qty
2069 174 0

%
72.75 6.12 0

Qty
6885 277 109

%
62.61 2.6 1.02

Cement

5028
209 506 46 136 10 203

64.35
2.68 6.48 0.59 1.74 0.13 2.6

2243
102 35 0 162 0 0

78.87
3.59 1.23 0 5.7 0 0

7271
311 541 46 298 10 203

66.23
2.92 5.08 0.43 2.8 0.09 1.9

Public works

Soil treatment Public works Public works for electric power

Subgrade stabilization
Asphalt filler Backfilling in coal mines 2/22/2011 Total

1110 14.21 299 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

10.51

1409

13.22

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Cont
Construction works Construction board Lightweight aggregate Concrete product Others Total Agriculture, forestry & fisheries Fertilizer Soil improvement Thawing material Total Others Sewage Iron manufacture
227 0 29 0 2.91 0 0.37 0 138 0 1 0 4.85 0 0.04 0 365 0 30 0 3.42 0 0.28 0

256

3.28

139

4.89

395

3.71

50 10

0.64 0.13

22 79

0.77 2.78

72 89

0.68 0.64

60

0.77

101

3.55

161

1.31

2 11

0.03 0.14

1 1

0.04 0.04

3 12

0.03 0.11

Others
Total Disposal 2/22/2011

1346

17.23

60

2.11

1406

13.19

1359

17.39

62

2.18

1421

13.33

2.8

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

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Utilization of Ash in Canada; Different avenues (based on CIRCA, 2010)

Cement 12%

Concrete / Grout Mining 7% Application 1% Road Base / Subbase 2% Wall Board 5% Other 3%

Disposal 70%

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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

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Cont
Total Production Uses Area Cement Concrete / Grout Mining Application Road Base / Subbase Wall Board Other Disposal 6.4 Fly Ash
0.638
0.472 0.089 0.017 0 0.084

Mt Bottom Ash
0.147
0 0 0.094 0 0.006

FGD Gypsum
0.01
0 0 0 0.313 0.043

Other
0
0 0 0 0 0.039

Total
0.795
0.472 0.089 0.111 0.313 0.172 4.45

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Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

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Utilization of Ash in China; Different avenues (based on Wang & Wu, 2004)

Construction industries and Civil engineering 32,8%


Restoration 6,7% Agriculture 1,8% Others 1,9%

Disposal 56,8%

In some developed areas, Shanghai, Nanjing and Nantong of Jiangsu Province and Nanchang of Jiangxi Province, the utilization rate of produced fly ash was 100% in the past five years and used extensively in geotechnical engineering 2/22/2011 of road construction 16 Subhash Chandra Sr. materials and wallboard
Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Fly ash in high value added applications


Category High value-added applications

Mineral Alumina extraction Magnetite Iron Carbon Cenospheres Other minor and trace items

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Cont
Category High value-added applications Construction Enhanced Pozzolana cement and Oil Well Cement engineering Decorative glass Ceramic Fibers Glazed floor and wall tiles Ash alloys Synthetic marble High ware resistance ceramic tile Reflective material Ultra light hollow sphere for arid zone Continuous casting mould powder Domestic cleaning powder Synthetic wood
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Cont
Category Filler High value-added applications Mineral fillers Distemper Plastic fillers

Protective material

Fire Bricks Fire abatement applications Glass Ceramics Foam insulation products Anti-corrosion coating Mineral Wool
FGD Adsorbent Synthetic Zeolites Activated Cenospheres
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Waste treatment material

Agriculture Cultivation 2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra Sr. Potassium silicate fertilizer


Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

Cont

These kinds of high value added products

consume lower volume of fly ash than that of construction, back fill and road pavement applications

However, they have the potential in generating

considerable sales revenues for power plants and manufacturers, which helps to prompt the development of different high level Ash technologies

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Eco-Industry Park
(A conceptual model)

EIP derived from the idea of industry

symbiosis could be realized to optimize and maximize the use of Ash

Ash generated from the power plants are


those plants as primary energy source
2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida

used as feed stocks for various applications and the produced electricity is supplied to

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Conclusion
There is a need for concerted effort to promote
the "technically sound", "environmentally safe", and "economically justified" utilization of Ash.

A number of researches and projects on high

levels utilization of Ash have been carried out in many part of world, however, the majority of which have not yet been commercialized.

It should be emphasized that transforming

such laboratory- or pilot-scale technologies into industrial productivity is of the highest priority for increased use of Ash.
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Fly ash should be considered as an essential ingredient of concrete and not merely for replacement of cement or reduction in cost

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ThanQ?

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