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SHRM -2

Managing HR, Safety and health, Reasons for accidents ways of avoiding accidents, Healthphysical & Mental, Workplace violence, Sexual harassment, Child Labour, Alcoholism & drug abuse, Welfare Measures

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Safety and Health


SAFETY Every twenty seconds , of every working minute , of every hour throughout the world, someone dies as a result of an industrial accident. Director General of British Council Safety means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. Industrial / Employee safety refers to protection of workers from danger of industrial accidents. An accident is unplanned and uncontrolled event in which person is injured or loses life. Accidents can be fatal or nonfatal major / minor. 2
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Safety -Accidents
Accident An occurrence, mishap or untoward event which is not

expected or designed for and arising out of and in the course of employment of an industrial worker-workers compensation act 1923 Industrial Injury- A personal injury to an employee which has been caused by an accident or an occupational disease and which arises out of or in the course of employment and which could entitle such employee to compensation under workers compensation act 1923

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Causes for accidents4 broad classifications


Intrinsic causes: accidents arising out of job contents eg:

Inhaling dangerous chemicals, radiation, exposure to heat, fall from height etc Extrinsic causes: (Environmental) Eg: lack of adequate lights& ventilation, pollution, defective machinery, slippery floors, gas leakage etc Personal causes: contributed by individual workers by their own individual personality eg: physical, mental, psychological and physiological factors. Eg: lack of knowledge and skill, lack of stamina, failure to follow rules, taking risks, not taking precautions Exogenous causes: Lightening, floods, bombing

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Causes for Industrial Accidents


Unsafe acts of persons Operating without clearance, failure to heed warning Working at an unsafe speed Making safety devices inoperative Unsafe loading, placing, mixing Taking an unsafe position
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Unsafe mechanical / Physical conditions Inadequately guarded, no guards, mesh Defective, rough, sharp cracked equipments Slippery floors / defective electrical wires, gas pipes Unsafely designed machines, tools
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Causes for Industrial Accidents Unsafe acts of persons Posture Working on moving equipment Distracting, teasing, startling Failure to use safe attire/devices Stress personal reasons/ at work place
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Unsafe machines/structure Inadequate ventilation Impure fuels Congestion, blocked exits Bad lights - no lights Unsafe clothes, masks Unsafe process, chemical, nuclear

Safety programme Safety and Health


Safety Programme : deals with the prevention of accidents and with minimizing the resulting loss and damage to persons and property 5 basic principles must govern the safety programme : To identify potential hazards. Provide effective safety facilities and equipment, take prompt remedial action. Safety policies of the organization should be determined by the top management they should be involved in monitoring it. Managers and supervisors must be made fully accountable for safety performance in the working areas they control. All employees should be given thorough training and continuous education in safe methods of work and prevention of accidents krishna 7

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Ways to minimize accidents


Training in safety Checking conditions of machines Involvement of management Safety posters and film shows Safety week and awards Programme Evaluation. Safety measures goggles, boots, masks, fencing of machines, warning boards other safety devices. Supply of tea, coffee, milk. Medicines, first aid. Notice Boards, posters, pictures information and communication
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HRs Legal Framework Employee Health and Safety


Health and Safety Programs Programs that help to reduce absenteeism and turnover, raise productivity, and boost morale by making jobs safer. In most provinces, the Ministry of Labour appoints inspectors to enforce health and safety regulations

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To reduce and prevent accidents


A. Safety Engineering: Proper design of lay out and work station. Proper selection of machines-protection for operating Proper illumination and ventilation -safety clothes-safety equipments B. Safety Education and training: Ensure support and co-operation of all employees Train employees to use fire extinguishers and whom to call in emergencies. Provide publicity materials access to phone. Conduct mock fire fighting exercises
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To reduce and prevent accidents


C. Safety Enforcements: Publish rules and regulations on safety Adequate punishment for violating safety regulations Ensure proper and effective supervision Prevent tress-passers Prevent un-authorized operations of machines/plants. D. Safety Audit: Introduce safety audit Organize safety committees Organize periodic inspection of plant and machines

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Safety and health Responsibilities of Manager/supervisor

Inform employees of policies and procedures.


Ensure Employees know specific procedures for dealing with workplace threats and emergencies, to contact police, fire, and other safety and security officials. Employees are aware of emergency evacuation situations. Follow up with surprise and strict supervision

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Conclusions

New workers have the most injuries- training is very important. Fractures & Strains/Sprains = most common , expensive & longest recovery time. To reduce accidents and injury Training, Training, Training Safety Meetings Safety Inspections & Improvements
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Safety Equipments

Ear muff

These are Worthless if you dont use them!!

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Must render health services


Medical check up before hiring Periodical check up during service Reimbursement of medical bills or medical allowance. First Aid in case of injuries / accidents common ailments Co-operation with family physicians, local hospitals, clinics, specialists Education of personnel in the nature and symptoms of diseases like TB and importance of periodical health check up. Maternity and child welfare, family planning Adequate ventilation, tree planting , supply of nutritious food, fruits, vitamins etc
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Generally Rendered Mental Health Service

Counseling Co-operation and consultation with expert Psychiatrists Education of company personnel in the nature and symptoms of problems, and importance of mental health Development and maintenance of an effective Human Relations Programme Stress Management and self management programmes Yoga and meditation classes

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Work Place Violence


The Workplace is: Any location, whether permanent or temporary, where an employee performs work-related duties Includes buildings, and surrounding premises such as parking lots, field locations, workplace gatherings, clients homes, and traveling to and from work assignments
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What is Workplace Violence?

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Violence has reached epidemic proportions 1,11,000 violent incidents per year 750 - 1,000 workplace homicides per year

Workplace violence is any physical assault, threatening behavior, or verbal abuse occurring in the work setting Intimidation, threats, physical attacks, and property damage

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Acts of workplace violence


Unprovoked /provoked assault, Sexual assault, Product tampering, Sabotage, Homicide First leading cause of death for ladies- victims of stalkers( acid burns peculiar to Asian countries ) Second leading cause of death in the workplace Includes acts committed during robberies.

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What causes violent Acts?


Disgruntled Employees Domestic Disturbance-Violence spills over into the

workplace Delusional Person -Acts against perceived to be wrongNo connection to organization Who commits workplace violence??? Employee, Former Employee, Contractor, Customer, Vendor

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Early Warning Signs work place violence


Problem Employee

Blames others for problems in life or work Suspicious Holds grudges Challenges/resists authority Has communicated specific proposed act/s of disruption or violence Recently has withdrawn from normal activities, family, friends, co-workers Upset over recent event/s (work related or personal) Abuses drugs and/or alcohol
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WHAT can an organization do??


Organization can Prepare employees for downsizing Implement humane termination policies Provide job skills training Provide counseling Better use of pre-screening and background investigations Role of security - Appropriate security listen Educate the workforce -Workplace violence can and does happen

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What the supervisors/managers do?


Supervisors - Be prepared to listen to employee concerns Notify HRM and Security of potential problem Work with /for EAP (Employee Assistance Programmes) Develop a response Team - E A Personnel, Counsellors Medical , Law Enforcement-Guards- Local Police Preparation - Reduce the risk by planning ahead Violence is sometimes unpredictable and so difficult to prevent. Be prepared to act swiftly to deal with threats, intimidation, and other disruptive behavior at an early stage. Have clear, strict, written down rules Ensure all employees are aware of these.
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Tips to minimize violence at work place Responsibilities of management and all employees
1. Hiring with caution. Pre-hire drug testing, Formal and
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Informal reference checks ex-colleagues, employers neighbours and criminal records. Plan well (with employee participation ) for preventing, reporting of violence and tackling strategies. Establish crisis management team with authority to decide and act quickly. Team to evaluate problems, select intervention techniques and co-ordinate follow up activities. Train supervisors, managers to recognize aggressive behaviour, identify signs of violence, resolve conflicts. Orient employees towards assuring a violence free work environment.
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Tips to minimize violence at work place Employers responsibilities


7. Provide specific EAP to help employees with personal problems. 8. Proper security measures. 9. Interaction formal and Informal between managers and subordinates. 10. Organize Sports and cultural meets. Physical energy well spent -Provides mental stimulation and relaxation.
11. Periodic mental health check up for all including managers.

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Tips to avoid violence at work place Employees Responsibilities


Be familiar with workplace violence policy Be responsible for securing own workplace/for questioning and/or reporting strangers to supervisors Be aware of any threats, physical or verbal, and/or disruptive behavior of any individual and report such to supervisors Be familiar with local procedures for dealing with workplace threats and emergencies Do not confront individuals who are a threat Take all threats seriously
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How to Deal with a Workplace Violence Incident


Defusing the Situation Ask for clarification Repeat questions, if necessary Ask the person to calm down Be assertive Be empathetic Dont use aggressive nonverbal communication Introduce choices
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How to Deal with a Workplace Violence


Angry or Hostile Customer or Co-worker Stay calm and listen attentively. Maintain eye contact - Be

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courteous and patient Keep the situation in your control - negotiating, talking loudly You need help? Signal a coworker/ supervisor/security Threatening with a Weapon Stay calm and quietly signal for help Maintain eye contact -Stall for time Keep talking--but follow instructions from the person who has the weapon Dont risk harm to yourself or others- Never try to grab a weapon Watch for a possible chance to escape to a safe area
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After the storm


Report incident to the local police department
Secure work areas where disturbances occurred Ensure the physical safety of employees and others

remaining in the area as soon as possible Ensure that no work area is left short-staffed while others assist the victim or help in securing the area

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Quid pro quo: This for that ( Latin)


Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment / grade. Used as a basis for any employment decision (granting leave, promotion, favorable PA, etc);

Sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances Requests for sexual favours Verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature..

Eg: Firing an employee or failing a student who ends a romantic relationship Eg: Changing performance expectations after an employee or student refuses repeated requests for a date
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Sexual Harassment
Implicit SH- Not clearly expressed behaviors but are understood. Can be either Verbal, Nonverbal, Physical or Written. Subtle Explicit SH- Full, precise expression. Verbal, Nonverbal, Physical or Written. Eg: Employment decisions/student grades based on sexual favors OR Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual's work (or academic) performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive working (learning) environment."

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Situations/ Behaviour could be harassment.


Suggestive photos/screen savers displayed in an office Repeatedly asking someone for a date Gestures which have sexual meaning Blocking a passageway Hostile Work Environment Conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment. OR Unreasonable interference in individuals job performance.

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Sexual Harassment( SH)


SH cases can shake ministers, governments, Corporate giants and make them pay up huge amounts as compensation. Eg: .. SH a problem keeps increasing (since 80s ) as the number of women employees keeps increasing. Defined as any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individuals employment . Continuous debate is going on as to what specifically constitutes SH.

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Sexual Harassment( SH)


Many times SH starts when - the line between being friendly ends and harassment begins not understood. Behaviour Scientists relate SH to power when one has the power to deny or offer positions, increments and good PAs. Problems increase when subordinates keep quiet or do not come forward to report due to Fear of losing job Lack of confidence in family and colleagues Social and cultural environment Judicial system ( movie Damini)
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Hostile Environment
When verbal or nonverbal behavior (in the workplace or classroom): 1) Focuses on the sexuality of another person or occurs because of the persons gender 2) Is unwanted or unwelcome and 3) Is severe or pervasive enough to affect the persons work (classroom) environment. Remarks about sexual activity Touching--brushes, pats, hugs, shoulder rubs, pinches, etc. Repeated requests for dates Sending sexual mail, notes, e-mail or making sexually explicit phone calls krishna 35

Behaviors That May Create Hostile Environment


When they are UNWANTED: Off-color jokes or teasing Comments about body parts or sex life Suggestive pictures or drawings Inappropriate language Leering, stares or gestures Technology- Communications Act of 1934 amended in 1968 regarding telephone calls Stalking and harassment via e-mail also unlawful

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Sexual Harassment ( SH) How to minimize????


Develop a clear understanding of what Sexual Harassment is and how it impacts people. Discuss the impact of sexism & sexual harassment on the organization, and strategies for prevention. Creating awareness in women and (men?? they too can be harassed) about SH. Educate them on judicial, admin and other forums available to take action. Create healthy respect for the opposite sex.

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Sexual Harassment ( SH) How to minimize????


Every employee should help maintain an environment, free from harassment. Be aware of behaviors that can offend people Clearly communicating that offensive behavior must stop. Educate colleagues on the cultural and social norms of the work place and region. If proved - have rules for severe punishment . Training in self defense. Installation of close circuit TVs and other gadgets to observe and work as a determent.
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SH How to minimize??
Proactive Strategies
Focus on professionalism,

Reactive Strategies
Ensure actions/complaints

not sexuality. Ensure all personnel know the policy. -Conduct regular training -Think before making personal comments. -Set positive examples.

are received/documented Immediate enquiry. Appropriate follow-up actions Appropriate punishment. Address sexist behavior. Dont be afraid to speak up.

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Impact of SH
Sexual Harassment violates our core values of honour,

respect, and devotion to duty. Tolerance of sexual harassment is poor leadership. Impact of SH
Individual: Psychological, Health, Career Organizational: Productivity, Turnover Economic: Litigation costs average $ 6.7 million

annually( US)
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Assignments/ Discussions
Sexual Harassment Policy/Definition
Examples of Sexual Harassment Sexist Behavior/Gender Discrimination Impact on Individuals and Organizations

Sexual Harassment Prevention Strategies

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Child Labour
Prevalent in all developing and under developed countries. Child Labour( Prohibition and Regulation)Act 1986:

replaces the Employment of children Act 1938. Seeks to prohibit the engagement of children below 14 years of age in certain employments and to regulate the conditions of work, of children, in certain other employments. Penalty- employers who contravene the provisions include fine and imprisonment. Individuals use these children as domestic help and organizations even multinationals like Nike (employed) employ them to reduce labour costs
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Child Labour

How to prevent/minimize?
Law alone cannot help. Society and Ethics may be more

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effective. Government and NGOs - proper re-habilitation programmes for children. Refuse to buy / use goods if you come to know child labour was used ( crackers, carpets, embroidered garments) Help/inform the authorities when we see child labour engaged in college canteens, eateries and other places or find ways and means for their rehabilitation Bombay- President/secretary Residents Association will be arrested if child labour is engaged by any of the
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Alcoholism & Drug Abuse

Alcohol is the most common abused substance creating

serious medical and Psychological problems. Alcoholism destroys physical, mental, industrial, social and family health. Definition of Alcoholism - Expert sub-committee of WHO Alcoholics are those excessive drinkers whose dependence upon alcohol has attained such a degree that it shows a noticeable mental disturbance or an interference with their physical and metal health and their inter-personal relations. They require treatment.

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Alcoholism
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Main factors leading to alcoholism are Personality disorders Hereditary Wide spread practice of social drinking High levels of stress Peer pressure Environment

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Alcoholism - Organization can minimize problems


a. b. c. Supervisors/subordinates/peers to report early signs of alcoholism. Have counselors and peers to help alcoholics. Good background check before appointing a person especially in sensitive posts. Ban entry to employees with even minimum traces of alcohol in their breath. Provide good recreation facilities/ Film shows etc to educate employees on the effects of alcohol. Meditation , spirituality and other stress management methods. Encourage creativity Encourage communication and create a healthy work environment. krishna Accept them during and after recovery.

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Drug Abuse
Any substance taken through any route of administration that alters the mood, the level of perception, or brain functioning. Such drugs include substances ranging from prescribed medications to alcohol to solvents like . Factors that lead to drug abuse: Free availability Peer pressure Stress False ideas of about being in has made many succumb to drug abuse. Eg: Film stars () Politicians ()
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Drug Abuse
Drug abuser harms not only him/herself but also family and co-workers. Drug abuse is the main cause for road accidents In US and Mexico. Arab countries have strict laws - extreme punishment like beheading for, possession, use and trafficking of drugswhich works as a deterrent to others. Prevention / minimization of drug abuse in employees: Be aware of symptoms like unsteady hands, glassy eyes, dreaminess, needle marks. Report concern to authorities and family. If need be admit the person to a good de-addiction center. Accept them during and after recovery.
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Employee Welfare
Is a relative concept. Relative in time and space. Varies from time to time, region to region and country to country.. LABOUR WELFARE is a term which must necessarily be elastic, bearing different interpretations based on economic factors, social customs, degrees of industrialization and educational level of workers. Welfare facilities generally do not result in any monetary gains to employees / company. Company , Government / Non Govt bodies and Trade Unions contribute towards welfare.
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Employee Welfare
Welfare facilities are designed to take care of the well

being of the employees ILO LW is a term which is understood to include facilities and amenities, as may be established in or in the vicinity of undertakings to enable the persons employed in them to perform their work in healthy , congenial surroundings, and to provide them with amenities conducive to good health and high morale. Welfare measures help minimize social evils - improve company image specially in the region. Increase/ improve Good will retention and add to general feeling of satisfaction
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Welfare Measures inside the work place


Cleanliness, housekeeping, maintenance of premises, lawns, floors, gardens. Temperature, sanitation, ventilation, lighting, control of dust and effluents. Convenience and comfort during work, posture, seating arrangements Distribution of work hours, breaks and meal times. A. Conveniences inside the work place. Toilets, wash basin, bathrooms, Management of cloak rooms, Waste disposal, Drinking water, Canteens, Library & reading rooms 51
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Welfare Measures inside the work place


Health services Medical aid and examination-physical and mental ailments, counseling Health centre, Recreation Women and child welfare Ante and post natal care, crche Maternity aid, separate wash rooms Medicines and first aid, ambulance Recreation facilities Movies and cultural activities.

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Welfare Measures inside the work place


Health services Medical aid and examination-physical and mental ailments, counseling Health centre, Recreation Women and child welfare Ante and post natal care, crche Maternity aid, separate wash rooms Medicines and first aid, ambulance Recreation facilities Movies and cultural activities.

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Welfare Measures

Economic Service Co-operatives ( goods at reasonable rates ) Loans- zero/ nominal rate of interest. Savings scheme. Gratuity and Pensions Rewards/ Incentives/ bonus Health insurance, Career and retirement planning. Assistance in times of injury/need and death
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Outside the workplace Housing, water, waste disposal Roads, lighting ,Schools, hospitals, Markets Transport Bank, telephone ,Post and other communication facilities Security Child, youth, ladies clubs Social functions celebrations.
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Welfare Measures

Labour-Management participation Formation and working of work safety ,canteen, welfare committees. Workers arbitration council Employees representatives in decision making matter affecting HR. Education: Reading rooms, library Adult education, scholarships Literary classes, fees to dependents

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Welfare Measures
Statutory Provisions-By the Government Factories Act 1948 The Mines Act -1952 The Plantation Labour Act Shop and Establishment Act Deciding Authorities : Labour Welfare officer Factory inspector, Labour Courts .
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Trade Unions Schools for workers children, reading rooms, libraries, gymnasiums Co-operative Bank, consumer societies Office offering legal help to members Training programmes practices of Trade Unions. Magazines and journal
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Welfare work by voluntary agencies


Maternity and infant welfare, Day care centre Schools, Scholarships for higher education. Vocational training Blood donations, free health checkup Welfare ( Trained) Officers responsibility is Welfare. Expected to act as an advisor, counsellor, mediator, and liaison officer between management and the labour Mandatory for firms employing more than 500 workers. Problems Prefer to go by the rules/ Tend forget human relations.
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Approaches to Employee Welfare


Policing Theory Religion Theory

Philanthropic Theory

Social Theory

Labour Welfare

Paternalistic Theory

Functional Theory 58

Public Relations Theory


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Placating Theory

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Approaches to Employee Welfare

Policing : A welfare state cannot be a passive spectator of exploitation of Labour. State assumes the role of the policeperson compels to provide welfare facilitiespunishes those who do not . Religion Theory :Investment (b) atonement aspects. Philanthropic Theory : ( affection for mankind) Paternalistic or trusteeship : Estate, property, profits are all his-he decides how much, when and for what to give. Treats employees like minor children. Trusteeship is moral and is less real.
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Approaches to Employee Welfare (Social Theory)


PR : Welfare for good will and for impressing workers, public and customers.. Social Theory : Social responsibility of managers and industry. Give back to society a part of what you have earned from society. Activities with everyones interest in mind. Infosys Foundation, Akshara Foundation.Azim Premji Foundation Placating : Welfare only for pleasing. Peace can be bought by welfare measures. when organized and militant pay them. 60
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Assessment of Employee Welfare


Evaluation, Trend analysis, opinion. Assessment becomes difficult as EW is qualitative and not quantitative. The following methods are helpful: Trend analysis : assess impact on efficiency, turnover and social evils before and after a welfare activity Opinion Survey :Conduct a survey and take opinion from employees on usefulness or futility of welfare schemes. Discussion - You are the welfare officer in a new manufacturing unit. Name and explain welfare activities you propose to the management?
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Assignment/ Discussion
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How is welfare administered in typical organization? Bring out the various approaches to the study of welfare. Describe how the effectiveness of welfare is assessed. Define the term Labour Welfare . Bring out the arguments for and against welfare.

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