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Water Catchment Series Reaching out to NGOs and CSOs in Viet Nam

25 April 2013

Hubert Jenny, Principal Urban Development Specialist, SEUW/VRM Nitish Jha, Rural water and sanitation consultant SEUW/VRM

Wide Definition of NGOs

ADB defines NGOs rather broadly:
Non-Government Organizations, by registration Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) Mass organizations Educational & research institutes Sector associations and networks for information sharing and capacity building

But not:
- Bilateral and multilateral development partners (although they do figure in ADB VRMs NGO story) - Individuals

NGOs Outreach VRM Water and Sanitation

Presentation on 12/04/13 at VRM:
Annual program Sector NGO Outreach Half day Opening speech by CD VRM Presentation CSP 2012 2015 for Viet Nam Presentation Urban, Water and Sanitation Program/Projects (ongoing and program to 2015) Presentation NGOC, NGOC Focal in DMC, Project Cycle, Procurement, Safeguards, CLS, Gender and NGOs/CSOs inputs into ADB Operations Conclusion

Why work with NGOs/CSOs?

NGOs link to Communities:
Facilitate participatory approach to project design and project implementation Ensure project long term sustainability

NGOs = motors of innovation

Bring new ideas, approaches and technologies to ADB and GOVs attention

NGOs allow ADB to reach the poorest and most disadvantaged groups
=> Contribute to the goal of Reducing Poverty and inclusiveness

How to Work with NGOs/CSOs

Invitation NGOs/CSOs to all stakeholders workshops (3 to 4 per year) Educate: Level of Service, Governance, Private sector participation and water tariff Sometimes Agree to Disagree Oversight role of NGOs and CSOs recognized and acknowledged by ADB => Accountability to communities through better access to information, improved communication and transparency in project design

Some NGO Roles vis--vis ADB

Policy Dialogue Partner Sector Knowledge Expert (on issues like DEWATS, Up scaling Sanitation, Biogas, OBA, Water Safety Plans, etc.) Project Partner (helps cofinance project) Facilitator Project Implementing Agency Monitor (Watchdog) Consultant (for services, technical assistance) Contractor (for goods and works)

Venues for engagement

Direct meetings (NGO or ADB initiated)

Group meetings (e.g., RWSS Partnership, WASH NGO Working Group, Urban Sanitation Donor Coordination Group, WASH Emergency Cluster, Rural Sanitation WG, Viet Nam Urban Forum)
Workshops, seminars and field visits hosted by either ADB or NGO and Collaboration on projects

ADB sector conferences (Asia Water Week, Sanitation Dialogue, and Urban Development Forum @ HQ) and the annual meeting (in one of the DMCs)

Funding Modalities for NGOs

- Pilot & Demonstration Activity - Grants and Seed Grants from Trust Funds, e.g., JFPR (Japan), UNESCO-IHE (Netherlands), WFPF, UFPF, Technical Assistance (PPTA / CDTA / PATA)

NGO selection: ADB (TA) / GOV (Loan) TA: NGOs may be directly contracted for specific
QBS default selection method; Too complex! NGO Cofinancing: Parallel / Joint Cofinancing tasks or components or competitive Selection Loans: ADB role of no objection and M&E project

Issues of interest to WASH NGOs

Different kinds of assessments and surveys: watsan access, socioeconomic, poverty, governance, Propagation of appropriate and innovative water supply and sanitation technologies Fostering innovative institutional or financial mechanisms to reach the poor and disadvantaged Community mobilization through IEC, including raising awareness on the need to pay for utilities ADB Project Safeguards (Ethnic minorities, Resettlement, and Environment) ADB Core Labor Standards (CLS) Gender integration Monitoring of ADB / GOV activities

Core Labor Standards

CLS: Integral part ADBs Social Protection Strategy since 2001
- Freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining - Elimination of all forms of forced labor - Effective abolition of child labor - Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation

Adherence to CLS monitored at all stages of project cycle (Procurement)

Gender Analysis Considerations during Project Design

Consult both women & men and consider their needs Identify cultural, social, legal and economic gender constraints and prepare strategies to overcome these Put in place mechanisms to ensure gender parity in project benefits Appoint womens organizations as service providers Determine whether and how women benefit from various project outputs Create baseline with sex-disaggregated data

Meaningful Consultation
Begins early and is carried out on an ongoing basis throughout implementation Timely information disclosure that is adequate, understandable and readily accessible to APs Free of intimidation or coercion Gender-inclusive and sensitive to needs of vulnerable groups, women and youth Incorporates all relevant views of APs and other stakeholders

EAST Vietnam, Ha Noi

PDA with EAST (partnered with BORDA) Objective: Design, build, operate and transfer a community based Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) in peri-urban Ha Noi Initial amount of $50,000 (with an additional amount co-financed by BORDA +$20,000) granted in 2007 Later granted an additional $10,000 for a years capacity building in O&M Hosted several field visits with outsiders interested in ADB operations => Basis for decentralized wastewater management

The Aquaya Institute, USA

PDA for simple water treatment technology with Pressure Sand Filters (PSFs) and mechanical chlorinators in 4 gravity-fed water supply schemes in remote communes of Hue Province to provide access to treated water to rural residents Additional innovation: Development of Water Safety Plans for rural water supply systems Grant $50,000 (2011) and additional financing from Aquaya (through other donors) to test disposable water treatment kits and mobile phone-based reporting for water quality in the communities => Basis for future JPFR Project (remote communities)

SNV Netherlands
Cofinanced equally by SNV and ADB: 2 x $50,000 Small Towns Sanitation Options Study conducted in 2012 in four towns of Thua Thien Hue Province A comprehensive study of options available for multiple aspects of sanitation, including on-site sanitation, sewerage & drainage, wastewater treatment, and solid waste management ADB worked with SNV to assemble a multidisciplinary team of 5 experts => Basis to evaluate costing of potential investment to improve sanitation in tertiary cities (population under 50,000)

Centre for Social Research and Community Development (SORCODE), Hue

Seed Grant Survey for an upcoming JFPR project: (i) Establish a baseline for community access to water supply and sanitation in 11 rural communes across 4 districts of Hue Province; (ii) Conduct a KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices) survey with regard to water and sanitation management in these communes; and (iii) Produce a weighted ranking of communes most in need of investment Direct selection with a small grant of $30,000, which enabled a survey under tight financial conditions 5 months over 2011-2012

Centre for Social Research and Development (CSRD), Hue

Member of Viet Nam Rivers Network and coordinating agency for independent monitoring of ADB activities in the central region Monitored activities in the energy as well as water supply sectors, with a primary focus on the quality of community consultations Cooperation has improved substantially between ADB and CSRD over time: - Participation to all stakeholders workshops (PPTA) - Cosigned letter to ADB President during AGM Ha Noi in 2011

Lessons Learned: NGOs Engagement

IEC critical even in small projects with technical focus Convergence of ideologies is helpful for smooth implementation Cooperation & open communication are essential Slow processing and start-up, and delays in project cycles for sometimes unavoidable reasons ADB Water Teams major constraints: time (limited personnel to review applications and supervise projects) and money (to fund projects as well as monitor them)

SEUW Engagement in Viet Nam

Ongoing commitment with NGOs/CSOs: Dedicated member of Viet Nam Water Team (Nitish Jha) Enable ADB to consult and keep channels of communication open throughout the project cycle Recognize positive impacts from NGOs/CSOs: Friends rather than Foes Importance of Associations: Fatherland Front, Women Union members of Peoples Council (legislative branch of local governments) Participation in Stakeholders Workshops, Viet Nam Urban Forum, RWSS Forum, WSS Donor Coordination Meetings, ...