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Repensando o Ensino da Gramtica

Maria Cndida Gramkow

A teacher of English should know all three approaches if he is to teach grammar well.
THREE APPROACHES:

TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR DESCRIPTIVE LINGUISTICS GENERATIVE GRAMMAR

BY WAYNE HARSH, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Traditional Grammar is the collection of grammatical explanations and rules that, with innumerable variations and modifications, has been used by teachers of English for the past 200 years.

Criticism: I - Grammarians based their description of English based on inflected languages like Latin and Greek.
II - They failed to give a systematic and thorough description of the language as it is actually used.

Set up a classification of 7 to nine parts of speech, 8 of which are still listed. 1-Noun 2- Pronoun 3- Verb 4- Adjective 5- Adverb 6- Preposition

7- Conjunction
8- Interjection Criticism: Arbitrarily designated and unsystematically defined.

Sentences - A group of words.....thought ....a subject and a predicate. Contribution The undeniable value and utility of TG: generation of teachers have had a method of explaining - at least in part - the patterns that the EL uses to convey meaning, and they have a terminology for discussing these patterns. TG tends to concern itself almost exclusively with the written language.

DESCRIPTIVE LINGUISTICS The work of historical grammarians prepared the way for the

American descriptive linguists: Leonard Bloomfield, Edward Sapir... who described language in general. C.C. Fries, who gave a systematic and detailed description of the E.L.

Language: a) Lexical meaning carried by the words b) Grammatical, structural meaning carried by the system. EX.; BOYS - DOG - LIKED - Notional meaning - Grammar meaning

I - Dictionary II - Plural, singular, past tense -

Notional Meaning
Grammar Meaning

EX: SENTENCE - a further grammar meaning


THE BOYS THE DOG Actor LIKED LIKED Action THE DOG. THE BOYS. Goal - receiver of the action - word order

Grammar: set of formal patterns in which the words of


a language are arranged in order to convey larger meaning

They point out differences: Written x Spoken Language


Four (4) devices used in English to indicate meaning: 1) Word form: inflections / formal contrasts 2) Function words 3) Word order 4) Intonation patterns

CONTRIBUTION

They illustrated and accented the fact that present-day English uses its relatively small number of inflected forms along with word order and function words to convey meaning, and that it uses them in patterns unique to English

Generative Grammar Transformational grammar It has its roots in the studies of the philosophical grammarians who date from 17 th century. It attempts to apply the rigor of math to the peculiarities of human language.

Noam Chomsky states that language because it is based on a system of rules makes infinite use of finite means. The purpose of a grammar is to select the theory or system that best explains these rules.

Generate - a rule that exemplifies or provides a rule of substitution for all possible instances of sentences with a particular structural pattern. Transformational - Rule that rearranges various elements in a sentence when that sentence is changed from its simple, active, declarative form to a more complicated sentence. (The girl bought the dress.)

The revolutionary feature of the approach is that part of the system that promises to tell us more than we have previously known about how people learn a language and how they use it to produce the infinite variety the language offers to its speakers.
I - An underlying, or deep, structure - MIND II - A phonological, or surface structure

The native speaker understands both.

S (sentence) - NP (Noun Phrase) + VP (Verb Phrase)


NP - Det N

Prop N
Pronoun

To indicate visually the structure of the sentence. (tree)


Chomsky points out that there is a difference between what a speaker knows intuitively about the system of his language (competence) and his actual ability in using language (performance).

A) He fed her dog biscuits.

B) The shooting of the hunters occurred at dawn.

What do people mean when they use the word grammar?


Grammar 1 a form of behavior Grammar 2 a field of study, a science Grammar 3 a branch of etiquette Unproved assumption - teaching grammar 2 will increase the students proficiency in Grammar 1 or improve his manners in Grammar 3.

Some and Any


I like some pop music. I dont like some pop music. I like any pop music. I dont like any pop music. Someone in the office will be able to help you. Anyone in the office will be able to help you.

GRAMMAR COMMUNICATES MEANINGS VOCABULARY COMMUNICATES MEANINGS 1. EX. TICKETS LEXICAL LEVEL

2. THE LANGUAGE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD (MUMMY SOCK)


3. ADULT LANGUAGE (OPERATING ON A LEXICAL LEVEL)

COFFEE?
PLEASE. MILK? JUST A DROP.

TICKETS ON THE PHONE

EX: CAN YOU ASK MANDY TO SEND ME THE TICKETS THAT I BOOKED LAST WEEK?
Grammar is a process for making a speakers or writers meaning clear when contextual information is lacking. At first, learners have to do with a period of baby-like talk and rely on contextualized clues, untill they have enough grammar to express and understand a greater variety of meaning. Learners attention needs to be focused not only on the forms of the language but on the meanings these forms convey.

There are at least two kinds of meanings that grammatical forms convey 1st. REPRESENTATIONAL It represents the world as we experience it;

2nd. INTERPERSONAL
To influence how things happen in the world, specifically in our relations with other people. Representational role of language reflects the way we perceive the world. things happen in the world verbs events and processes they are initiated by people or things (nouns - subject) they have effect or other people or things (nouns object) they take place in particular circunstances:

sometime/ some place/ some way adverbials


time conveyed by the use of tense

GRAMMAR AND FUNCTION The meaning of a sentence is not just unpacking its words and its grammar.

Father:
Father:

Do you drink?
Im not offering, Im asking IF you drink. Do you think Id

Young man: No, thanks, Im cool.

offer alcohol to teenage drivers taking my daughter out?


He misunderstood the function of the question. 1st. Literal meaning Are you a drinker of alcohol? 2nd. The meaning in certain context Form X Function

SPOKEN GRAMMAR X WRITTEN GRAMMAR (p.7)

A: Great sausages, these, arent they?


B: Yes. The ingredients are guaranteed free of additives and artificial colouring.

A: Had to laugh, though. The bloke that makes them, he was telling me,
he doesnt eat them himself. Want a ciggie? B: No, thanks. Patrons are requested to refrain from smoking while other guests are dining

A deductive approach

Disadvantages: It may be off-putting for some students. Teacher explanation is often at the expense of student involvement and interaction. Explanation is seldom as memorable as other forms of presentation. It encourages the belief that learning a language is a case of knowing the rules.

A deductive approach

Advantages: It gets straight to the point. It respects the intelligence and maturity of many students and acknowledges the role of cognitive processes in language acquisition. It confirms many students expectations about classroom learning.

A deductive approach

It confirms many students expectations about classroom learning. It allows the teacher to deal with language points as they come up.

An inductive approach

Advantages: Rules learners discover by themselves are more meaningful, memorable, and serviceable. The mental effort involved ensures a greater degree of cognitive depth. Students are more actively involved in the learning process.

An inductive approach

It favors pattern-recognition and problem solving abilities. Working things out by themselves prepares students for greater selfreliance and is therefore conducive to learner autonomy.

An inductive approach

Disadvantages: The time and energy spent in working out rules may mislead students into believing that rules are the objective of language learning. Students may hypothesise the wrong rule. It can place heavy demands on teachers in planning a lesson.

An inductive approach

However carefully organised the data is, many languages areas such as aspect and modality resist easy rule formation. It frustrates students who would prefer simply to be told the truth.

TODAYS NEWS

Escaped monkey shot dead The monkey that has been on the loose in New Plymouth for five days has been shot dead. The capuchin monkey was the last of 12 which escaped after vandals attacked an enclosure at Brooklands Childrens Zoo. Zoo spokesman Anthony Joines says the monkey was spotted in nearby Pukekura Park and a bid was made to try to coax it

TODAYS NEWS

to take food laced with sedatives. However he says it became clear the monkey had no intention of going near staff and it was decided to shoot it.

DICTOGLOSS

When I was a child we used to go camping every summer. Wed choose a different place each year, and wed drive around until we found a beach we liked. Then wed pitch our tent, as near as possible to the beach. Wed usually spend most of the time on the beach or exploring the country round about. We never went to the same beach twice.

Correct the eight collocation errors in this text.

In the morning I made some work in the garden, then I spent a rest for about an hour before going out to have some shopping in town. It was my sisters birthday and I wanted to do a special effort to cook a nice meal for her. I gave a look at a new Thai cookery book in the bookshop and decided to buy it. It has some totally easy recipes and I managed to do a good impression with my very first Thai meal. I think my sister utterly enjoyed her birthday.

INTENSIFYING ADVERBS

In this short text, the writer has often misused the word strongly. Correct the wrong collocations using adverbs from the box. Use each adverb once only.

bitterly strictly deeply utterly Everyone was complaining strongly when they heard about the new plan. People were strongly shocked to hear that children would be strongly

forbidden to use the sports ground and most people were strongly opposed to the new rules. Even people who normally never expressed an opinion were strongly appalled by the proposals.

WORK

Complete the sentences with work, job or

career.

1. I took on too much .... last month and couldnt finish it all. 2. At the peak of her... she was managing a sales force of 200 people. 3. Daniel Robertsons ..... in education lasted almost four decades. 4. I have a very demanding ......, but I enjoy it, nonetheless.

WORK

5. At the moment we are carrying out ...... on the design of the new stadium. 6. The scandal ruined his ..... and he never worked in the stock market again. 7. Im going to apply for a .... in the supermarket. 8. She had a long and brilliant .... in show business. At 20, she got her first steady .... in a small regional theater, but it was in 1968 that her ..... really took off when she was offered a part in a TV series.