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Excessive Water = flood (Jakarta 2008)

Kevin Carters 1994 Pulitzer prize winning photo of a vulture waiting for a child to die, so that it will eat it epitomizes not only the hunger crises in Sudan but also in the whole of Africa. (Photo source: Pulitzer)

Water scarcity (Sudan, Africa)

Water has never lost its mystery. After at least two and a half millennia of philosophical and scientific inquiry, the most vital of the worlds substances remains surrounded by deep uncertainties. Without too much poetic license, we can reduce these questions to a single bare essential: What exactly is water?
Philip Ball, in Lifes Matrix: A Biography of Water,
University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2001, p. 115

Do you know where your drinking water comes from?

Do you know if your drinking water is safe to drink?

How would you know?

While normally free of pollutants, groundwater can be contaminated by a number of sources:

Abandoned mines

Run off from fertilized fields

Poorly constructed landfills and septic systems Household chemicals poured down the drain or on the ground.

Water distribution in Indonesia


Global Water Usage

The average water use in the world: 70 % for agricultural needs, 8 % for domestic needs and 22 % for industry.

Afghanistan and India >95% of water use for agriculture, Britain and Canada > 70% for industry. Japan, Indonesia and Brazil 60% of water use for agriculture, the Americans use the 42 per cent for agriculture and 46 percent for industrial use.

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of uniform composition. Solutions are made up of solvents and solutes. Solvent = Substances capable of dissolving other substances- usually present in the greater amount. Solutes = Substances dissolved in a solvent- usually present in the lesser amount. When water is the solvent, you have an aqueous solution


The importance of water as a solvent in our bodies


Water in the Environment

Concentration Terms
Parts per hundred (percent) 20 g of NaCl in 80 g of water is a 20% NaCl solution Parts per million (ppm)

Parts per billion (ppb)

2 g Hg 2 10-6 g Hg 2 g Hg 2 ppb Hg 9 3 1 10 g H2O 1 10 g H2 O 1 L H2 O


Molarity (M) = moles solute liter of solution

[ ] = concentration of
1.0 M NaCl solution [NaCl] = 1.0 M = 1.0 mol NaCl/L solution Also this solution is 1.0 M in Na+ and 1.0 M in Cl[Na+] = 1.0 M and [Cl-] = 1.0 M


What is the concentration (in M and mass %) of the resulting solution when you add 5 grams of NaOH to 95 mL of water?
95 mL H2O = 95 g H2O 95 mL H2O = .095 L 5 g NaOH = 0.125 moles NaOH 0.125 mole NaOH/0.095 L = 1.3 M solution of NaOH mass % : 5 g NaOH/100 g solution = 5% NaOH


What is the molarity of glucose (C6H12O6) in a solution containing 126 mg glucose per 100.0 mL solution?

6.99 x 10-3 M


How to prepare a 1.00 M NaCl solution: solute M = Lmol of solution

Note- you do NOT add 58.5 g NaCl to 1.00 L of water. The 58.5 g will take up some volume, resulting in slightly more than 1.00 L of solution- and the molarity would be lower.


Different Representations of Water

Lewis structures



Region of partial negative charge

Regions of partial positive charge Charge-density


Electronegativity is a measure of an atoms attraction for the electrons it shares in a covalent bond.

On periodic table, EN increases

EN Values assigned by Linus Pauling, winner of TWO Nobel Prizes.



A difference in the electronegativities of the atoms in a bond creates a polar bond.

Partial charges result from bond polarization.

A polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the electrons are not equally shared, but rather displaced toward the more electronegative atom.


H2 has a non-polar covalent bond.

A water molecule is polar due to polar covalent bonds and the shape of the molecule.

NaCl has an ionic bond-look at the EN difference.

Na = 1.0
Cl = 2.9 DEN = 1.9


Polarized bonds allow hydrogen bonding to occur. Hbonds are intermolecular bonds. Covalent bonds are intramolecular bonds. A hydrogen bond is an electrostatic attraction between an atom bearing a partial positive charge in one molecule and an atom bearing a partial negative charge in a neighboring molecule. The H atom must be bonded to an O, N, or F atom.

Hydrogen bonds typically are only about one-fifteenth as strong as the covalent bonds that connect atoms together within molecules. 5.6

Forming ions

Na Na atom


+ 1 e-

Na+ ion


+ 1 e-


Cl atom

Cl- ion


When ions (charged particles) are in aqueous solutions, the solutions are able to conduct electricity.

(a) Pure distilled water (non-conducting) (b) Sugar dissolved in water (non-conducting): a nonelectrolyte

(c) NaCl dissolved in water (conducting): an electrolyte


Substances that will dissociate in solution are called electrolytes.

Ions are simply charged particles-atoms or groups of atoms. They may be positively charged cations. Or negatively chargedanions.

Dissolution of NaCl in Water


Na+ (aq) + Cl-(aq)

The polar water molecules stabilize the ions as they break apart (dissociate).


Some atoms form more than one stable ion


Naming simple ionic compounds is easyName the metallic element (cation) first, followed by the non-metallic element (the anion) second, but with an ide suffix.


Mg is the metal, O is the non-metal

magnesium oxide NaBr

Na is the metal, Br is the non-metal

sodium bromide


Ions that are themselves made up of more than one atom or element are called polyatomic ions.

NaSO4 (sodium sulfate) dissociates in water to form: Na+

Sodium ions and The sulfate group stays together in solution.

Sulfate ions


Naming polyatomic ionic compounds is also easyName the cation first, followed by the anion second. MgOH magnesium hydroxide

Mg+ is the cation, OH- is the anion

NH4Br ammonium bromide

NH4+is the anion, Br- is the anion


Simple generalizations about ionic compounds allow us to predict their water solubility. Solubility of Solubility Exceptions Examples
Ions sodium, potassium, and ammonium nitrates chlorides sulfates carbonates hydroxides and sulfides Compounds All soluble None NaNO3 is soluble KBr is soluble LiNO3 is soluble Mg(NO3)2 is soluble MgCl2 is soluble PbCl2 is insoluble K2SO4 is soluble BaSO4 is insoluble Na2CO3 is soluble CaCO3 is insoluble KOH is soluble Al(OH)3 is insoluble

All soluble Most soluble Most soluble Mostly insoluble* Mostly insoluble*

None Silver, some mercury, and lead chlorides Strontium, barium, and lead sulfate Group IA and NH41 carbonates are soluble Group IA and NH41 hydroxides and sulfides are soluble

*Insoluble means that the compounds have extremely low solubility in water (less than 0.01 M). All ionic compounds have at least a very small solubility in water.


Covalent molecules in solution

A sucrose molecule when dissolved in water, sugar molecules interact with and become surrounded by water molecules, but the sucrose molecules do not dissociate like ionic compounds do; covalent molecules remain intact when dissolved in solution. They will not conduct electricity; they are non-electrolytes.


Like dissolves like


Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) and Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)


Hard water contains high concentrations of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions. Soft water contains few of these dissolved ions.

A pipe with hard-water scale build up

Not in 6th ed.

Because calcium ions, Ca2+, are generally the largest contributors to hard water, hardness is usually expressed in parts per million of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by mass. It specifies the mass of solid CaCO3 that could be formed from the Ca2+ in solution, provided sufficient CO32- ions were also present: Ca2+(aq) + CO32(aq) CaCO3(s)

A hardness of 10 ppm indicates that 10 mg of CaCO3 could be formed from the Ca2+ ions present in 1 L of water.

Not in 6th ed.

Schematic drawing of a typical municipal water treatment facility


Getting the lead out:

Schematic of a typical spectrophotometer

Using a plot of absorbance vs. concentration

Calibration graph


AAS = Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer

Access to safe drinking water varies widely across the world.


Two water purification techniques:


Reverse osmosis