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Problems on numbers, HCF and LCM

Numbers
1. Rational nos. - p/q form - eg: 4, 3/4, -2/5, 0.333 - 0.333, 0.1666 are recurring decimals 2. Irrational nos. - not rational - eg: sq(2) 3. Integers - rational nos. - +ve, -ve and 0

4. Prime nos. - the only factors are 1 and the number itself - 25 prime nos below 100 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47,53,59, 61,67,71,73,79,83,89,97 5. Composite nos. - Any no. other than 1 which is not prime - eg: 4, 6

6. Coprimes - 2 nos. coprimes if no common factor other than 1 - eg: 15,16 - none of 2 coprimes may individually be prime 7. Perfect nos. - Sum of all factors excluding itself is the no. itself - eg : 6 (1+2+3=6), 28, 496

Some Basic Formulae:

(a + b)(a - b) = (a2 - b2) (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) (a - b)2 = (a2 + b2 - 2ab) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 - ab + b2) (a3 - b3) = (a - b)(a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc ac) When a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.

Divisibility rules
1. Divisible by 2 : last digit even 2. Divisible by 3 : sum of digits is multiple of 3 3. Divisible by 4 : No. formed by last 2 digits divisible by 4 - eg : 178564 4. Divisible by 5 : last digit 5 or 0 5. Divisible by 6 : Divisible by both 2 and 3 6. Divisible by 7 : multiply last digit by 2. Then obtain difference of this value and remaining no. If the difference is divisible by 7 eg: 595 ( 59 (5x2) = 49 )

7. Divisible by 8 : Last 3 digits 8. Divisible by 9 : Sum of digits multiple by 9 9. Divisible by 10 : Last digit 0 10. Divisible by 11 : Sum of alternate digits is same or differ by multiple of 11 eg : 132 ( 1+2=3, both 3) 89394811 ( (8+3+4+1)-(9+9+8+1) = 11)

Number of factors of a no.

- number N = ap.bq.cr..... - a,b,c : prime factors of N - p,q,r : +ve integers - No. of factors given by (p+1)(q+1)(r+1) - eg: 140 has 12 factors - 140 = 22 x 51 x 71 - no of factors = (2+1)(1+1)(1+1) - no of prime factors p+q+r

Sum of factors of a no = ap+1 1 a-1 bq+1 1 b-1 cr+1 - 1 c-1

Sum of 1st n natural nos = n(n+1)/2 Sum of 1st n odd nos = n2 Sum of 1st n even nos = n(n+1) Sum of squares of 1st n natural nos = n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 5. Sum of cubes of 1st n natural nos = [n(n+1)/2]2 1. 2. 3. 4.

Q) The difference between a two-digit number and the number obtained by interchanging the positions of its digits is 36. What is the difference between the two digits of that number? Ans : 4 10x + y ( 10y + x) = 36 xy=4

Q) A two-digit number is such that the product of the digits is 8. When 18 is added to the number, then the digits are reversed. The number is Ans : 24 10x + y + 18 = 10y +x xy+2=0 8/y y + 2 = 0 y=4 x=2

Q) How many 3 digit nos. are there divisible by 2 or 3? Ans : 600 divisible by 2 (998-100)/2 + 1 = 450 divisible by 3 (998-102)/3 + 1 = 300 2 and 3 = 450 + 300 = 750 6(both 2 and 3) = (996-102)/6 + 1 = 150 So divisible by 2 or 3 = 750 150 = 600

Q) Least no. to be added to 3000 to obtain a no. exactly divisible by 19? Ans : 2 3000/19 gives remainder 17 no. to be added = 19-17 = 2

Q) Largest 3 digit multiple of 28 Ans : 980 Largest 3 digit no is 999 999/28 gives remainder 19 999 19 = 980 Q) Smallest 4 digit multiple of 39 Ans : 1014 Smallest 4 digit no is 1000 1000/39 gives remainder 25 39 25 = 14 1000 + 14 = 1014

Q) Dividend = 15968 Quotient = 89 Remainder = 37 Divisor?

Ans : 179 divisor = dividend remainder quotient A no. can be expressed as divisor x quotient + remainder [dq + r]

Q) A no. when divided by 36 leaves remainder 17. The remainder when the same no. is divided by 9 is Ans : 8 No. n = 36q+17 36q+17 9 rem = rem(17/9) = 8

Q) Smallest prime no. dividing 311 + 513 Ans : 2 Both 311 and 513 odd. So sum is even. Hence, 2 Q) Units digit in the expansion of 1! + 2! + +2010! Ans : 3 Units digit from 5! onwards 0. hence units digit = 1!+2!+3!+4! = 1+2+6+24=33

Q) 1324^2131 + 1898^2432 + 22^1632 + 4537^257 What is the last digit? Ans : 3 (42131 + 82432 + 21632 + 7257 = 4 + 6 + 6 + 7 = 23)

21 22 23 24

= = = =

2 4 8 16

25 26 27 28

= = = =

32 64 128 256

24n -> last digit will be 6

31 32 33 34

= = = =

3 9 27 81

41 = 4 42 = 16 43 = 64

71 = 7 72 = 49 73 = 343 74 = 2301

81 = 8 82 = 64 83 = 512 84 = 4096

91 = 9 92 = 81 93 = 729

L.C.M and H.C.F.

Product of 2 numbers = H.C.F x L.C.M L.C.M. of fraction = LCM of numerators HCF of denominators H.C.F. of fraction = HCF of numerators LCM of denominators LCM least no. that can b divided by given nos HCF Highest no. that can divide the given nos

LCM
Q) Least 5 digit no. divisible by 12, 15, 18 Ans: 10080 least 5 digit no = 10000 LCM of 12, 15, 18 = 180 10000/180 gives remainder 100 Divisible no. gives a remainder 0 or multiples of 180 least 5 digit no is 10000 + 80 = 10080

Q)Least 6 digit no. when divided by 15, 18, 20 gives a remainder 10 in each case Ans : 100090 least 6 digit no. = 100000 LCM of 15,18,20 = 180 100000/180 gives rem 100 For a rem 10 no. should be 10000+80+10

Q)LCM of 1st 20 natural nos is S. Then LCM of first 25 natural nos is a) 25S b) 15S c) 115S d) 125S 1,2,.. 20 -> S 1,2,..20,21,22,23,24,25 (1) (2) (3) (22) (5) (2x3) (7) (23) (32) (2x5) (11) (22x3) (13) (2x7) (3x5) (24) (17) (2x32) (19) (22x5) (3x7) ( 2x11) (23) (23x3) (52) Additional factors 23x5 hence LCM is 23x5xS = 115S

Q) At a junction there are 3 traffic signals which change from green to red every 20s, 32s, 40s. All of them were red at 10a.m. Find by 11 a.m. how many times all these signals could have become red simultaneously? Ans : 22 LCM of 20,32,40=160 3600/160 = 22

Q) The least perfect square which is divisible by each of 21, 36 and 66 is Ans : 21344 LCM = 2772 2772 = 32 x 22 x 7 x 11 To form a perfect sq. 2772 x 7 x 11 = 21344

HCF
Q) Find the largest no. that divides 72 and 119 leaving remainders 3 and 4 respectively Ans : 23 72-3 = 69 exactly divisible 119-4 = 115 exactly divisible HCF of 69 and 115 is 23

Q) Sum of 2 nos is 528 and HCF 33. How many such pairs of nos. are possible? Ans: 4 Let nos be 33x and 33y (x,y are coprimes) 33x+33y=528 i.e, x+y=16 possible coprimes (1,15) (3,13) (5,11) (7,9) hence possible pairs = 4