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URLs, InetAddresses, and URLConnections

High Level Network Programming Elliotte Rusty Harold elharo@metalab.unc.edu http://metalab.unc.edu/javafaq/slides/

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We will learn how Java handles


Internet Addresses URLs CGI URLConnection Content and Protocol handlers

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I assume you
Understand basic Java syntax and I/O Have a users view of the Internet No prior network programming experience

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Applet Network Security Restrictions


Applets may:
send data to the code base receive data from the code base

Applets may not:


send data to hosts other than the code base receive data from hosts other than the code base

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Some Background
Hosts Internet Addresses Ports Protocols

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Hosts
Devices connected to the Internet are called hosts Most hosts are computers, but hosts also include routers, printers, fax machines, soda machines, bat houses, etc.

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Internet addresses
Every host on the Internet is identified by a unique, four-byte Internet Protocol (IP) address. This is written in dotted quad format like 199.1.32.90 where each byte is an unsigned integer between 0 and 255. There are about four billion unique IP addresses, but they arent very efficiently allocated
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Domain Name System (DNS)


Numeric addresses are mapped to names like "www.blackstar.com" or "star.blackstar.com" by DNS. Each site runs domain name server software that translates names to IP addresses and vice versa DNS is a distributed system
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The InetAddress Class


The java.net.InetAddress class represents an IP address. It converts numeric addresses to host names and host names to numeric addresses. It is used by other network classes like Socket and ServerSocket to identify hosts
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Creating InetAddresses
There are no public InetAddress() constructors. Arbitrary addresses may not be created. All addresses that are created must be checked with DNS

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The getByName() factory method


public static InetAddress getByName(String host) throws UnknownHostException
InetAddress utopia, duke; try { utopia = InetAddress.getByName("utopia.poly.edu"); duke = InetAddress.getByName("128.238.2.92"); } catch (UnknownHostException e) { System.err.println(e); }

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Other ways to create InetAddress objects


public static InetAddress[] getAllByName(String host) throws UnknownHostException public static InetAddress getLocalHost() throws UnknownHostException

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Getter Methods
public public public public boolean String byte[] String isMulticastAddress() getHostName() getAddress() getHostAddress()

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Utility Methods
public int hashCode() public boolean equals(Object o) public String toString()

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Ports
In general a host has only one Internet address This address is subdivided into 65,536 ports Ports are logical abstractions that allow one host to communicate simultaneously with many other hosts Many services run on well-known ports. For example, http tends to run on port 80
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Protocols
A protocol defines how two hosts talk to each other. The daytime protocol, RFC 867, specifies an ASCII representation for the time that's legible to humans. The time protocol, RFC 868, specifies a binary representation, for the time that's legible to computers. There are thousands of protocols, standard and non-standard
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IETF RFCs
Requests For Comment Document how much of the Internet works Various status levels from obsolete to required to informational TCP/IP, telnet, SMTP, MIME, HTTP, and more http://www.faqs.org/rfc/
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W3C Standards
IETF is based on rough consensus and running code W3C tries to run ahead of implementation IETF is an informal organization open to participation by anyone W3C is a vendor consortium open only to companies
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W3C Standards
HTTP HTML XML RDF MathML SMIL P3P
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URLs
A URL, short for "Uniform Resource Locator", is a way to unambiguously identify the location of a resource on the Internet.

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Example URLs
http://java.sun.com/ file:///Macintosh%20HD/Java/Docs/JDK %201.1.1%20docs/api/java.net.InetAddress.html#_top_ http://www.macintouch.com:80/newsrecent.shtml ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/pub/ mailto:elharo@metalab.unc.edu telnet://utopia.poly.edu ftp://mp3:mp3@138.247.121.61:21000/c%3a/stuff/mp3/ http://elharo@java.oreilly.com/ http://metalab.unc.edu/nywc/comps.phtml? category=Choral+Works
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The Pieces of a URL


the protocol, aka scheme the authority
user info
user name password

host name or address port

the path, aka file the ref, aka section or anchor the query string
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The java.net.URL class


A URL object represents a URL. The URL class contains methods to
create new URLs parse the different parts of a URL get an input stream from a URL so you can read data from a server get content from the server as a Java object

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Content and Protocol Handlers


Content and protocol handlers separate the data being downloaded from the the protocol used to download it. The protocol handler negotiates with the server and parses any headers. It gives the content handler only the actual data of the requested resource. The content handler translates those bytes into a Java object like an InputStream or ImageProducer.
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Finding Protocol Handlers


When the virtual machine creates a URL object, it looks for a protocol handler that understands the protocol part of the URL such as "http" or "mailto". If no such handler is found, the constructor throws a MalformedURLException.
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Supported Protocols
The exact protocols that Java supports vary from implementation to implementation though http and file are supported pretty much everywhere. Sun's JDK 1.1 understands ten:
file ftp gopher http mailto appletresource doc netdoc systemresource verbatim
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URL Constructors
There are four (six in 1.2) constructors in the java.net.URL class.
public URL(String u) throws MalformedURLException public URL(String protocol, String host, String file) throws MalformedURLException public URL(String protocol, String host, int port, String file) throws MalformedURLException public URL(URL context, String url) throws MalformedURLException public URL(String protocol, String host, int port, String file, URLStreamHandler handler) throws MalformedURLException public URL(URL context, String url, URLStreamHandler handler) throws MalformedURLException
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Constructing URL Objects


An absolute URL like http://www.poly.edu/fall97/grad.html#cs
try { URL u = new URL("http://www.poly.edu/fall97/grad.html#cs") ; } catch (MalformedURLException e) {}

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Constructing URL Objects in Pieces


You can also construct the URL by passing its pieces to the constructor, like this:
URL u = null; try { u = new URL("http", "www.poly.edu", "/schedule/fall97/bgrad.html#cs"); } catch (MalformedURLException e) {}

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Including the Port


URL u = null; try { u = new URL("http", "www.poly.edu", 8000, "/fall97/grad.html#cs"); } catch (MalformedURLException e) {}

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Relative URLs
Many HTML files contain relative URLs. Consider the page http://metalab.unc.edu/javafaq/index.html On this page a link to books.html" refers to http://metalab.unc.edu/javafaq/books.html.

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Constructing Relative URLs


The fourth constructor creates URLs relative to a given URL. For example,
try { URL u1 = new URL("http://metalab.unc.edu/index.html" ); URL u2 = new URL(u1, books.html"); } catch (MalformedURLException e) {}

This is particularly useful when parsing HTML.


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Parsing URLs
The java.net.URL class has five methods to split a URL into its component parts. These are:
public public public public public
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String String int String String

getProtocol() getHost() getPort() getFile() getRef()


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For example,
try { URL u = new URL("http://www.poly.edu/fall97/grad.html#c s "); System.out.println("The protocol is " + u.getProtocol()); System.out.println("The host is " + u.getHost()); System.out.println("The port is " + u.getPort()); System.out.println("The file is " + u.getFile()); System.out.println("The anchor is " + u.getRef()); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { }
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Parsing URLs
JDK 1.3 adds three more:
public String getAuthority() public String getUserInfo() public String getQuery()

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Missing Pieces
If a port is not explicitly specified in the URL it's set to -1. This means the default port is to be used. If the ref doesn't exist, it's just null, so watch out for NullPointerExceptions. Better yet, test to see that it's non-null before using it. If the file is left off completely, e.g. http://java.sun.com, then it's set to "/".
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Reading Data from a URL


The openStream() method connects to the server specified in the URL and returns an InputStream object fed by the data from that connection.
public final InputStream openStream() throws IOException

Any headers that precede the actual data are stripped off before the stream is opened. Network connections are less reliable and slower than files. Buffer with a BufferedReader or a BufferedInputStream.
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Webcat
import java.net.*; import java.io.*; public class Webcat { public static void main(String[] args) { for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) { try { URL u = new URL(args[i]); InputStream in = u.openStream(); InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(in); BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr); String theLine; while ((theLine = br.readLine()) != null) { System.out.println(theLine); } } catch (IOException e) { System.err.println(e);} } } } 1999 Elliotte Rusty Harold 04/27/13

The Bug in readLine()


What readLine() does:
Sees a carriage return, waits to see if next character is a line feed before returning

What readLine() should do:


Sees a carriage return, return, throw away next character if it's a linefeed

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Webcat
import java.net.*; import java.io.*; public class Webcat { public static void main(String[] args) { for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) { try { URL u = new URL(args[i]); InputStream in = u.openStream(); InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(in); char c; while ((c = br.read()) != -1) { System.out.print(c); } } catch (IOException e) { System.err.println(e);} } } }
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CGI
Common Gateway Interface A lot is written about writing server side CGI. Im going to show you client side CGI. Well need to explore HTTP a little deeper to do this

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Normal web surfing uses these two steps:


The browser requests a page The server sends the page

Data flows primarily from the server to the client.

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Forms
There are times when the server needs to get data from the client rather than the other way around. The common way to do this is with a form like this one:

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CGI
The user types the requested data into the form and hits the submit button. The client browser then sends the data to the server using the Common Gateway Interface, CGI for short. CGI uses the HTTP protocol to transmit the data, either as part of the query string or as separate data following the MIME header.
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GET and POST


When the data is sent as a query string included with the file request, this is called CGI GET. When the data is sent as data attached to the request following the MIME header, this is called CGI POST

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HTTP
Web browsers communicate with web servers through a standard protocol known as HTTP, an acronym for HyperText Transfer Protocol. This protocol defines
how a browser requests a file from a web server how a browser sends additional data along with the request (e.g. the data formats it can accept), how the server sends data back to the client response codes
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A Typical HTTP Connection


Client opens a socket to port 80 on the server. Client sends a GET request including the name and path of the file it wants and the version of the HTTP protocol it supports. The client sends a MIME header. The client sends a blank line. The server sends a MIME header The server sends the data in the file. The server closes the connection.
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What the client sends to the server


GET /javafaq/images/cup.gif Connection: Keep-Alive User-Agent: Mozilla/3.01 (Macintosh; I; PPC) Host: www.oreilly.com:80 Accept: image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, */*

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MIME
MIME is an acronym for "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions". an Internet standard defined in RFCs 2045 through 2049 originally intended for use with email messages, but has been been adopted for use in HTTP.
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Browser Request MIME Header


When the browser sends a request to a web server, it also sends a MIME header. MIME headers contain name-value pairs, essentially a name followed by a colon and a space, followed by a value.
Connection: Keep-Alive User-Agent: Mozilla/3.01 (Macintosh; I; PPC) Host: www.digitalthink.com:80 Accept: image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, */*

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Server Response MIME Header


When a web server responds to a web browser it sends a MIME header along with the response that looks something like this:
Server: Netscape-Enterprise/2.01 Date: Sat, 02 Aug 1997 07:52:46 GMT Accept-ranges: bytes Last-modified: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 15:06:46 GMT Content-length: 2810 Content-type: text/html
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Query Strings
CGI GET data is sent in URL encoded query strings a query string is a set of name=value pairs separated by ampersands
Author=Sadie, Julie&Title=Women Composers

separated from rest of URL by a question mark


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URL Encoding
Alphanumeric ASCII characters (a-z, A-Z, and 0-9) and the $-_.!*'(), punctuation symbols are left unchanged. The space character is converted into a plus sign (+). Other characters (e.g. &, =, ^, #, %, ^, {, and so on) are translated into a percent sign followed by the two hexadecimal digits corresponding to their numeric value.
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For example,
The comma is ASCII character 44 (decimal) or 2C (hex). Therefore if the comma appears as part of a URL it is encoded as %2C. The query string "Author=Sadie, Julie&Title=Women Composers" is encoded as:
Author=Sadie%2C+Julie&Title=Women+Composers
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The URLEncoder class


The java.net.URLEncoder class contains a single static method which encodes strings in x-www-form-urlencoded format
URLEncoder.encode(String s)

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For example,
String qs = "Author=Sadie, Julie&Title=Women Composers"; String eqs = URLEncoder.encode(qs); System.out.println(eqs);

This prints:
Author%3dSadie%2c+Julie%26Title %3dWomen+Composers

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String eqs = "Author=" + URLEncoder.encode("Sadie, Julie"); eqs += "&"; eqs += "Title="; eqs += URLEncoder.encode("Women Composers");

This prints the properly encoded query string:


Author=Sadie %2c+Julie&Title=Women+Composers

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The URLDecoder class


In Java 1.2 the java.net.URLDecoder class contains a single static method which decodes strings in x-www-form-url-encoded format
URLEncoder.decode(String s)

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GET URLs
String eqs = "Author=" + URLEncoder.encode("Sadie, Julie"); eqs += "&"; eqs += "Title="; eqs += URLEncoder.encode("Women Composers"); try { URL u = new URL("http://www.superbooks.com/search.cgi?" + eqs); InputStream in = u.openStream(); //... } catch (IOException e) { //...

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URLConnections
The java.net.URLConnection class is an abstract class that handles communication with different kinds of servers like ftp servers and web servers. Protocol specific subclasses of URLConnection handle different kinds of servers. By default, connections to HTTP URLs use the GET method.
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URLConnections vs. URLs


Can send output as well as read input Can post data to CGIs Can read headers from a connection

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URLConnection five steps:


1. The URL is constructed. 2. The URLs openConnection() method creates the URLConnection object. 3. The parameters for the connection and the request properties that the client sends to the server are set up. 4. The connect() method makes the connection to the server. (optional) 5. The response header information is read using getHeaderField().
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I/O Across a URLConnection


Data may be read from the connection in one of two ways
raw by using the input stream returned by getInputStream() through a content handler with getContent().

Data can be sent to the server using the output stream provided by getOutputStream().
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For example,
try { URL u = new URL("http://www.sd99.com/"); URLConnection uc = u.openConnection(); uc.connect(); InputStream in = uc.getInputStream(); // read the data... } catch (IOException e) { //...

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Reading Header Data


The getHeaderField(String name) method returns the string value of a named header field. Names are case-insensitive. If the requested field is not present, null is returned.
String lm = uc.getHeaderField("Last-modified");

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getHeaderFieldKey()
The keys of the header fields are returned by the getHeaderFieldKey(int n) method. The first field is 1. If a numbered key is not found, null is returned. You can use this in combination with getHeaderField() to loop through the complete header
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For example
String key = null; for (int i=1; (key = uc.getHeaderFieldKey(i))!=null); i++) { System.out.println(key + ": " + uc.getHeaderField(key)); }

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getHeaderFieldInt() and getHeaderFieldDate()


These are utility methods that read a named header and convert its value into an int and a long respectively.
public int getHeaderFieldInt(String name, int default) public long getHeaderFieldDate(String name, long default)

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The long returned by getHeaderFieldDate() can be converted into a Date object using a Date() constructor like this:
String s = uc.getHeaderFieldDate("Lastmodified", 0); Date lm = new Date(s);

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Six Convenience Methods


These return the values of six particularly common header fields:
public public public public public public int String String long long long getContentLength() getContentType() getContentEncoding() getExpiration() getDate() getLastModified()

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try { URL u = new URL("http://www.sdexpo.com/"); URLConnection uc = u.openConnection(); uc.connect(); String key=null; for (int n = 1; (key=uc.getHeaderFieldKey(n)) != null; n++) { System.out.println(key + ": " + uc.getHeaderField(key)); } } catch (IOException e) { System.err.println(e); }
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Writing data to a URLConnection


Similar to reading data from a URLConnection. First inform the URLConnection that you plan to use it for output Before getting the connection's input stream, get the connection's output stream and write to it. Commonly used to talk to CGIs that use the POST method
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Eight Steps:
1.Construct the URL. 2.Call the URLs openConnection() method to create the URLConnection object. 3.Pass true to the URLConnections setDoOutput() method 4.Create the data you want to send, preferably as a byte array.

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5.Call getOutputStream() to get an output stream object. 6.Write the byte array calculated in step 5 onto the stream. 7.Close the output stream. 8.Call getInputStream() to get an input stream object. Read from it as usual.
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POST CGIs
A typical POST request to a CGI looks like this:
POST /cgi-bin/booksearch.pl HTTP/1.0 Referer: http://www.macfaq.com/sampleform.html User-Agent: Mozilla/3.01 (Macintosh; I; PPC) Content-length: 60 Content-type: text/x-www-form-urlencoded Host: utopia.poly.edu:56435 username=Sadie %2C+Julie&realname=Women+Composers
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A POST request includes


the POST line a MIME header which must include
content type content length

a blank line that signals the end of the MIME header the actual data of the form, encoded in xwww-form-urlencoded format.
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A URLConnection for an http URL will set up the request line and the MIME header for you as long as you set its doOutput field to true by invoking setDoOutput(true). If you also want to read from the connection, you should set doInput to true with setDoInput(true) too.
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For example,
URLConnection uc = u.openConnection(); uc.setDoOutput(true); uc.setDoInput(true);

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The request line and MIME header are sent as soon as the URLConnection connects. Then getOutputStream() returns an output stream on which you can write the x-www-form-urlencoded name-value pairs.

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HttpURLConnection
java.net.HttpURLConnection is an abstract subclass of URLConnection that provides some additional methods specific to the HTTP protocol. URL connection objects that are returned by an http URL will be instances of java.net.HttpURLConnection.
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Recall
a typical HTTP response from a web server begins like this:
HTTP/1.0 200 OK Server: Netscape-Enterprise/2.01 Date: Sat, 02 Aug 1997 07:52:46 GMT Accept-ranges: bytes Last-modified: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 15:06:46 GMT Content-length: 2810 Content-type: text/html

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Response Codes
The getHeaderField() and getHeaderFieldKey() don't return the HTTP response code After you've connected, you can retrieve the numeric response code--200 in the above example--with the getResponseCode() method and the message associated with it-OK in the above example--with the getResponseMessage() method.
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HTTP Protocols
Java 1.0 only supports GET and POST requests to HTTP servers Java 1.1/1.2 supports GET, POST, HEAD, OPTIONS, PUT, DELETE, and TRACE. The protocol is chosen with the setRequestMethod(String method) method. A java.net.ProtocolException, a subclass of IOException, is thrown if an unknown protocol is specified.
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getRequestMethod()
The getRequestMethod() method returns the string form of the request method currently set for the URLConnection. GET is the default method.

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disconnect()
The disconnect() method of the HttpURLConnection class closes the connection to the web server. Needed for HTTP/1.1 Keep-alive

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For example,
try { URL u = new URL("http://www.amnesty.org/"); HttpURLConnection huc = (HttpURLConnection) u.openConnection(); huc.setRequestMethod("PUT"); huc.connect(); OutputStream os = huc.getOutputStream(); int code = huc.getResponseCode(); if (code >= 200 && < 300) { // put the data... } huc.disconnect(); } catch (IOException e) { //...
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usingProxy
The boolean usingProxy() method returns true if web connections are being funneled through a proxy server, false if they're not.

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Redirect Instructions
Most web servers can be configured to automatically redirect browsers to the new location of a page that's moved. To redirect browsers, a server sends a 300 level response and a Location header that specifies the new location of the requested page.

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GET /~elharo/macfaq/index.html HTTP/1.0 HTTP/1.1 302 Moved Temporarily Date: Mon, 04 Aug 1997 14:21:27 GMT Server: Apache/1.2b7 Location: http://www.macfaq.com/macfaq/index.html Connection: close Content-type: text/html <HTML><HEAD> <TITLE>302 Moved Temporarily</TITLE> </HEAD><BODY> <H1>Moved Temporarily</H1> The document has moved <A HREF="http://www.macfaq.com/macfaq/index.html">he re</A>.<P> </BODY></HTML>
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HTML is returned for browsers that don't understand redirects, but most modern browsers do not display this and jump straight to the page specified in the Location header instead. Because redirects can change the site which a user is connecting without their knowledge so redirects are not arbitrarily followed by URLConnections.
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Following Redirects
HttpURLConnection.setFollowRedirects (true) method says that connections will follow redirect instructions from the web server.
Untrusted applets are not allowed to set this.

HttpURLConnection.getFollowRedirects () returns true if redirect requests are honored, false if they're not.

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To Learn More
Java Network Programming
OReilly & Associates, 1997 ISBN 1-56592-227-1

Java I/O
OReilly & Associates, 1999 ISBN 1-56592-485-1

Web Client Programming with Java


http://www.digitalthink.com/catalog/cs/cs 308/index.html
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Questions?

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