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Reservoirs, Spillways, & Energy

Dissipators
CE154 Hydraulic Design
Lecture 3
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Fall 2009 2
Lecture 3 Reservoir, Spillway, Etc.
Purposes of a Dam
- Irrigation
- Flood control
- Water supply
- Hydropower
- Navigation
- Recreation
Pertinent structures dam, spillway,
intake, outlet, powerhouse
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Fall 2009 3
Hoover Dam downstream face

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Fall 2009 4
Hoover Dam Lake Mead

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Fall 2009 5
Hoover Dam Spillway Crest

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Fall 2009 6
Hoover dam Outflow Channel

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Fall 2009 7
Hoover Dam Outlet Tunnel

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Fall 2009 8
Hoover Dam Spillway

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Fall 2009 9
Dam Building Project
Planning
- Reconnaissance Study
- Feasibility Study
- Environmental Document (CEQA in California)
Design
- Preliminary (Conceptual) Design
- Detailed Design
- Construction Documents (plans & specifications)
Construction
Startup and testing
Operation
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Necessary Data
Location and site map
Hydrologic data
Climatic data
Geological data
Water demand data
Dam site data (foundation, material,
tailwater)
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Dam Components
Dam
- dam structure and embankment
Outlet structure
- inlet tower or inlet structure, tunnels,
channels and outlet structure
Spillway
- service spillway
- auxiliary spillway
- emergency spillway

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Spillway Design Data
Inflow Design Flood (IDF) hydrograph
- developed from probable maximum
precipitation or storms of certain
occurrence frequency
- life loss use PMP
- if failure is tolerated, engineering
judgment cost-benefit analysis use
certain return-period flood
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Spillway Design Data (contd)
Reservoir storage curve
- storage volume vs. elevation
- developed from topographic maps
- requires reservoir operation rules for
modeling
Spillway discharge rating curve
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Reservoir Capacity Curve
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Spillway Discharge Rating
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Spillway Design Procedure
Route the flood through the reservoir
to determine the required spillway size
AS = (Q
i
Q
o
) At
Q
i
determined from IDF hydrograph
Q
o
determined from outflow rating
curve
AS determined from storage rating
curve
- trial and error process
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Spillway Capacity vs. Surcharge
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Spillway Cost Analysis
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Spillway Design Procedure (contd)
Select spillway type and control
structure
- service, auxiliary and emergency
spillways to operate at increasingly
higher reservoir levels
- whether to include control structure
or equipment a question of regulated
or unregulated discharge
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Spillway Design Procedure (contd)
Perform hydraulic design of spillway
structures
- Control structure

- Discharge channel

- Terminal structure

- Entrance and outlet channels
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Types of Spillway
Overflow type integral part of the
dam
-Straight drop spillway, H<25, vibration
-Ogee spillway, low height
Channel type isolated from the dam
-Side channel spillway, for long crest
-Chute spillway earth or rock fill dam
- Drop inlet or morning glory spillway
-Culvert spillway
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Sabo Dam, Japan Drop Chute
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New Cronton Dam NY Stepped Chute
Spillway
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Sippel Weir, Australia Drop Spillway
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Four Mile Dam, Australia Ogee
Spillway
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Upper South Dam, Australia Ogee
Spillway
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Winnipeg Floodway - Ogee
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Hoover Dam Gated Side Channel
Spillway
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Valentine Mill Dam - Labyrinth
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Ute Dam Labyrinth Spillway
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Matthews Canyon Dam - Chute
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Itaipu Dam, Uruguay Chute Spillway
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Itaipu Dam flip bucket
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Pleasant Hill Lake Drop Inlet (Morning
Glory) Spillway
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Monticello Dam Morning Glory
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Monticello Dam Outlet - bikers heaven
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Grand Coulee Dam, Washington Outlet
pipe gate valve chamber
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Control structure Radial Gate

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Free Overfall Spillway
Control
- Sharp crested
- Broad crested
- many other shapes and forms
Caution
- Adequate ventilation under the nappe
- Inadequate ventilation vacuum
nappe drawdown rapture oscillation
erratic discharge
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Overflow Spillway
Uncontrolled Ogee Crest
- Shaped to follow the lower nappe of a
horizontal jet issuing from a sharp
crested weir
- At design head, the pressure remains
atmospheric on the ogee crest
- At lower head, pressure on the crest
is positive, causing backwater effect to
reduce the discharge
- At higher head, the opposite happens
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Overflow Spillway
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Overflow Spillway Geometry
Upstream Crest earlier practice
used 2 circular curves that produced
a discontinuity at the sharp crested
weir to cause flow separation, rapid
development of boundary layer, more
air entrainment, and higher side walls
- new design see US Corps of
Engineers Hydraulic Design Criteria
III-2/1
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Overflow Spillway
overcrest head energy design
crest over head energy total
spillway of width ef f ective L
e submergenc downstream P f C
CL Q
H
H
H
H
H
o
e
o
e
e
=
=
=
=
=
) , , , (
2 / 3
u
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Overflow Spillway
Effective width of spillway defined below, where

L = effective width of crest
L = net width of crest
N = number of piers
Kp = pier contraction coefficient, p. 368
Ka = abutment contraction coefficient, pp. 368-369
H K K L
e a p
N L ) ( 2
'
+ =
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Overflow Spillway
Discharge coefficient C
C = f( P, H
e
/H
o
, u, downstream
submergence)

Why is C increasing with H
e
/H
o
?
H
e
>H
o
p
crest
<p
atmospheric
C>Co
Designing using H
o
=0.75H
e
will increase
C by 4% and reduce crest length by 4%
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Overflow Spillway
Why is C increasing with P?
- P=0, broad crested weir, C=3.087
- P increasing, approach flow velocity
decreases, and flow starts to contract
toward the crest, C increasing
- P increasing still, C attains
asymptotically a maximum
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C vs. P/Ho
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C vs. He/Ho
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C. vs. u
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Downstream Apron Effect on C
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Tailwater Effect on C
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Overflow Spillway Example
Ho = 16
P = 5
Design an overflow spillway thats not
impacted by downstream apron
To have no effect from the d/s apron,
(h
d
+d)/Ho = 1.7 from Figure 9-27
h
d
+d = 1.716 = 27.2
P/Ho = 5/16 = 0.31
Co = 3.69 from Figure 9-23
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Example (contd)
q = 3.6916
3/2
= 236 cfs/ft
h
d
= velocity head on the apron
h
d
+d = d+(236/d)
2
/2g = 27.2
d = 6.5 ft
h
d
= 20.7 ft
Allowing 10% reduction in Co, h
d
+d/He =
1.2
h
d
+d = 1.216 = 19.2
Saving in excavation = 27.2 19.2 = 8 ft
Economic considerations for apron
elevation!
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Energy Dissipators
Hydraulic Jump type induce a
hydraulic jump at the end of spillway to
dissipate energy
Bureau of Reclamation did extensive
experimental studies to determine
structure size and arrangements
empirical charts and data as design
basis
Fall 2009 54 CE154
Hydraulic Jump energy dissipator
Froude number

Fr = V/(gy)
1/2

Fr > 1 supercritical flow
Fr < 1 subcritical flow

Transition from supercritical to
subcritical on a mild slope hydraulic
jump
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Hydraulic Jump
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Hydraulic Jump

y
1 V
1
V
2 y
2
L
j
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Hydraulic Jump
Jump in horizontal rectangular channel
y
2
/y
1
= ((1+8Fr
1
2
)
1/2
-1) - see figure
y
1
/y
2
= ((1+8Fr
2
2
)
1/2
-1)
Loss of energy
AE = E
1
E
2
= (y
2
y
1
)
3
/ (4y
1
y
2
)
Length of jump
L
j
~ 6y
2


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Hydraulic Jump
Design guidelines
- Provide a basin to contain the jump
- Stabilize the jump in the basin:
tailwater control
- Minimize the length of the basin
to increase performance of the basin
- Add chute blocks, baffle piers and end
sills to increase energy loss Bureau of
Reclamation types of stilling basin
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Type IV Stilling Basin 2.5<Fr<4.5
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Stilling Basin 2.5<Fr<4.5
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Stilling Basin 2.5<Fr<4.5
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Type IV Stilling Basin
2.5<Fr<4.5
Energy loss in this Froude number range
is less than 50%
To increase energy loss and shorten the
basin length, an alternative design may
be used to drop the basin level and
increase tailwater depth
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Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
When Fr > 4.5, but V < 60 ft/sec, use
Type III basin
Type III chute blocks, baffle blocks
and end sill
Reason for requiring V<60 fps to avoid
cavitation damage to the concrete
surface and limit impact force to the
blocks
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Type III Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
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Type III Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
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Type III Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
Calculate impact force on baffle blocks:

F = 2 A (d
1
+ hv
1
)
where F = force in lbs
= unit weight of water in lb/ft
3

A = area of upstream face of
blocks in ft
2

(d
1
+hv
1
) = specific energy of
flow entering the basin in ft.
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Type II Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
When Fr > 4.5 and V > 60 ft/sec, use
Type II stilling basin
Because baffle blocks are not used,
maintain a tailwater depth 5% higher
than required as safety factor to
stabilize the jump
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Type II Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
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Type II Stilling Basin Fr>4.5
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Example
A rectangular concrete channel 20 ft
wide, on a 2.5% slope, is discharging 400
cfs into a stilling basin. The basin, also
20 ft wide, has a water depth of 8 ft
determined from the downstream
channel condition. Design the stilling
basin (determine width and type of
structure).
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Example
1. Use Mannings equation to determine
the normal flow condition in the
upstream channel.
V = 1.486R
2/3
S
1/2
/n
Q = 1.486 R
2/3
S
1/2
A/n
A = 20y
R = A/P = 20y/(2y+20) = 10y/(y+10)
Q = 400
= 1.486(10y/(y+10))
2/3
S
1/2
20y/n
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Example
Solve the equation by trial and error
y = 1.11 ft
check A=22.2 ft2, P=22.2, R=1.0
1.486R2/3S1/2/n = 18.07
V=Q/A = 400/22.2 = 18.02
Fr
1
= V/(gy)
1/2
= 3.01
a type IV basin may be appropriate,
but first lets check the tailwater level
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Example
2. For a simple hydraulic jump basin,
y
2
/y
1
= ((1+8Fr
1
2
)
1/2
-1)
Now that y
1
=1.11, Fr
1
=3.01 y
2
= 4.2 ft
This is the required water depth to
cause the jump to occur.
We have a depth of 8 ft now, much
higher than the required depth. This
will push the jump to the upstream
3. A simple basin with an end sill may work
well.

Fall 2009 CE154 74
Example
Length of basin
Use chart on Slide #62, for Fr
1
= 3.0,
L/y
2
= 5.25
L = 42 ft.
Height of end sill
Use design on Slide #60,
Height = 1.25Y
1
= 1.4 ft
Transition to the tailwater depth or
optimization of basin depth needs to be
worked out

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