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Analysis of Wastewater Management Sector in Palestine

Nidal Mahmoud+ and Adel Yasin++

+Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University ++ Director of Sanitary Department/ Palestinian Water Authority PWA


April 29, 2013

Presentation Outline
Background about past situation present situation Challenge1:Water Supply Challenge 2: Fund Challenge3: Israeli Conditions Challenge4: WWTP Criteria
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Challenge5: Upgrade old WW Network Challenge 6: Effluent Disposal Challenge 7: Policy & Laws Challenge 8: Capacity Building Looking for the Future

The Past situation for wastewater system

During the occupation period, wastewater Sector used to be a very neglected issue There are collection networks in the main cities and refugee camp (served 28-32% of population) remaining population uses cesspits Many of these networks are old and poorly designed established before 1967 through Jordanian Administration and stayed without development

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The Past situation for wastewater system-continued

40-50 MCM/Y of ww is generated, around 15 MCM/Y is collected by network then discharged into open areas (wadis) Around 400 locations for vacuum tankers for discharging ww There are very few un-functional wastewater treatment plant (94% of ww is discharged to wadies)
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The Past situation for wastewater system-continued

The un-treated Wastewater flows into the wadis Some farmers use the mixture of both untreated wastewater and spring water in irrigation specially in Nablus and AlFara area

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Wastewater status in WB
No. 1 2 3 4 Main cities Jenin Tulkarem Qalqilya Nablus % of ww services 55 75 70 80 Treatment services Not function Primarily stage No No

6 7 8 9 10
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Ramallah El Bireh Jerusalem Bethelem Hebron Jericho

75 88 95 85 80 Zero

On going
Low efficiency High efficiency Under Israeli control No On going No


Percentage of Households that Use Cesspits

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Percentage of Households that Use Cesspits by Type of Locality and Region, 1997 (http://www.pcbs.org)

Status of WW management in Palestine !?

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Israeli Colonies effects on the Environment

Israel is controlling the Palestinians for 40 years but they did nothing to protect the environment Israel moved most of internationally forbidden industries to the West Bank and disposes all toxic effluents into Palestinian land without tratment 95% of the industry in the sraeli settlements is considered toxic & dangerous industries

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Israeli Colonies effects on the Environment

Total effluent seawage discharged to the Wadis by Israeli Settlements is around 50 MCM
Palestinian Agricultural lands around the settlements were destroyed by untrated effluent

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Israeli Colonies effects on the Environment

the last 10 years, The Palestinians allocated 250Millin USD for WWT projects but the Israelis stopped us by one way or another HOW!!!: Security Areas Connection of Illegal settlements High Standards & Specifications
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Existing and near future WWTP Projects

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WW Projects
No.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Treatment name Existing Jenin TP Proposed Jenin regional TP Proposed Tubas TP Proposed Nablus west TP Proposed Nablus east TP Existing Tulkarem ponds Proposed Tulkarem TP Proposed Salfeet TP Existing of El-Bireh TP Existing of Ramallah TP Proposed of Ramallah TP Proposed Jericho TP Proposed Wadi Al-Nar TP Proposed Hebron regional TP Status Overload and not function Needs fund Needs fund Tendering process Needs fund Pre-treatment Design phase Waiting for notice to proceed Function at 2003 Overload Preparing the feasibility study Needs fund Preparing feasibility study Tendering process Needs fund 13

15 29, 2013 Proposed Ad Dahrriya TP April

Regional Sewerage Project Jenin

Project: Regional Sewerage Jenin Total Investment:40 Million USD Donor: Germany KFW Start Implementation: not yet Period of Implemntation: Status: TOR prepared needs approval from JWC Obstacles: Feasibility study could not be tendered before approval

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Regional WW Disposal Tulkarm

Project: Regional Sewerage Tulkarm Total Investment:45 Million USD Donor: Germany-KFW Start Implemntation:2008 Period of Implemntation: 3 years Status: Feasibility Study ready Obstacles:

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Sewerage Nablus West

Project: Sewerage Nablus-west (investment/Infrastructure restortion Measures Total Investment: Donor:Germany -KFW Start Implemntation:1998 Period of Implemntation: 37.8 Million USD Status: Final Design ready Obstacles:
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Ramallah Sewerage Treatment Project

Project: Ramallah Sewerage Treatment Total Investment: Donor: Germany KFW Start Implemntation:Not yet Period of Implemntation: Status: Feasibility study Ready Obstacles: TP Location

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Al-Bireh Wastewater Treatment Plant

Project: Sewerage Al-Bireh Objectives Total Investment: 12 Million USD Donor: Germany - KFW Start Implemntation:1998 Period of Implemntation: 2.5 Years Status: Functional TP Obstacles:

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Salfeet Sewerage
Project: Sewerage Salfeet (investment/Infrastructure restortion Measures Total Investment:11 Million USD Donor: Germany KFW Start Implemntation: 1995 Period of Implemntation: Status: postponded Obstacles:JWU approval
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Hebron WWTP
Project: Total Investment: 45 Million USD Donor: USAID Start Implemntation: Not Yet Period of Implemntation: Status: Postponded Obstacles: Regulation of USAID

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Jericho WW collection System

Project: Total Investment: () Million USD Donor: JICA Start Implemntation: Not Yet Period of Implemntation: 3 years Status: Feasibility Study is Ready Obstacles: Location of WWTP, JWC Approvement

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Abu-Dis WW collection System

Project: Abu-Dis, Al-Izarita & Az-Zaim WW Total Investment: (25) Million USD Donor: Submitted to AFD Start Implemntation: Not Yet Period of Implemntation: Status: Obstacles: Not Funded yet

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Despite all what have been done, still huge efforts are needed to properly manage the wastewater in Palestine

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Challenges1: Water Supply Priorities

Providing drinking water systems takes the priority where still more than 220 thousands in around 220 communities without networks Chaleenge2: Raising huge amount of fund to improve WW sector services more than billion US Dollar are needed
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Challenge2: Limitation of fund and donor regulations and requirements

Challenge3: unsustainability & stability of External Donation Donor funds only to have sustainable & sanitation infrastructures, PWA policy and strategies should carefully considers the affordability of beneficiaries to pay for this service
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Israeli conditions through JWC that affect, postponds, stop projects for unreasonable aspects Connection of illegal Israeli Settlement effluent to Palestinian Sewerage Systems Specifications and standars of effluents and treated ww imposed by Israelis Security aspects
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Challenges4: selection of Appropriate treatment systems and technologies that leads to WW management driving forces and treatment technologies that achieve specific criterias by utilizing all type of technologies that help to minimize the running cost, example: produce gas CH4, incineration of sludge and available solid waste

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Driving Forces for WW Management

Public health risks: waterborne diseases Environmental protection: water resources and soil National and regional policies: standards and guidelines Adequate sanitation services: life quality standards Economical benefits: reuse and recreation Political issues: regional stability
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Criteria for WWT selection

Satisfactory treatment efficiency towards: COD/BOD, suspended solids, N, P, etc. Robust technology: high stability towards power cut, peak loads, toxicants, etc. Flexible with respect to future amendments (extensions, improvement) Simple in operation maintenance and control Limited number of treatment steps Absence of disposal problems (e.g. sludge) No malodour nuisance Availability of local experience Designed for (by) product recovery

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Challenge 5: Upgrading of the West Bank old urban sewage works Odor nuisance: -Overloaded pond systems -Misconception in design Land availability: - No space for extension
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Challenge 6: Final effluent disposal

Reuse in agriculture: where, this was one of the main target of Master Plan started in 1996 Treated ww recycling and reuse is considered a very important option for generating additional water resources to replace fresh water used for agricultural and industrial purposes Artificail Recharge through Disposal final effluent in Wadis: environmental impact; compliance with political agreements

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Challenge 7: Enforcement of policy and laws

PWA policy: Based on Polluter Pays Principle and envisages a full cost recovery based on affordability basis, water-tariff models should be developed to assure cost recovery Palestinian Water Law: - Set of regulations and rules entailing pollution fees for environmental pollution handlings

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Challenge 8: Capacity building

Building and maintaining a core staff for managing and regulating the wastewater projects: review of documents and formulation of future plans Prepare for all training and capacity building program that required to support sustainable operation of the WWTP, and to achieve value from reuse of the treated wastewater.

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Look into the Future Sustainable planning of WWTP

WW treatment facilities Realistic planning and management? Affordable CAPEX and OPEX? Political issues Sovereignty? Political power? Commitment?
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Look into the Future Sustainable Operation Small WWTP

Financial Resources Effective financial management Socio-cultural aspects Public awareness and cleaner production tools Institutional issues Establishment of wastewater associations? Private sector involvement in sanitation services Pollution control & reuse guidelines? Water quality & public health protection?
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