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Dr Elham Ahmadnezhad is a researcher at the Department of Disaster and Emergency Management, National institute of health research, Tehran University

of Medical Sciences. Im a medical doctor and now I am studying PhD of Epidemiology. My interest is Disaster Epidemiology. My Email: elhamahmadnezhad@gmail.com

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods

5/1/2013

Briefly History Why Mixed Methods? Type of Research designs Criteria for Choosing a Strategies Alternative Strategies and Visual Models Data Collection Procedures Data Analysis and Validation Procedures

Report Presentation Structure


Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013

1959: Concept of mixing different methods by Campbell & Fiske.


(Psychologists)

1973: Combined the Qualitative & Quantitative data by S.D. Sieber. 1979:
Converging or triangulating different Qualitative & Quantitative data sources by Jick.

1989-2003: Expanded procedures for Mixed methods By Tashakkori


& Teddli and then Creswell.

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods

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Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large


group of people
These data often fail to provide specific answers, reasons,

explanations or examples

Qualitative research provides data about meaning and context


regarding the people and environments of study
Findings are often not generalizable because of the small

numbers & narrow range of participants

Both methods have strengths and weaknesses


When used together, these methods can be complimentary
Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods 5/1/2013

Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods


Quantitative research Methods Experimental designs Qualitative research Methods Narratives Mixed Methods Research Methods Sequential

Phenomenologies Concurrent

NonExperimental designs, such as survey

Ethnographies
Grounded theory Case Studies

Transformative

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods

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Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy

Implement ation No Sequence Concurrent SequentialQualitative first SequentialQualitative first

Priority

Integration

Theoretical Perspective

Equal

At data collection At data analysis At data interpretation With some combination

Explicit

Qualitative

Quantitative

Implicit

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods

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What is implementation sequence of the quantitative and qualitative data collection in the proposed study?

What priority will be given to the quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis?

At what stage in the research project will the quantitative and qualitative data and finding be integrated?

Will an overall theoretical perspective (e.g., gender, race/ ethnicity, lifestyle, class) be used in the study?

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods

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Sequential Explanatory Design

QUAN Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis

Qual Data Collection

Qual Data Analysis

Interpretation of Entre analysis

Elham Ahmadnezhad. Mixed Methods

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Sequential Exploratory Design

QUAL Data Collection QUAL Data Analysis

Quan Data Collection

Quan Data Analysis

Interpretation of Entre Analysis

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Sequential Transformative Design


QUAL quan Vision, Advocacy, Ideology, Framework

QUAN qual Vision, Advocacy, Ideology, Framwork

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Concurrent Triangulation Strategy


QUAN
QUAN Data Collection

QUAL
QUAL Data Collection

Quan Data Analysis Data Results Compared

Qual Data Analysid

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Concurrent Nested Strategy

Analysis of Findings

Analysis of Findings

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Concurrent Transformative Strategy

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Identify and be specific about the type of data. Some forms of data

such as interviews and observations can be either quantitative or


qualitative. Although reduction information to numbers is the approach used in quantitative research, it is also used in qual.

Research.

Recognize that quantitative data often involve random sampling, so that each individual has no equal probability of being selected and the sample can be generalized to the larger population. In qualitative data collection, purposeful sampling is used to that individuals are selected because they have experienced the central phenomenon.
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Relate the procedures specifically to the visual model. For e.g, in a sequential explanatory model, the general procedures can be

detailed even further. A discussion of this approach might include


describing the use of survey data collection followed by both descriptive and infertial data analysis in the first phase. Then

qualitative observations and coding and thematic analysis within an


ethnographic design might be mentioned for the second phase.

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Its related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. Some of the more popular approaches:

Data transformation: In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively, then counting the number of times they occur in the text data. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the

qualitative data. For instance, in a factor analysis of data from a


scale on an instrument, the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database.
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Explore outliers: In a sequential model, an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample.

Instrument development: In a sequential approach, obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection. In the next phase, use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants. A third, final phase might be to representative of a population. validate the instrument with large sample

Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent nested model, conduct a survey at one


level (e.g. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. At the same time, collect qualitative interviews (e.g., with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families.
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It is necessary the validation of both qualitative and quantitative phases of study. Each of

methods

has

the

specific

ways,

for

the

qualitative data, the strategies that will be used to check the accuracy of the findings need to be mentioned.

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For a sequential study, mixed method researcher typically organize the report of procedures into quantitative data collection and qualitative data analysis followed by qualitative data and collection

and analysis. Then, in the conclusions or interpretation phase of


the study, the researcher comments on how the qualitative findings helped to elaborate on or extend the quantitative results.

Alternatively, the qualitative data collection and analysis could


come first followed by the quantitative data collection and analysis. In either structure, the writer typically will present the project as

two distinct phases, with separate headings of each.


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In concurrent study. The quantitative and qualitative data collection may be presented in separate section, but the analysis and interpretation combines the two forms of data

to seek convergence among the results. The


structure of this type of mixed methods study

does not as clearly make a distinction between


the quantitative and qualitative phases.
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In a transformative study, the structure typically involves advancing the advocacy issue in the beginning of the study and then using either the sequential or concurrent structure as a means of organizing the

content of the study. In the end of the study, a separate


section may advance an agenda for change or reform that has developed as a result of the research.

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Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design. Sage publication.

Tashakkori, A., & Tedllie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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