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Piped Water Supply System for North Karjat Techno-Economic Feasibility Study

Piped Water Supply System for North Karjat

Techno-Economic Feasibility Study

By Abhishek Kumar Sinha, Janhvi Doshi, Vikram Vijay Guide: Professor Milind Sohoni

September 2010


We would like to thank Mr. G. P Nivdange and Mr. Ashok Ghule from MJP, Karjat, Mr. Ashok Jangle from Disha Kendra, and Mr. R. M. Ade from the Minor Irrigation, Karjat, for their invaluable support and guidance throughout the project.

The project was financially supported by the Dean R& D.


How did it all begin?

Severe drinking water shortage in North Karjat beginning January Reliance on groundwater in most hamlets by Feb some wells dry out, hand-pumps dont work Invitation to CTARA to investigate options.

Well in north Karjat after the first rain (2010)


Various Options

Groundwater study-Availability and Recharge

Check-dams and local surface water storage

Investigation of surface water option from existing reservoirs Important policy input for planning process. Livelihood norm of 200 lpcd and sustenance norm of 40 lpcd

North Karjat
Target area:

spans 120 sq. km covers over 70 hamlets current population (2011) 51,618 Intermediate population (2026) 63721 design population (2041) 81,140

Karjat Taluka

Key Outputs

Net Investment 200 lpcd - Rs. 57.25 crore and Rs. 7051 per capita 40 lpcd - Rs. 17.25 crore and Rs. 2119 per capita For comparison, Mumbais piped water system cost Rs. 7000 per capita, Thanes Rs. 10,000 per capita (both 200 LPD), MJPs Anjap project cost Rs.2700 for 55 LPD Novel design methodology for optimization of secondary network
Application of GIS in surveying of target area

Components of Design

RISING MAIN Elevated Storage Reservoir (ESR) Storage Reservoir Ground Mass Balancing Reservoir (GSR) (MBR)


Primary MBR to all ESRs

Secondary ESR to hamlet standpost Tertiary stand-post to homes (not in this project)

Rural Piped Water Supply System

Primary Second ary

NOTE: Tertiary network design requires both socio-economic data and data-related to land use and it extends beyond the scope of this project .

Components of Design Illustrated

MBR WT PRising Main


Existing stand-post at Naldhe


Design Parameters and Norms

Met all major design specifications Key design parameters include: 40 lpcd (sustenance norm) and 200 lpcd (livelihood norm) 6 hours of supply to villages per day (5-8 AM and 5-8 PM)


Life of Design Components

Particular Jack well Rising main Pumping machinery WTP Design life 30 years 30 years 15 years (replaced after 15 years) 15 years (additional unit is provided )

Gravity main ESR Distribution network

30 years
30 years 30 years 30 years

Overall Design Methodology


Available Sources
No. Source Remarks

Barvi Dam

Operated by MIDC Far from target area At low elevation Operating at full capacity Not enough water in summer season Perennial source Supplying water to many dependent areas
Perennial source Tail water discharge of Bhivpuri dam (1000MLD)

2 3

Shilar River Ullhas River

Pej River


Available Sources
Target Area


Pej River


Lift-up Point along Pej River


Demand - Location and Estimation

Villages identified and lat/long recorded using regional maps and Google Earth Population forecasted for Intermediate Stage (15 years, 2026) and Final Stage (30 years, 2041) Results of geometric and incremental methods of forecasting averaged Five sets of Census data used (1961-2001)

Design Demand = 1.2 x population x per capita demand (SF of 1.2 to account for 20% water losses)


Hamlets marked on Google Earth


Primary Grid (Gravity Main) Details

Network for MBR to 19 ESRs Total length = 72,535m Looped system with 1 source point

Residual pressure of 2m after water delivery to ESR Only a looped system is feasible in given terrain Alternate sources may be added to given loop


Map of Primary Grid (Gravity Main)

Nandgaon Khandas


Aleman Kashele

Chinchpada Male


Dummy Nodes

Created at intervals of 500-1000m and at every sharp elevation drop or rise along the primary grid Entered into LOOP while designing gravity main to incorporate the elevation changes along pipeline (There are 19 ESRs in the primary grid but over 130 nodes were entered into LOOP) This relatively straightforward application of GIS can potentially replace costly and resource intensive land surveying


Dummy Nodes


Dummy Nodes


Clustering and Secondary Network Design

Villages organised into clusters based on the following:

Elevation of villages Position of villages Population of villages Elevation of terrain Proximity to major road Appearance of the land

Pipeline from ESR to villages follow roadways


Example: ESR 17 Cluster


Clustering and Secondary Network Design

Staging height of ESR chosen by optimization of piping and ESR construction cost. As ESR height is increased: Pipe costs decrease Construction costs increase Height at which sum of both costs is minimum is chosen Optimum ESR height entered along with node-pipe connectivity information into Branch 3.0
Existing MBR for Anjap Project by MJP


Example of an ESR Staging Height Optimization Graph


Example: ESR 17 and Secondary Network (Ware)


Jack Well, WTP & MBR

Water structure Jack Well WTP 1st stage 2nd stage MBR

For 200 LPCD 19.47 MLD 22.94 MLD 6.28 MLD 6.50 ML

For 40 LPCD 3.90 MLD 4.56 MLD 1.29 MLD 1.30 ML


Rising main

This system is designed for two stage pumping

Specification Raw water rising main(1st stage) Lift-Up point to WTP 2845 m DI 600 mm (for 200LPCD) 350 mm (for 40LPCD) Clean water rising main(2nd stage) WTP to MBR 1977 m DI 700 mm (for 200LPCD) 350 mm (for 40LPCD)

Path Length Class of pipe Diameter


Tools Used for Design

Google Earth Google Maps Pipe diameter optimization software Branch 3.0 and LOOP 4.0 Topo-sheets of Karjat


GIS applications used in design

Use of elevation data of Google Earth to create dummy nodes that monitor and record elevation changes along pipelines Manual detection of:

Road networks Hamlets Uncultivated land Available water sources and potential lift-up points High elevation points along terrain for storage tank location


Potential for GIS Application in Design of Piped Water Systems

More optimized and streamlined design process is possible with a stronger GIS interface catered specifically towards design of piped water systems. Automated detection of the following: Road networks Population centers Available water sources Uncultivated land Marking of contour lines Calculation of average head loss over a given drawn pipe path (using elevation data) Integration with Branch and Loop (C++ optimization programs)


Costs of Installation Details

200 lpcd
S. No . 1 2 Particulars Jack Well without Over Head Pump House Raw Water Pumping 1st Stage(Till Machinery 2026) 2nd Stage(Till 2041) Raw Water Rising Main Cost(Rs.) 1122289 13335000 19488000

40 lpcd
377287 2478000 3507000 17762000

3 4

34874000 24426480


1st Stage(Till 2026)

2nd Stage(Till 2041)




Pure Water Pumping Machinery

1st Stage(Till 2026) 2nd Stage(Till 2041)





6 7 8 9 10

Pure Water Rising Main MBR Gravity Main Distribution system(ESR + Pipe) Excavation cost Total

39255000 12446990 137466950 61814926 119569126 572147601

12343000 3456190 42368560 21943110 38587002 171933649


Installation Cost per Capita

For 200 LPCD For 40 LPCD

Design Population
Daily Demand Net Investment Cost per Person

19.47 MLD Rs. 57,21,47,601 7051

3.90 MLD 17,19,33,649 2119

For 200 LPCD Ratio of Design Demand Ratio of Costs

For 40 LPCD



NOTE: O&M and pumping energy costs are NOT included in the above estimate


Net investment for piped water at both norms of 40/200 lpcd to north Karjat is economically feasible Estimated Net Investment: 200 lcpd - Rs.7051 per capita 40 lpcd - Rs. 2119 per capita Energy costs(@ Rs. 5 per unit, pumping efficiency 75%) 200 lcpd - Rs.400 per capita per annum 40 lpcd - Rs. 79 per capita per annum Energy cost per 1000 litre Rs. 4.56


Whats happened since August

Government/NGO Response

Next Steps

Meeting with Disha Kendra, MJP engineers, MLA They are interested in building this network at norm of 70-110 lpcd

Participation resolution must be passed by gram panchayats FAQ regarding charges, land acquisition, availability of water Detailed planning, MJP may want IIT to be involved


Detail Design
Target area to be refined Some villages from west to go, and some from east to come in. Design norm of 100 lpcd.

Design improvements to reduce energy cost Better lift up point Consultation between MJP,TATA Power and Irrigation Department. Better/different network design(consideration of 10/09/10

Schemes: Two types and their issues.

Single Village (SVS)-built by ZP, operated by GP Regional (RR)-built by MJP, operated by ZP, private body, cooperative. Issues: source and institutional sustainability.

Our Scheme:

Such schemes more likely when regional collapse of local groundwater sources.

High chance of sub optimal operation.

Institutional Sus. Source Sus.


Strong Weak

Weak Strong

More research required...

Socio-Economic Design of ownership Design of tariff structure, billing and recovery Control on establishment and O&M costs
Study Comparative study across Konkan

Wider Issues Livelihood norm? Competition with irrigation Feasibility of regional water supply grid
Technical/Engg. Source stabilizationWatershed, percolation structures, local surface? Pilot study next summer Experience of other states

(Chiplun-Guhagar pilot underway)

Cooperative sector

Thank You