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2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Chapter 6
To accompany
Quantitative Analysis for Management, Tenth Edition,
by Render, Stair, and Hanna
Power Point slides created by Jeff Heyl
Inventory Control Models
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 2
Introduction
Inventory is an expensive and important
asset to many companies
Lower inventory levels can reduce costs
Low inventory levels may result in stockouts
and dissatisfied customers
Most companies try to balance high and low
inventory levels with cost minimization as a
goal
Inventory is any stored resource used to
satisfy a current or future need
Common examples are raw materials, work-
in-process, and finished goods
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 3
Introduction
Basic components of inventory
planning
Planning what inventory is to be
stocked and how it is to be acquired
(purchased or manufactured)
This information is used in
forecasting demand for the inventory
and in controlling inventory levels
Feedback provides a means to revise
the plan and forecast based on
experiences and observations
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 4
Introduction
Inventory may account for 50% of the total
invested capital of an organization and 70% of the
cost of goods sold
Inventory
Costs
Labor Costs
Energy
Costs
Capital
Costs
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 5
Introduction
All organizations have some type of inventory
control system
Inventory planning helps determine what
goods and/or services need to be produced
Inventory planning helps determine whether
the organization produces the goods or
services or whether they are purchased from
another organization
Inventory planning also involves demand
forecasting
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 6
The Inventory Process
Suppliers Customers
Finished
Goods
Raw
Materials
Work in
Process
Fabrication/
Assembly
Inventory Storage
Inventory Processing
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 7
Controlling
Inventory
Levels
Introduction
Forecasting
Parts/Product
Demand
Planning on What
Inventory to Stock
and How to Acquire
It
Feedback Measurements
to Revise Plans and
Forecasts
Figure 6.1
Inventory planning and control
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 8
Importance of Inventory Control
Five uses of inventory
The decoupling function
Storing resources
Irregular supply and demand
Quantity discounts
Avoiding stockouts and shortages

The decoupling function
Used as a buffer between stages in a
manufacturing process
Reduces delays and improves efficiency
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 9
Importance of Inventory Control
Storing resources
Seasonal products may be stored to satisfy
off-season demand
Materials can be stored as raw materials,
work-in-process, or finished goods
Labor can be stored as a component of
partially completed subassemblies
Irregular supply and demand
Demand and supply may not be constant over
time
Inventory can be used to buffer the variability
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 10
Importance of Inventory Control
Quantity discounts
Lower prices may be available for larger orders
Cost of item is reduced but storage and insurance
costs increase, as well as the chances for more
spoilage, damage and theft.
Investing in inventory reduces the available funds
for other projects
Avoiding stockouts and shortages
Stockouts may result in lost sales
Dissatisfied customers may choose to buy from
another supplier
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 11
Inventory Decisions
There are only two fundamental decisions
in controlling inventory
How much to order
When to order
The major objective is to minimize total
inventory costs
Common inventory costs are
Cost of the items (purchase or material cost)
Cost of ordering
Cost of carrying, or holding, inventory
Cost of stockouts
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 12
Inventory Cost Factors
ORDERING COST FACTORS CARRYING COST FACTORS
Developing and sending purchase orders Cost of capital
Processing and inspecting incoming
inventory
Taxes
Bill paying Insurance
Inventory inquiries Spoilage
Utilities, phone bills, and so on, for the
purchasing department
Theft
Salaries and wages for the purchasing
department employees
Obsolescence
Supplies such as forms and paper for the
purchasing department
Salaries and wages for warehouse
employees
Utilities and building costs for the
warehouse
Supplies such as forms and paper for the
warehouse
Table 6.1
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 13
Inventory Cost Factors
Ordering costs are generally independent
of order quantity
Many involve personnel time
The amount of work is the same no matter the
size of the order
Carrying costs generally varies with the
amount of inventory, or the order size
The labor, space, and other costs increase as
the order size increases
Of course, the actual cost of items
purchased varies with the quantity
purchased
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 14
Economic Order Quantity
The economic order quantity (EOQ)
model is one of the oldest and most
commonly known inventory control
techniques
It dates from a 1915 publication by
Ford W. Harris
It is still used by a large number of
organizations today
It is easy to use but has a number of
important assumptions
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 15
Economic Order Quantity
Assumptions
1. Demand is known and constant
2. Lead time (the time between the placement and
receipt of an order) is known and constant
3. Receipt of inventory is instantaneous
Inventory from an order arrives in one batch, at
one point in time
4. Purchase cost per unit is constant throughout
the year; no quantity discounts
5. The only variable costs are the placing an order,
ordering cost, and holding or storing inventory
over time, holding or carrying cost, and these are
constant throughout the year
6. Orders are placed so that stockouts or shortages
are avoided completely
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 16
Inventory Usage Over Time
Time
Inventory
Level
Minimum
Inventory
0
Order Quantity = Q =
Maximum Inventory Level
Figure 6.2
Inventory usage has a sawtooth shape
Inventory jumps from 0 to the maximum when the shipment arrives
Because demand is constant over time, inventory drops at a uniform
rate over time
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 17
EOQ Inventory Costs
The objective is to minimize total costs
The relevant costs are the ordering and
carrying/holding costs, all other costs are constant.
Thus, by minimizing the sum of the ordering and
carrying costs, we are also minimizing the total costs
The annual ordering cost is the number of orders per
year times the cost of placing each order
As the inventory level changes daily, use the average
inventory level to determine annual holding or carrying
cost
The annual carrying cost equals the average inventory
times the inventory carrying cost per unit per year
The maximum inventory is Q and the average inventory
is Q/2.

2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 18
Inventory Costs in the EOQ Situation
Objective is generally to minimize total cost
Relevant costs are ordering costs and carrying
costs
2
level inventory Average
Q
=
INVENTORY LEVEL
DAY BEGINNING ENDING AVERAGE
April 1 (order received) 10 8 9
April 2 8 6 7
April 3 6 4 5
April 4 4 2 3
April 5 2 0 1
Maximum level April 1 = 10 units
Total of daily averages = 9 + 7 + 5 + 3 + 1 = 25
Number of days = 5
Average inventory level = 25/5 = 5 units
Table 6.2
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 19
Inventory Costs in the EOQ Situation
Develop an expression for the ordering cost.

Develop and expression for the carrying cost.

Set the ordering cost equal to the carrying
cost.

Solve this equation for the optimal order
quantity, Q*.

2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 20
Inventory Costs in the EOQ Situation
Mathematical equations can be developed using
Q = number of pieces to order
EOQ = Q
*
= optimal number of pieces to order
D = annual demand in units for the inventory item
C
o
= ordering cost of each order
C
h
= holding or carrying cost per unit per year
Annual ordering cost =
Number of
orders placed
per year
Ordering
cost per
order
o
C
Q
D
=
order per Cost
order per units of Number
Demand Annual
=
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 21
Inventory Costs in the EOQ Situation
Mathematical equations can be developed using
Q = number of pieces to order
EOQ = Q
*
= optimal number of pieces to order
D = annual demand in units for the inventory item
C
o
= ordering cost of each order
C
h
= holding or carrying cost per unit per year
h
C
Q
2
=
Annual holding cost =
Average
inventory
Carrying
cost per unit
per year
Total Inventory Cost =
h
o
C
Q
C
Q
D
2
+
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 22
Inventory Costs in the EOQ Situation
Minimum
Total
Cost
Optimal
Order
Quantity
Curve of Total Cost
of Carrying
and Ordering
Carrying Cost Curve
Ordering Cost Curve
Cost
Order Quantity
Figure 6.3
Optimal Order Quantity is when the Total Cost curve is at its
lowest . This occurs when the Ordering Cost = Carrying Cost
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 23
Finding the EOQ
When the EOQ assumptions are met, total cost is
minimized when Annual ordering cost = Annual
holding cost
h o
C
Q
C
Q
D
2
=
Solving for Q
h o
C Q DC
2
2 =
2
2
Q
C
DC
h
o
=
*
EOQ Q Q
C
DC
h
o
= = =
2
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 24
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model
h
C
Q
2
cost holding Annual =
o
C
Q
D
= cost ordering Annual
h
o
C
DC
Q
2
= =
*
EOQ
Summary of equations
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 25
Sumco Pump Company Example
Company sells pump housings to other
companies
Would like to reduce inventory costs by finding
optimal order quantity
Annual demand = 1,000 units
Ordering cost = $10 per order
Average carrying cost per unit per year = $0.50
units 200 000 40
50 0
10 000 1 2 2
= = = = ,
.
) )( , (
*
h
o
C
DC
Q
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 26
Sumco Pump Company Example
Total annual cost = Order cost + Holding cost
h o
C
Q
C
Q
D
TC
2
+ =
) . ( ) (
,
5 0
2
200
10
200
000 1
+ =
100 50 50 $ $ $ = + =
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 27
Sumco Pump Company Example
Program 6.1A
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 28
Sumco Pump Company Example
Program 6.1B
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 29
Purchase Cost of Inventory Items
Total inventory cost can be written to include the
cost of purchased items
Given the EOQ assumptions, the annual purchase
cost is constant at D C no matter the order
policy
C is the purchase cost per unit
D is the annual demand in units
It may be useful to know the average dollar level
of inventory
2
level dollar Average
) (CQ
=
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 30
Purchase Cost of Inventory Items
Inventory carrying cost is often expressed as an
annual percentage of the unit cost or price of the
inventory
This requires a new variable
Annual inventory holding charge as
a percentage of unit price or cost
I =
The cost of storing inventory for one year is then
IC C
h
=
thus,
IC
DC
Q
o
2
=
*
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 31
Sensitivity Analysis with the
EOQ Model
The EOQ model assumes all values are know and
fixed over time
Generally, however, the values are estimated or
may change
Determining the effects of these changes is
called sensitivity analysis
Because of the square root in the formula,
changes in the inputs result in relatively small
changes in the order quantity
h
o
C
DC 2
= EOQ
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 32
Sensitivity Analysis with the
EOQ Model
In the Sumco example
units 200
50 0
10 000 1 2
= =
.
) )( , (
EOQ
If the ordering cost were increased four times from
$10 to $40, the order quantity would only double
units 400
50 0
40 000 1 2
= =
.
) )( , (
EOQ
In general, the EOQ changes by the square root
of a change to any of the inputs
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 33
Reorder Point:
Determining When To Order
Once the order quantity is determined, the next
decision is when to order
The time between placing an order and its
receipt is called the lead time (L) or delivery
time
Inventory must be available during this period to
met the demand
When to order is generally expressed as a
reorder point (ROP) the inventory level at
which an order should be placed
Demand
per day
Lead time for a
new order in days
ROP =
= d L
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 34
Determining the Reorder Point
The slope of the graph is the daily inventory
usage
Expressed in units demanded per day, d
If an order is placed when the inventory level
reaches the ROP, the new inventory arrives at
the same instant the inventory is reaching 0
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 35
Procomps Computer Chip Example
Demand for the computer chip is 8,000 per year
Daily demand is 40 units
Delivery takes three working days
ROP = d L = 40 units per day 3 days
= 120 units
An order is placed when the inventory reaches
120 units
The order arrives 3 days later just as the
inventory is depleted
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 36
The Reorder Point (ROP) Curve
I
n
v
e
n
t
o
r
y

L
e
v
e
l

(
U
n
i
t
s
)

Q*
ROP
(Units)
Slope = Units/Day = d
Lead Time (Days)
L
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 37
EOQ Without The
Instantaneous Receipt Assumption
When inventory accumulates over time, the
instantaneous receipt assumption does not apply
Daily demand rate must be taken into account
The revised model is often called the production
run model
Inventory
Level
Time
Part of Inventory Cycle
During Which Production is
Taking Place
There is No Production
During This Part of the
Inventory Cycle
t
Maximum
Inventory
Figure 6.5
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 38
EOQ Without The
Instantaneous Receipt Assumption
Instead of an ordering cost, there will be a
setup cost the cost of setting up the
production facility to manufacture the desired
product
Includes the salaries and wages of employees
who are responsible for setting up the
equipment, engineering and design costs of
making the setup, paperwork, supplies,
utilities, etc.
The optimal production quantity is derived by
setting setup costs equal to holding or
carrying costs and solving for the order
quantity
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 39
Annual Carrying Cost for
Production Run Model
In production runs, setup cost replaces ordering
cost
The model uses the following variables
Q = number of pieces per order, or
production run
C
s
= setup cost
C
h
= holding or carrying cost per unit per
year
p = daily production rate
d = daily demand rate
t = length of production run in days
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 40
Annual Carrying Cost for
Production Run Model
Maximum inventory level
= (Total produced during the production run)
(Total used during the production run)
= (Daily production rate)(Number of days production)
(Daily demand)(Number of days production)
= (pt) (dt)
since Total produced = Q = pt
we know
p
Q
t =
Maximum
inventory
level
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
p
d
Q
p
Q
d
p
Q
p dt pt 1
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 41
Annual Carrying Cost for
Production Run Model
Since the average inventory is one-half the
maximum
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
d Q
1
2
inventory Average
and
h
C
p
d Q
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
2
cost holding Annual
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 42
Annual Setup Cost for
Production Run Model
s
C
Q
D
= cost setup Annual
Setup cost replaces ordering cost when a
product is produced over time
(independent of the size of the order and
the size of the production run)
and
o
C
Q
D
= cost ordering Annual
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 43
Determining the Optimal
Production Quantity
By setting setup costs equal to holding costs, we
can solve for the optimal order quantity
Annual holding cost = Annual setup cost
s h
C
Q
D
C
p
d Q
= |
.
|

\
|
1
2
Solving for Q, we get
|
.
|

\
|

=
p
d
C
DC
Q
h
s
1
2
*
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 44
Production Run Model
Summary of equations
|
.
|

\
|

=
p
d
C
DC
Q
h
s
1
2
quantity production Optimal
*
s
C
Q
D
= cost setup Annual
h
C
p
d Q
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
2
cost holding Annual
If the situation does not involve production but receipt
of inventory over a period of time, use the same model
but replace C
s
with C
o
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 45
Brown Manufacturing Example
Brown Manufacturing produces commercial
refrigeration units in batches
Annual demand = D = 10,000 units
Setup cost = C
s
= $100
Carrying cost = C
h
= $0.50 per unit per year
Daily production rate = p = 80 units daily
Daily demand rate = d = 60 units daily

How many refrigeration units should Brown produce
in each batch?
How long should the production cycle last?
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 46
Brown Manufacturing Example
|
.
|

\
|

=
p
d
C
DC
Q
h
s
1
2
*
1.
2.
|
.
|

\
|


=
80
60
1 5 0
100 000 10 2
.
,
*
Q
000 000 16
4
1
5 0
000 000 2
, ,
.
, ,
= =
units 4,000 =
days 50
80
000 4
= =
,
p
Q
= cycle Production
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 47
Brown Manufacturing Example
Program 6.2A
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 48
Brown Manufacturing Example
Program 6.2B
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 49
Quantity Discount Models
Quantity discounts are commonly available
The basic EOQ model is adjusted by adding in the
purchase or materials cost
Total cost = Material cost + Ordering cost + Holding cost
h o
C
Q
C
Q
D
DC
2
cost Total + + =
where
D = annual demand in units
C
s
= ordering cost of each order
C = cost per unit
C
h
= holding or carrying cost per unit per year
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 50
Quantity Discount Models
Quantity discounts are commonly available
The basic EOQ model is adjusted by adding in the
purchase or materials cost
Total cost = Material cost + Ordering cost + Holding cost
h o
C
Q
C
Q
D
DC
2
cost Total + + =
where
D = annual demand in units
C
s
= ordering cost of each order
C = cost per unit
C
h
= holding or carrying cost per unit per year
Holding cost = C
h
= I C
I = holding cost as a percentage of the unit cost (C)
Because unit cost is now variable
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 51
Quantity Discount Models
A typical quantity discount schedule
DISCOUNT
NUMBER
DISCOUNT
QUANTITY DISCOUNT (%)
DISCOUNT
COST ($)
1 0 to 999 0 5.00
2 1,000 to 1,999 4 4.80
3 2,000 and over 5 4.75
Table 6.3
Buying at the lowest unit cost is not always the
best choice
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 52
Quantity Discount Models
Total cost curve for the quantity discount model
Figure 6.6
TC Curve for
Discount 1
TC Curve for Discount 3
Total
Cost
$
Order Quantity
0 1,000 2,000
TC Curve for Discount 2
EOQ for Discount 2
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 53
Brass Department Store Example
Brass Department Store stocks toy race cars
Their supplier has given them the quantity
discount schedule shown in Table 6.3
Annual demand is 5,000 cars, ordering cost is $49, and
holding cost is 20% of the cost of the car
The first step is to compute EOQ values for each
discount
order per cars 700
00 5 2 0
49 000 5 2
1
= =
) . )( . (
) )( , )( (
EOQ
order per cars 714
80 4 2 0
49 000 5 2
2
= =
) . )( . (
) )( , )( (
EOQ
order per cars 718
75 4 2 0
49 000 5 2
3
= =
) . )( . (
) )( , )( (
EOQ
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 54
Brass Department Store Example
The second step is adjust quantities below the
allowable discount range
The EOQ for discount 1 is allowable
The EOQs for discounts 2 and 3 are outside the
allowable range and have to be adjusted to the
smallest quantity possible to purchase and
receive the discount
Q
1
= 700
Q
2
= 1,000
Q
3
= 2,000
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 55
Brass Department Store Example
The third step is to compute the total cost for
each quantity
DISCOUNT
NUMBER
UNIT
PRICE
(C)
ORDER
QUANTITY
(Q)
ANNUAL
MATERIAL
COST ($)
= DC
ANNUAL
ORDERING
COST ($)
= (D/Q)C
o

ANNUAL
CARRYING
COST ($)
= (Q/2)C
h
TOTAL ($)
1 $5.00 700 25,000 350.00 350.00 25,700.00
2 4.80 1,000 24,000 245.00 480.00 24,725.00
3 4.75 2,000 23,750 122.50 950.00 24,822.50
The fourth step is to choose the alternative
with the lowest total cost
Table 6.4
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 56
Brass Department Store Example
Program 6.3A
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 57
Brass Department Store Example
Program 6.3B
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 58
Use of Safety Stock
If demand or the lead time are uncertain,
the exact ROP will not be known with
certainty
To prevent stockouts, it is necessary to
carry extra inventory called safety stock
Safety stock can prevent stockouts when
demand is unusually high
Safety stock can be implemented by
adjusting the ROP
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 59
Use of Safety Stock
The basic ROP equation is
ROP = d L
d = daily demand (or average daily demand)
L = order lead time or the number of
working days it takes to deliver an order
(or average lead time)
A safety stock variable is added to the equation
to accommodate uncertain demand during lead
time
ROP = d L + SS
where
SS = safety stock
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 60
Use of Safety Stock
Stockout
Figure 6.7(a)
Inventory
on Hand
Time
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 61
Use of Safety Stock
Figure 6.7(b)
Inventory
on Hand
Time
Stockout is Avoided
Safety
Stock, SS
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 62
Dependent Demand: The Case for
Material Requirements Planning
All the inventory models discussed so far have
assumed demand for one item is independent
of the demand for any other item
However, in many situations items demand is
dependent on demand for one or more other
items
In these situations, MRP can be employed
effectively
Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is an
inventory model that can handle dependent
demand
That means, the demand for inventory is not
independent of the demand for another product

2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 63
Dependent Demand: The Case for
Material Requirements Planning
Some of the benefits of MRP are
1. Increased customer service levels
2. Reduced inventory costs
3. Better inventory planning and scheduling
4. Higher total sales
5. Faster response to market changes and shifts
6. Reduced inventory levels without reduced
customer service
Most MRP systems are computerized, but
the basic analysis is straightforward
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 64
Structure of the MRP System
Output Reports
MRP by
period report
MRP by
date report
Planned order
report
Purchase advice
Exception reports
Order early or late
or not needed
Order quantity too
small or too large
Data Files
Purchasing data
BOM
Lead times
(Item master file)
Inventory data
Master
production schedule
Material
requirement
planning
programs
(computer and
software)
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 65
MRP has evolved to include not only the
materials required in production, but also the
labor hours, material cost, and other
resources related to production
In this approach the term MRP II is often used
and the word resource replaces the word
requirements
As this concept evolved and sophisticated
software was developed, these systems
became known as enterprise resource
planning (ERP) systems
Enterprise Resource Planning
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 66
ERP Modules
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 67
ERP and MRP
Customer Relationship Management
Invoicing
Shipping
Distributors,
retailers,
and end users
Sales Order
(order entry,
product configuration,
sales management)
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 68
Table 13.6
Bills of
Material
Work
Orders
Purchasing
and
Lead Times
Routings
and
Lead Times
Master
Production
Schedule
Inventory
Management
MRP
ERP and MRP
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 69
Figure 14.11
Supply Chain Management
Vendor Communication
(schedules, EDI, advanced shipping notice,
e-commerce, etc.)
ERP and MRP
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 70
Figure 14.11
Table 13.6
Finance/
Accounting
General
Ledger
Accounts
Receivable
Payroll
Accounts
Payable
ERP and MRP
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 71
The objective of an ERP System is to reduce costs
by integrating all of the operations of a firm
Starts with the supplier of materials needed and
flows through the organization to include
invoicing the customer of the final product
Data are entered only once into a database where
it can be quickly and easily accessed by anyone in
the organization
Benefits include
Reduced transaction costs
Increased speed and accuracy of information
Almost all areas of the firm benefit
Enterprise Resource Planning
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 72
There are drawbacks
The software is expensive to buy and
costly to customize
Small systems can cost hundreds of thousands
of dollars
Large systems can cost hundreds of millions
The implementation of an ERP system may
require a company to change its normal
operations
Employees are often resistant to change
Training employees on the use of the new
software can be expensive
Enterprise Resource Planning
2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6 73

The most common ones are from the firms
SAP,
Oracle,
People Soft,
Baan, and
JD Edwards.
Even small systems can cost hundreds of
thousands of dollars.
The larger systems can cost hundreds of millions
of dollars.
ERP Commercial Software
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CUNYfirst Fully Integrated Resources and
Services Tool
An ERP suite of software that has replaced
many of the aging computer systems in the
areas of Student Administration, Finance and
Human Resources.
The ongoing implementation of all CUNYfirst
applications involves a multi-year process
with CUNY colleges being brought online
several institutions at a time.
The new software continues to play a key role
in helping the University realize its goal of an
integrated CUNY.
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CUNYfirst consists of three main sections: Campus Solutions (Student
Administration), Human Resources and Finance. In each of these sections,
new systems have changed the way business is performed in a number of
key areas: