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The description of reservoir and its contained is the

Most important phase of Reservoir Engineering job .



More precisely reservoir description , known as
formation evaluation involves:

Gathering of appropriate and accurate data on the
physical characteristics of the Formation rocks and on
the characteristics of fluid within these rocks.

Interpretation of these data for accuracy and reliability

Evaluation of potential sources of reservoir producing
energy such as an Aquifer or Gas cap.


Reservoir Engineering job!!!
A Data gathering program for a newly
discovered field should be designed to
answer two fundamental questions :

Oil or Gas present in the Formation is in economic
quantities or not .

How can the reservoir be developed and produced
for maximum economic return?
Reservoir Engineering job!!!
Kinds of data :

Original reservoir pressure and temperature

Gross reservoir thickness at the well and the thickness of other
productive zones penetrated

The lithology of the reservoir rock

The stratigraphic sequence of the rock encountered in the well

Reservoir porosity and initial fluid saturations

The natural productivity index of the well

Characteristic of the reservoir fluid
Reservoir Engineering job!!!
sources of data :

Cores

Logs including Fullset logs and MDT,XPT,PLT &
FMI

Fluid samples

DST & Production tests

Reservoir Engineering job!!!
Other data that should be obtained from wells drilled after
discovery:

Areal variation in reservoir permeability , porosity and water saturation

Continuity of reservoir zones between wells

Vertical permeability variations within the reservoir

The subsea depth of the top and base of the reservoir for structure maps

Structural position of the reservoir Gas-Oil and Water-Oil contacts

Variation in reservoir fluid composition within the reservoir
Reservoir Engineering job!!!
These data are also determined from :

Cores

Logs

Production tests and production profiles

Interference tests


Reservoir Engineering job!!!
CLASIFICATION OF RESERVOIR AND
RESERVOIR FLUID
Petroleum reservoirs are classified as oil
and gas reservoirs.
This clasification is subdivided depending
on :

The composition of the reservoir Hydrocarbon mixture

Initial reservoir pressure and temperature

Pressure and temperature of the surface production
PRESSURE TEMPERATURE DIAGRAM
Although different
Hydrocarbon system
would have a different
phase diagram ,the
general configuration
is similar.

These diagrams are
essentially used to:
1. Classify the reservoir
2. Describe the phase behavior
of reservoir fluid

OIL RESERVOIR
Depending upon initial
reservoir pressure oil
reservoirs can be
subclassified into the
following categories :

Undersaturated oil reservoir
Saturated oil reservoir
Gas cap reservoir
1
2
3
OIL RESERVOIR
Crude oils are
commonly classified
into the following
types:

Ordinary black oil

Volatile oil

Near critical crude oil

GAS RESERVOIR
On the basis of phase diagram and
reservoir condition Natural gases are
classified into four categories:

Retrograde gas condensate
Near critical gas condensate
Wet gas
Dry gas
GAS RESERVOIR
COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS RESERVOIR FLUID
TYPE
RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES
To understand and predict of volumetric behavior of oil and gas
reservoirs as a function of pressure, knowledge of physical
properties of reservoir fluid must be gained.

These fluid properties are usually determined by laboratory
experiments on reservoir fluid.

In the absence of experimentally measured properties , it is
necessary for the petroleum engineers to determine properties
from empirically correlations.

LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
SAMPLING :
Samples of reservoir fluid are
collected and dispatch to a
laboratory for the full PVT
analysis.
There are basically two way
of collecting PVT samples.

1. Direct subsurface sampling
2. Recombination of surface
samples
quality of the samples
should be checked
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Accurate laboratory
studies of PVT
experiments are
necessary for
characterizing the
reservoir fluids and
evaluating their
volumetric performance
at various pressure
levels.
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
PVT sampling
Three main type of
laboratory
experiments are as
follows:

Primary tests
Routin laboratory tests
Special laboratory PVT tests


Primary tests
including routin onsite field
tests involving the
measurement of specific gravity
& GOR of the produced
hydrocarbon fluids.
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Routin laboratory tests
After checking the samples There are several laboratory tests that
are routinely conducted to characterize the reservoir
hydrocarbon fluid which is included:

Compositional analysis of the system
Constant composition expansion
Differential liberation
Separator tests
Constant volume depletion
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Compositional
analysis of the
system

Most of the parameters
measured in a reservoir
fluid study can be
calculated with some
degree of accuracy
from the composition.

It is the most complete
description of the
reservoir fluid that can be
made
Stock Tank Oil Solution Gas Reservoir Oil
(mol%) (mol%) (mol%)
H
2
S 0.00 9.69 5.78
N
2
0.00 0.02 0.01
CO
2
0.00 4.07 2.43
C
1
0.00 59.21 35.35
C
2
0.16 10.74 6.48
C
3
0.99 6.98 4.56
iC
4
0.58 1.67 1.23
nC
4
1.87 3.51 2.85
iC
5
1.31 1.25 1.27
nC
5 1.37 1.27 1.31
C
6
9.84 1.17 4.66
C
7
8.82 0.35 3.76
C
8
8.35 0.08 3.41
C
9
8.69 0.01 3.51
C
10
8.01 0.00 3.23
C
11
6.05 0.00 2.44
C
12
+ 43.96 0.00 17.71
241
414
89
0.8962 Sp.Gr. of C12+ Fraction @ 60/60 oF
* Recombined oil separated at atmospheric condition( 0 psig and T=70
O
F)
Reservoir Fluid Composition
Components
100.00 GOR* : 669.33 SCF/STB
Molecular weight of residual oil
Molecular weight of C12+ fraction
Molecular weight of Reservoir oil

- Relative Density - 0.6865
FLUID - - -
Reservoir Fluid
(g/cm
3
)
3-Density
Separator Liquid Separator Gas
FLUID 82.94 19.90 25.33
C12+ - - -
C7+ - - -
0.55
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
C12+ 6.43 0.00
Pseudo C11 2.73 0.00 0.23
Pseudo C10 4.41 0.00 0.38
Pseudo C9 7.12 0.02 0.63
Pseudo C8 9.84 0.06 0.90
Pseudo C7 9.77 0.09 0.92
10.82 83.68 77.38
C2H6 4.62 4.19 4.23
CH4
4.87
H2S 8.49 4.24 4.61
2.18 CO2 5.12
RESERVOIR FLUID ANALYSIS
1-COMPOSITION (mol % )
Component Separator Liquid Separator Gas Reservoir fluid
N2 0.11 0.10 0.10
C3H8 6.24 1.49 1.91
iC4H10 2.68 0.25 0.46
nC4H10 7.03 0.42 1.00
iC5H12 5.10 0.11 0.54
Pseudo C6 8.43 0.13 0.84
nC5H12 4.00 0.11 0.45
2-Molar Mass
Separator Liquid Separator Gas Reservoir Fluid
g/mol
C12+ - - -
C7+ - - -
Constant composition
expansion

LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Press. Total F.V.F Compressibility
psia Bt E-6
8535 0.8625 2.0857 29.34
8036 0.8752 2.1163 29.63
7537 0.8881 2.1476 29.95
7038 0.9014 2.1797 30.29
6543 0.9149 2.2123 30.66
6046 0.9288 2.2460 31.06
5548 0.9432 2.2808 31.50
5049 0.9580 2.3166 32.00
4550 0.9733 2.3536 32.55
4150 0.9860 2.3843 33.05
4050 0.9893 2.3921 33.18
3950 0.9925 2.4001 33.32
3849 0.9959 2.4082 33.46
3749 0.9992 2.4162
3724 1.0000 2.4181
3608 1.0156 2.4558
3592 1.0178 2.4611
3576 1.0200 2.4664
3561 1.0219 2.4712
3547 1.0238 2.4756
3532 1.0258 2.4806
3508 1.0291 2.4885
3472 1.0338 2.4998
3424 1.0404 2.5158
3353 1.0509 2.5412
3254 1.0668 2.5795
3120 1.0905 2.6369
2940 1.1262 2.7233 2.1134 2.1148 1.1261
2719 1.1798 2.8528 2.0567 2.0546 1.1591
2454 1.2609 3.0490 1.9841 1.9824 1.2339
2155 1.3836 3.3456 1.8985 1.9009 1.3469
1835 1.5680 3.7915 1.8127 1.8138 1.5186
1515 1.8453 4.4621 1.7252 1.7266 1.7768
1212 2.2594 5.4634 1.6459 1.6440 2.1643
1142 2.3915 5.7828 1.6251 1.6250 2.2750
Constant Mass Expansion @ 287 F
** Y = 2.7240E-04P + 1.3139
Smoothed Vt Smoothed Y
**
Vt Y Function
*
2.0000
2.0500
2.1000
2.1500
2.2000
2.2500
2.3000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
( )
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
+
i i
t t
t
i O
P P
V V
V
C
i i
i 1
1
1
STOCK
T P
t V
V
B & =
( )
( ) ( ) 1
*

=
t
b
V P
P P
Y
Constant volume
depletion

Press. Total F.V.F Compressibility
psia Bt E-6
8535 0.8625 2.0857 29.34
8036 0.8752 2.1163 29.63
7537 0.8881 2.1476 29.95
7038 0.9014 2.1797 30.29
6543 0.9149 2.2123 30.66
6046 0.9288 2.2460 31.06
5548 0.9432 2.2808 31.50
5049 0.9580 2.3166 32.00
4550 0.9733 2.3536 32.55
4150 0.9860 2.3843 33.05
4050 0.9893 2.3921 33.18
3950 0.9925 2.4001 33.32
3849 0.9959 2.4082 33.46
3749 0.9992 2.4162
3724 1.0000 2.4181
3608 1.0156 2.4558
3592 1.0178 2.4611
3576 1.0200 2.4664
3561 1.0219 2.4712
3547 1.0238 2.4756
3532 1.0258 2.4806
3508 1.0291 2.4885
3472 1.0338 2.4998
3424 1.0404 2.5158
3353 1.0509 2.5412
3254 1.0668 2.5795
3120 1.0905 2.6369
2940 1.1262 2.7233 2.1134 2.1148 1.1261
2719 1.1798 2.8528 2.0567 2.0546 1.1591
2454 1.2609 3.0490 1.9841 1.9824 1.2339
2155 1.3836 3.3456 1.8985 1.9009 1.3469
1835 1.5680 3.7915 1.8127 1.8138 1.5186
1515 1.8453 4.4621 1.7252 1.7266 1.7768
1212 2.2594 5.4634 1.6459 1.6440 2.1643
1142 2.3915 5.7828 1.6251 1.6250 2.2750
Constant Mass Expansion @ 287 F
** Y = 2.7240E-04P + 1.3139
Smoothed Vt Smoothed Y
**
Vt Y Function
*
2.0000
2.0500
2.1000
2.1500
2.2000
2.2500
2.3000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
( )
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
+
i i
t t
t
i O
P P
V V
V
C
i i
i 1
1
1
STOCK
T P
t V
V
B & =
( )
( ) ( ) 1
*

=
t
b
V P
P P
Y
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Differential liberation
Oil
Density
g/cc
8535 2.0857 0.6194
8036 2.1163 0.6105
7537 2.1476 0.6016
7038 2.1797 0.5927
6543 2.2123 0.5840
6046 2.2460 0.5752
5548 2.2808 0.5665
5049 2.3166 0.5577
4550 2.3536 0.5489
4150 2.3843 0.5419
4050 2.3921 0.5401
3950 2.4001 0.5383
3849 2.4082 0.5365
3749 2.4162 0.5347
3724 0.00 1953.10 2.4181 0.5343
3047 501.68 1451.42 2.0603 0.5821
2543 768.44 1184.67 1.8669 0.6162
2039 992.88 960.23 1.7187 0.6453
1534 1182.42 770.68 1.5947 0.6733
1028 1370.90 582.21 1.4852 0.6985
520 1601.63 351.47 1.3700 0.7208
14.7 1953.10 0.00 1.1118 0.7456
B
o
@ 60
o
F = 1.0
Pressure psia
Cumulative
Lib.GOR
(2)
SCF/STB
Bo
(3)



Bbl/STB
Solution GOR
(1)
SCF/STB
3-Barrel of oil @ indicated pressure & temperature per barrel of residual oil @60
o
F Ii
2-Cubic feet of liberated gas @ 14.696 psia & 60
o
F per barrel of residual oil @60
o
F
1-Cubic feet of solution gas @ 14.696 psia & 60
o
F per barrel of residual oil @60
o
F
Differential Vaporization @ 287 F
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Separator tests
Shrikage Sp.Gr. Total
Factor
2
of GOR
1
GOR
1
GOR
1
Oil Flashed
SCF SCF Density Vstock Vb Gas SCF
psig
o
F STB
o
F STB
o
API Vb Vstock STB
310 90 1089.28 75.6 232.35 44.76 0.5075 1.9705 - 1321.62
200 90 1145.97 78.6 163.05 45.60 0.5236 1.9097 - 1309.02
100 90 1239.79 75.5 90.87 45.31 0.5199 1.9235 - 1330.66
0 90 - 76.4 1502.26 42.80 0.5000 2.0001 0.9341 1502.26
Atomospheric F.V.F.
3
Separator
Pressure Temp. Temp.
1 - Gas Oil Ratio =
2 - Shrinkage Factor =
3 - Formation Volume Factor =
Cubic feet of gas at standard condition
Barrel of Stock Tank Oil at 60
o
F
Barrel of stock Tank Oil @ 60
o
F
Barrel of Oil @ Pb
Barrel of Oil @ Pb
Barrel of stock Tank Oil @ 60 oF
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR FLUID
Special laboratory PVT tests
Slim tube test


Coring and core analysis
Coring is the most basic formation evaluation
tools.
Core analysis provide the only initial means of
determining the wettability ,capillary and
relative permeability characteristics of a
reservoir.
The successful use of quantitative logs
requires core analysis data for log calibration.

RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
There are basically two main categories of core
analysis tests that are performed on core
samples:
Routin core analysis tests
Porosity
Permeability
Saturation
Special core analysis
Capillary pressure
Relative permeability
Wettability
Surface and interfacial tension
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
1- POROSITY
=Vp/Vb
Is a measure of the space
available for fluid storage

ABSOLUTE POROSITY
EFFECTIVE POROSITY

- The percentage of isolated pores
is usually rather unimportant for
good reservoir rocks

- Effective porosity shows a better
correlation with permeability
than the absolute porosity
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Absolute porosity:
a =total pore volume/bulk volume

Effective porosity:
e =interconnected pore volume/bulk volume
PERMEABILITY
-The fluid conductance
capacity in the porous
medium.
-Permeability is the property
of a porous material that
characterized the ease with
which fluids can go through
the material by a given
pressure gradient.
-For horizontal linear flow of
an incompressible fluid
Darcys law is used :
Q=KAdP/ dL
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Saturation
is defined as that fraction or percent of pore
volume occupied by a particular fluid.

fluid saturation= total volume of the
fluid/pore volume

So=volume of oil/pore volume
Sg=volume of gas/pore volume
Sw=volume of water/pore volume
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Wettability
wettability is defined as the tendency
of one fluid to spread on a solid
surface in the presence of other
immiscible fluid.

As the contact angle decrease the
wetting characteristic of the fluid
increase.

Complete wettability is at zero contact
angle and a complete non wetting is
by 180contact angle
The wettability of reservoir rock to
the fluids in the porous media is a
function of wettability
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Surface and interfacial tension
In multiphase system it is
necessary to consider the
effect of the forces at the
interface where two
immiscible fluid are in contact.
When the interface is between a
liquid and a gas it is named
surface tension and if it is
between two liquid is named
interfacial tension.
Tensiometer and Pendent Drop is
two tools for measuring
surface and interfacial
tension.
Capillary pressure
The capillary forces in a petroleum reservoir are the results of the
combined effect of the surface and interfacial tension of the
rock and fluids.
The pore size and geometry and the wetting characteristics of the
system.
The displacement of one fluid by another in the pores of a porous
medium is either aided or opposed by the surface forces of
capillary pressure.

Capillary pressure can be expressed as:

Pc=Pnw-Pw

RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
The capillary pressure that exist within a
porous medium between two immiscible
phases is a function of the interfacial tensions
and the average size of the capillaries which
control the curvature of the interface.
The curvature is also a function of the
saturation distribution of the fluid involved.
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
The capillary pressure
saturation data can be
converted into height-
saturation data by
arranging an equation
and solving for a height
h above the free-water
level
h=144*Pc/
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Laboratory experiments have
been developed to simulate
the displacing forces in a
reservoir in orther to
determine the magnitude of
capillary forces in a reservoir
and the type of saturation.
One of the routin method is
the restored capillary
pressure technique which
was primarily developed to
determine the magnitude of
connate water saturation
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Calculating reservoir capillary pressure data
from laboratory data:
Laboratory Pc should be corrected before using
for reservoir condition :
Pc
l
= 2(COS)
L
/r
Pc
R
= 2(COS)
R
/r
Pc
R
= Pc
l
* (COS)
R
/(COS)
L
The contact angles are usually unknown so
Pc
R
= Pc
l
* ()
R
/()
L

Variation of transition zone with
fluid gravity:

The height above FWL increases with
decreasing the density difference

From a practical standpoint , this means
that in a gas reservoir having a
GWC , the thickness of the
transition zone will be a minimum
since will be large.

If all other factors remain unchanged ,
a low API gravity oil reservoir with
an OWC will have a longer transition
zone than a high API gravity oil
reservoir.
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Variation of transition zone with
permeability:

The reservoir pore size can often
be related approximately to
permeability, and where this
applies, it can be stated that high
permeability reservoirs will have
shorter transition zones than low
permeability reservoirs .So a tilted
OWC could be caused by a change
in permeability across a reservoir

RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Relative permeability
effective permeability of any reservoir fluid is a function of
the reservoir fluid saturation and the wetting
characteristic of the formation . Ko,Kg and Kw are the
accepted symbols for the effective permeability to
oil,gas and water.

The absolute permeability is a property of porous medium
and is a measure of the capacity of the medium to
transmit fluids.

When two or more fluids flow at the same time, the
relative permeability of each phase at a specific
saturation is the ratio of the effective permeability of
the phase to the absolute permeability

Kro=Ko/K
Krg=Kg/K
Krw=Kw/K
since the effective permeabilities may range from zero to K then:
0Kro, Krg, Krw 1
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
Normalization and averaging relative
permeability data
Results of relative permeability tests
performed on several core samples
of a reservoir rock often vary.
It is necessary to average the relative
permeability data obtained on
individual rock samples.
For usage this data for oil recovery
prediction , the relative permeability
curves should first be normalized to
remove the effect of different initial
water and critical oil saturations.
The relative permeability can then be
de-normalized and assigned to
different regions of the reservoir
based on the existing critical fluid
saturation for each reservoir region.
RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES
LOGS
Logging tools provide data
on the lithology of formation
penetrated by the well and
on the porosity and water
saturation of reservoir rocks.
Logs provide the primary
basis for determining both
Gross and Net formation
thicknesses.
Correlation of the logs show
the degree of continuity of
the reservoir.
Other logs
1. Production log tools
2. Image loges
3. MDT/XPT

LOGS
PLT TOOLS
Through measuring pressure, density
and temperature will show the
productive zone.
LOGS
FMI
This tool can give an image of
the wellbore and some
information about deep of
the formation and presence
of vugs and fractures and a
value for porosity of the
fracture.
LOGS
LOGS
MDT/XPT
Best method of taking reservoir
pressure, fluid gradient and
type of layering of the
reservoir is using MDT/XPT
tools.
DST AND PRODUCTION TESTS
A formation test of a well is a production test
designed to determine the fluid content and
the productivity of the reservoir.
Drill stem testing can establish the
productivity index , determine the true
reservoir pressure and locate gas oil & water
oil contacts.
Formation permeability and limitation of the
reservoir can be detected by a reasonable
production test.
DST AND PRODUCTION TESTS
DST AND PRODUCTION TESTS
RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
Material balance method
The data gathering program for any reservoir should
include the collection of pressure, production and
fluid sample data which is needed for material
balance calculations.
It is routin to accurately measure and record oil
production,water and gas produced in association
with the oil.
For material balance calculations,water and gas
volumes are as important as oil volume.
OOIP can be calculated through material balance
equation.
Volumetric method
The volume of stock-tank oil originally inplace in a
reservoir can be calculated from the net reservoir
rock volume , porosity , connate water and oil
formation volume factor by the following equation :
OIP= V(N/G)(1-Sw
c
)/ Bo

V(N/G) is called the pore volume and is the total volume in the reservoir
which can be occupied by fluids.
V(N/G)(1-Sw
c
) is called the hydrocarbon pore volume at reservoir
condition
OIP= V(N/G)(1-Sw
c
)/ Bo is called the hydrocarbon pore volume at
standard condition


RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
OIP calculation could be carried out
through two software:
1. Petrel for reservoir rock volume
calculation
2. Mont carlo(REP) software through
using probablistic analysis.
RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
RESERVOIR VOLUMETRICS
robabilistic GIIP Calculations: Key Results Golshan Gas: P
G3, Fahliyan - G-1 OWC (-1359m)
G1, Dariyan - G-3 OWC (-1095m)
G4, Surmeh - G-3 ODT (-1412m)
G11, Kangan & U Dalan -
Top Kangan spillpoint (-3500m)
G14, L Dalan - Zakeen - inferred FWL (-3755m)
(Petrel display artefact)
G3, Fahliyan - G-1 OWC (-1359m)
G1, Dariyan - G-3 OWC (-1095m)
G4, Surmeh - G-3 ODT (-1412m)
G11, Kangan & U Dalan -
Top Kangan spillpoint (-3500m)
G14, L Dalan - Zakeen - inferred FWL (-3755m)
(Petrel display artefact)
Golshan all Dehram reservoirs
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 7'20014'40021'60028'80036'00043'20050'40057'60064'80072'000
GIIP/AGIIP in Bscf
C
u
m
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
N
r
.

o
f

o
u
t
c
o
m
e
s
Dependent Cumulative Probability
Independent Cumulative Probability Bscf
p10 All Volumes 57882.5
p50 All Volumes 44245.2
p90 All Volumes 34186.8
EXP = Mean All Volumes 45310.3
P50: 44.2 TCF
FLUID PRESSURE REGIMES
The total pressure at any depth, resulting
from the combined weight of the formation
rock and fluids , whether water,oil or gas is
known as the overburden pressure.in the
sedimentary basins the overburden pressure
increases linearly in depth and typically has
a pressure gradient of 1 psi/ft .
At a given depth , the overburden pressure
can be equated to the sum of the fluid
pressure(FP) and the grain or matrix
pressure(GP)
OP=FP+GP
Since the overburden pressure remains
constant at any particular depth
d(FP)=-d(GP)
Then a reduction in fluid pressure will lead to a
corresponding increase in the grain
pressure.
Fluid pressure regimes in hydrocarbon columns are
dictated by formation water of the reservoir.
In a perfectly normal case the water pressure at any
depth can be calculated as :
Pw = (dP/dD)water
*
D +14.7 (psi)
In which dP/dD , the water pressure gradient , is
dependent on the chemical composition (salinity) ,
and for pure water has the value of 0.4335 psi/ft
The above equation assumes that there is both
continuity of water pressure to the surface and that
the salinity does not vary with depth.


FLUID PRESSURE REGIMES
In contrast to normal hydrostatic
pressure , abnormal hydrostatic
pressure are encountered and defined
by:
Pw = (dP/dD)water
*
D +14.7 +C
Where C is a constant and could be
positive if the water is overpressured
and negative if underpressured.
FLUID PRESSURE REGIMES
Range of pressure gradient
(dP/dD)
w
=0.45-0.52 psi/ft
(dP/dD)
0
=0.21-0.41 psi/ft
(dP/dD)
g
=0.08-0.12 psi/ft

At the oil-water contact , the
pressure in the oil and water
must be equal otherwise a
static interface would not
exist .

FLUID PRESSURE REGIMES