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Introduction

Elements

Language

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Instructions
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Progress through this exercise from slide to slide. You are free to work at your own pace. Remember: Dont wait for your boat of success to come in, row out to meet it. Yes you can!
Click here to see what the buttons mean.

Exercises
End Show Home (This slide) Click here to go to first slide of each topic. Previous Slide

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Introduction
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Short Story writing may seem like a daunting task to you but you will find that it is quite manageable if you remember that the main aim is for you to share with your reader your creativity and appreciation for life through a story. With planning and practice, you will have so much fun that you will wonder what you had been scared about!

Model Story

Exercises

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Introduction
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Your diction can make quite a difference to the improvement of your writing skills. Diction is simply a writers choice of words. Your choice of one word instead of another can significantly improve the level of your writing. Keep your dictionary and thesaurus as two of your best friends!

Model Story

Exercises

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Objectives
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

By the end of this tutorial, you will be able to: Use your experiences creatively. Develop storylines. Develop the ability to share real and imagined experiences creatively. Develop the ability to use language with precision, clarity, and grammatical correctness. Use figurative language. Organise and sequence ideas to communicate emotional and imaginative interpretation of experiences.

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Creating Storylines
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

You have 450 words (about two pages) to develop a storyline. A storyline is a problem that a character faces that needs to be solved. Use the following techniques: Exposition - where you describe the setting and introduce the main character (no more than two paragraphs) A character may have a problem (conflict) with himself/herself, others or nature. You get to decide! A problem which heightens as the character develops (plot development) Tension mounts as your readers wonder what will happen to your main character (climax) A solution surfaces just at the point where it seems that your character will be defeated or something really unusual (but believable!) happens. Your character accepts the outcome (resolution). Your outcome does not have to be nice and neatly wrapped up. Life is not often like that!
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Creating Storylines
Introduction

Storyline

Additionally you get to decide who will tell your story. Do you want to be the main person in your story and tell it? Do you wish to observe someone else and tell the story? This is called the Narrative Perspective.

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

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Narrative Perspective
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

A story is a series of events arranged to elicit (remember to use your dictionary and thesaurus in building your vocabulary) the readers interest. The story can be shared from the first person point of view where the narrator is the main character in the story with he or she being integrally involved in the story and uses the pronoun I OR You could decide to use of the third person point of view where the storyteller/ narrator is not a character in the story but an observer of the events as they occur and shares the story.

Exercises

Tip! Examine the stimulus given carefully to decide your narrative perspective. Think carefully how the narrative perspective will help you to better tell the story.

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Stimulus
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The stimulus is embodied in the sentences and instructions given which then stimulates the idea that forms the basis for your story. Please remember that you must follow the instructions that you are given and that you cannot and you cannot change any of the words in the stimulus. You can be asked to write a story beginning, ending or including a particular stimulus. Sample Stimulus The phone rang once and stopped. It rang again. This was it now. Write a story which includes these sentences. When you get to the model story, you will note how it stimulated an idea for the writer and that none of the original wording was changed.
TIP!

you cannot change any word in the stimulus to suit your purposes!

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Elements of a Story
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Whether in rivers, lakes, seas or oceans, water is a liquid with the formula H20,- two hydrogen elements and one oxygen. Wherever in the world you go water is- WATER! Similarly, when writing a story there are essential elements which make your story -a STORY! Click to see elements.
Exposition

Model Story
Character

Setting

Conflict

Climax

Resolution

STORY

Exercises

These elements comprise the plot of your story !

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Story Elements
Introduction

Click on each element for a description.

Storyline

Story Elements

Exposition

Conflict

Model Story

Exercises

Resolution

Climax

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Exposition Setting
Introduction Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Choose a morning. Go outside and look at the scenery. What would you tell someone about the day? What kind of person would take the time to view the scenery? What could prevent someone from even noticing the scenery?

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

MORE

Resolution

Climax

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Exposition Characters and Characterization


Introduction Storyline

A character can be simply a person just like you who faces many of life's challenges. A character could also be an extra-terrestrial figment of your imagination! Your character may react to life's varied challenges in different way and may also be affected by his/her/its mood .
What is meant by mood?

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

You can use word choice (diction) and description to create mood in your story. The words that you use help to create certain effects. There are a variety of words that can express a variety of emotions. As you write (and read) a story you may feel happy, sad, lively, angry ecstatic, light-hearted, buoyant, serious, grave reflective, pensive and other moods!
MORE

Resolution

Climax

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Exposition Characters and Characterization


Introduction Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Your story must also take place somewhere. Your job is to make both the character and the setting real for the reader. This is the first section of your story and is known as the exposition. This is a short story so you must limit the number of characters. Suggestion-no more that three characters (inclusive of the main character). Allow your character to use brief dialogue in conversation.

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

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Resolution

Climax

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Exposition Figures of Speech


Introduction Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

As this is a short story, do not vary your setting too much. Keep your setting stable and use figurative language and vivid descriptions to make your story memorable. Figures of speech also termed figurative language gives life to the mundane. It is language that is used in a non-literal sense, adding spice to written and spoken language. Figurative writing helps the creation in our minds based on symbolic representations. Research all the figures of speech. Some are given on the next slide. See how many others you can find and use. The aim is for you to KNOW and USE these various figures of speech in making language vivid.
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Resolution

Climax

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Examples of Figures of Speech


Introduction

Point on each figure of speech below to get a definition.

alliteration
Storyline

pun
Story Elements

allusion

simile
Model Story

analogy

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

sarcasm personification metaphor

irony

MORE

Resolution

Climax

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Exposition
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

The EXPOSITION exposes (no pun intended) the time and place of action to the (setting) and provides a smooth introduction to the main character. You will note that there is a contrast between nature and the feelings of the main character who made the decision that his mood would not be influenced by the weather.

Model Story

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

MORE

Resolution

Climax

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Conflict
Introduction

Storyline

In the same way that you face challenges, your main character must face a challenge that needs to be solved. As this is a short story, ensure that your character faces ONE significant challenge

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

Resolution

Climax

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Climax
Introduction

Storyline

The climax is the highest point of tension when the readers wonders what will become of the main character or how the main character will respond as the crisis mounts

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

Resolution

Climax

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Resolution
Introduction

Storyline

This shows how the conflict is resolved or how the problem is solved.

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises
Exposition Conflict

Resolution

Climax

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Introduction to Model Story


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Go to the next slide to read a story written by a fifth form student under examination conditions. What do you think of his exposition?

Model Story

Exercises

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Model Short Story


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The Hope of Ancestors. The pregnant clouds outside kept out the sunlight. The morning was bleak and the sky overcast. It was not surprising when the clouds gave birth to heavy droplets of water which hit against the rusty zinc. Clink! Clink! The weather outside opposed my mood, yet I was happy. It was the morning my ancestors and my generation had waited for. I was the one. I was to recover lost hope although the weather demanded laziness; I was in the mood to work. I was joyful, hopeful and felt the strength that would enable me to move mountains. Generations had fought before the fight I was to fight to bring back respect and hope to my family. "Honey, will I pass?" I asked my wife, who was still half asleep on the bed beside me. "Yes, of course you must," she replied. It was one of those precocious flairs. I had developed as a result of my humble beginning: I could weather the weather whatever it was, whether I liked it or not. Could I do it this morning? 123
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Model Short Story


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The Hope of Ancestors. I arrived at the examination centre early that morning. I sat and watched my "opponents." The examination began. Everything was anxious except me - I was confident. I knew that I should pass; I must. Throughout the five hours that the exam lasted everyone looked into the eye of whomever they could. In those eyes was the look of dare. Those examinations decided your destiny, your fate. So in that room friends became enemies. Only one person would get through to study law; one of about seventy persons. I fought the battle with the papers. I demanded that post. Duty demanded it. It was like salvation to the sinner. It was like food to the starving man. Poverty was nothing anyone desired. You could be free yet incarcerated because of poverty. That exam was the verdict. The post was for the person who wanted it the most. Ting-a-ling-a-ling! The bell signaled the end of the battle. I had fought it well. 123
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Model Short Story


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The Hope of Ancestors. Two months later, I sat in my living room. The result would be communicated via the telephone. It was the day of reckoning. Who wanted it more? I sat with the phone in my hand. My heart was beating: thump! I thought my wife could hear it. My children sat with my wife and I on the bed. The phone was to ring anytime now. There was a deafening silence. We were all nervous. Instead of rain today however, the sun blazed in the blue skies above. It was element weather. Was it signifying success or was it failure? I did not know, we did not know. All they knew and I know was that our life depended on it. I suddenly remembered the vows I had made on my wedding day. If I failed, would we have to get a divorce?" For better or worse! I was nervous. Ring! Ring! The phone rang once. It rang again. That was it.
Written by: Sheldon Young (5M), Glenmiur High School, 2008 (Permission granted)

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PRACTICE EXERCISE
Introduction

Challenge yourself-Test your learning.


Storyline

Story Elements

Where in the story was the exposition?

Model Story

Exercises

END

Model Short Story - The Exposition


See red italicized text
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The Hope of Ancestors. The pregnant clouds outside kept out the sunlight. The morning was bleak and the sky overcast. It was not surprising when the clouds gave birth to heavy droplets of water which hit against the rusty zinc. Clink! Clink! The weather outside opposed my mood, yet I was happy. It was the morning my ancestors and my generation had waited for. I was the one. I was to recover lost hope although the weather demanded laziness; I was in the mood to work. I was joyful, hopeful and felt the strength that would enable me to move mountains. Generations had fought before the fight I was to fight to bring back respect and hope to my family. "Honey, will I pass?" I asked my wife, who was still half asleep on the bed beside me. "Yes, of course you must," she replied. It was one of those precocious flairs. I had developed as a result of my humble beginning: I could weather the weather whatever it was, whether I liked it or not. Could I do it this morning? 123
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Practice Exercise
Introduction

Storyline

Where in the story are we introduced to the conflict?

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

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Model Short Story The Conflict


See red italicized text Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The Hope of Ancestors. I arrived at the examination centre early that morning. I sat and watched my "opponents." The examination began. Everything was anxious except me - I was confident. I knew that I should pass; I must. Throughout the five hours that the exam lasted everyone looked into the eye of whomever they could. In those eyes was the look of dare. Those examinations decided your destiny, your fate. So in that room friends became enemies. Only one person would get through to study law; one of about seventy persons. I fought the battle with the papers. I demanded that post. Duty demanded it. It was like salvation to the sinner. It was like food to the starving man. Poverty was nothing anyone desired. You could be free yet incarcerated because of poverty. That exam was the verdict. The post was for the person who wanted it the most. Ting-a-ling-a-ling! The bell signaled the end of the battle. I had fought it well. 123
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Practice Exercise
Introduction

Storyline

Where would we find the climax?

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

END

Model Short Story The Climax


See red italicized text Introduction

The Hope of Ancestors.


Two months later, I sat in my living room. The result would be communicated via the telephone. It was the day of reckoning. Who wanted it more? I sat with the phone in my hand. My heart was beating: thump! I thought my wife could hear it. My children sat with my wife and I on the bed. The phone was to ring anytime now. There was a deafening silence. We were all nervous. Instead of rain today however, the sun blazed in the blue skies above. It was element weather. Was it signifying success or was it failure? I did not know, we did not know. All they knew and I know was that our life depended on it. I suddenly remembered the vows I had made on my wedding day. If I failed, would we have to get a divorce?" For better or worse! I was nervous. Ring! Ring! The phone rang once. It rang again. That was it. 123
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Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

Resolution
Introduction

Storyline

Where would we find the resolution?

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

END

Model Short Story The Resolution


See red italicized text
Introduction

The Hope of Ancestors.


Two months later, I sat in my living room. The result would be communicated via the telephone. It was the day of reckoning. Who wanted it more? I sat with the phone in my hand. My heart was beating: thump! I thought my wife could hear it. My children sat with my wife and I on the bed. The phone was to ring anytime now. There was a deafening silence. We were all nervous. Instead of rain today however, the sun blazed in the blue skies above. It was element weather. Was it signifying success or was it failure? I did not know, we did not know. All they knew and I know was that our life depended on it. I suddenly remembered the vows I had made on my wedding day. If I failed, would we have to get a divorce?" For better or worse! I was nervous. Ring! Ring! The phone rang once. It rang again. That was it.
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Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

Resolution?
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

I know that you may be thinking that there is no resolution but remember that life does not always have a neatly packaged ending! The writer provides nice suspense at the end of the story. You will however agree that the story is complete and the suspense makes the story even more interesting. Therefore, there is a resolution!

Exercises

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Practice Exercises
Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Re-read the model story before doing the practice exercises. Point and click on the Model Story button to the left. To return to this slide, point and click on the Exercises button to the left.

Model Story

Exercises

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Practice Exercise Sentence Structure


Introduction Storyline

Story Elements

Questions and Feedback Do you notice the structure of the sentences used in the exposition? You will note that the writer mainly uses compound and complex sentences as he introduces the main character and details the setting. This sentence structure helps to expose the exposition (all puns intended!).
Show examples.

Model Story

Exercises

Example 1: It was not surprising when the clouds gave birth to heavy droplets of water which hit against the rusty zinc. (complex sentence) Example 2: I was joyful, hopeful and felt the strength that would enable me to move mountains. (compound sentence)

Click the next button to see sentences highlighted in the story.


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Highlighting Complex and Compound Sentences


Introduction
complex The Hope of Ancestors. sentence The pregnant clouds outside kept out the sunlight. The morning was bleak and the sky overcast. It was not surprising when the clouds gave birth to heavy droplets of water which hit against the rusty zinc. Clink! Clink! The weather outside opposed my mood, yet I was happy. It was the morning my ancestors and my generation had waited for. I was the one. I was to recover lost hope although the weather demanded laziness; I was in the mood to work. I was joyful, hopeful and felt the strength that would enable me to move mountains. compound Generations had fought before the fight I was to fight to bring back sentence respect and hope to my family. "Honey, will I pass?" I asked my wife, who was still half asleep on the bed beside me. "Yes, of course you must," she replied. It was one of those precocious flairs. I had developed as a result of my humble beginning: I could weather the weather whatever it was, whether I liked it or not. Could I do it this morning?

Model Short Story

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

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Practice Exercise Sentence Structure


Introduction Storyline

Do you notice the sentence structure used by the writer as the climax approaches? Did you notice that the writer employed the use of short, simple sentences which helped the tension to mount?
Show example.

Story Elements

Model Story

Example: The phone was to ring anytime now. There was a deafening silence. We were all nervous.
Exercises

Click the next button to see sentence highlighted in the story.


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Model Short Story


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

The Hope of Ancestors. Two months later, I sat in my living room. The result would be communicated via the telephone. It was the day of reckoning. Who wanted it more? I sat with the phone in my hand. My heart was beating: thump! I thought my wife could hear it. My children sat with my wife Climax and I on the bed. The phone was to ring anytime now. There was a deafening silence. We were all nervous. Instead of rain today however, the sun blazed in the blue skies above. It was element weather. Was it signifying success or was it failure? I did not know, we did not know. All they knew and I know was that our life depended on it. I suddenly remembered the vows I had made on my wedding day. If I failed, would we have to get a divorce?" For better or worse! I was nervous. Ring! Ring! The phone rang once. It rang again. That was it.

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Practice Exercise Figures of Speech


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Identify the figures of speech used in the story. Did you find ? Example 1: The pregnant clouds outside kept out the sunlight. (metaphor) Example 2: I could weather the weather whatever it was, whether I liked it or not. (pun) Example 3: It was like salvation to the sinner. (simile) Example 4: There was a deafening silence. (oxymoron) There are others for you to find. Identify them.

Exercises

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Practice Exercise Use of Dialogue


Introduction

Storyline

Do you notice how brief dialogue was in this story/Do you also notice that it is used by the writer to introduce the conflict? "Honey, will I pass?" I asked my wife, who was still half asleep on the bed beside me. "Yes, of course you must," she replied. Ensure that your dialogue severs a purpose. It can reveal a characters personality, extend the setting or a specific purpose to fit your story. Each characters dialogue goes in a separate line.
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Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

Review True or False?


Introduction

Point and click on the True or False button to indicate your response.
Storyline

Story Elements

Exposition is used anywhere in story writing. Conflict can be internal, external, with nature

True
True True True

False
False False False

Model Story

Figures of speech are used mainly when speaking.


Exercises

Resolution must be neat.

END

Your Time to Write


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

Model Story

Instructions Try the story topics on the next three slides and share your story with your friends and your teacher. Your answer to this section must be between 400-450 words in length. You must write in Standard English. It is however admissible to use dialect in brief conversation. Ensure that your story has the four main aspects of a story!
Click to review story elements.
Exposition

Exercises
Character

Setting

Conflict

Climax

Resolution

STORY

END

Go right ahead! Item 1


Introduction

Storyline

Story Elements

The day had come. Everything was ready. All the waiting and preparation was over. Suddenly Boom! BOOM! BOOM! Three terrific explosions!
Write a story beginning with these words.

Model Story

Exercises

Items: 1 2 3
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Go right ahead! Item 2


Introduction

Storyline

His mother looked him full in the eye and asked, are you sure that is all?
Write a story which ends with the statement above.

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

Items: 1 2 3
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Go right ahead! Item 3


Introduction

Storyline

Suddenly the car did a high speed u-turn and roared off. The driver must have smelled a rat.
Write a story which includes these words.

Story Elements

Model Story

Exercises

Items: 1 2 3
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Remember to share
Introduction

Storyline

Share your story with everyone.

Story Elements

Model Story

TIP!
Check your story against each story element first!

Exercises

END