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Personnel Selection

Personality Tests

Paramjit Sharma

Human Asset is the only Asset which appreciate (Human Resource Accounting)

Johari Window

Self
Known Unknown

Known
Others Unknown

Open

Blind

Hidden

Unknown

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Selection

is the process of choosing the individuals from among the Group

What are ? Recruitment Selection Placement Job Job Analysis

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Selection

Selection Techniques Interviews Group discussion Individual differences Causes of differences Human Traits Performance Traits

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Selection

Individual differences Causes of differences Human Traits Performance Traits

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Physique

Skills

Individuals

Temperaments

Job Knowledge

Causes of individual Differences

Age Gender Physical Development Hereditary Environment Culture Nationality

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Likely Superiority of Males


Mathematics Reaction time Sustained logical work Muscular Strength Muscular Coordination Dexterity with tools History Science

Likely Superiority of Females


Memory tests Number checking tests Pattern recognition Word Association Mirror Drawing Quick Adaptation Dexterity with fingers Reading English

Causes of individual Differences

Gender

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Expressive Traits

Human Traits

Physical traits Movement traits Perceptual traits Style Traits Age Traits Gender Traits

Performance Traits

Intellectual Traits Non Intellectual Traits Physical Performance Traits Special Aptitudes and Abilities

Verbal Comprehension Numerical Ability Logical Reasoning Visual Memory

Intellectual

Non Intellectual Interest Character Temparament Paramjit Sharma

A psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of human behavior that is used to measure the individual differences that exist among people.

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Development of Tests

Test in addition to other techniques Tests to predict weaknesses than Strengths Testing before use Tests only if other techniques fails Test Scores may not be the decision point

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Steps in Developing Tests

Job Analysis Developing an Appropriate Test Pilot Test Developing Battery of Tests Validation of Tests

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Reliability Validity Characteristics of a Good Test Standardization Objectivity Norms

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Reliability

It is the degree to which people earn almost same scores each time they are administered the test or measured. weighing machine

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Validity

Refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure. What psychologist are trying to know about intelligence?

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Standardization

Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in administrating and scoring a test. Conditions in which tests are to be administered

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Objectivity

A test is said to be objective when two or more person interpreted the results in the same way and derive the same conclusions about it. There is no subjectiveness of the psychologist opinion or bias

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Norms

Norms refers to test scores of individuals in comparison to reference group percentiles, percentage

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Classification of Tests

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Tests
Aptitude Tests
Achievement

Tests

Situational Tests

Personality Tests

Interest Tests
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Aptitude Tests

Aptitude test measures the potential of an Individual for a particular job. Aptitudes are Potentialities, which the candidate possess for Learning the skill required to do the job effectively

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Measures Through Aptitude Tests

Intelligence Numerical Aptitude Mechanical Aptitude Clerical Aptitude Psychomotor Aptitude

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Stanford -Binet Mental Age Scale

Intelligence Tests

Otis Age of Intelligence Differential Aptitude Test Verbal Reasoning Numerical Ability Mechanical Reasoning Clerical abilities Language Usage

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Achievement Tests

Tests given to those applicants Who have already achieved some training in a particular trade and claims to have knowledge about something

Performance Tests
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Work Sample Tests

Performance Tests

These test measures the knowledge of the candidates in a particular field


Marketing, Law, Accounting,..

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Work Sample Test

This type of test measures the actual Performance of the candidates on the Job. Typing, computer programming

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Situational Tests

This type of test evaluate the candidates in a similar type of situation that he may face on the Job.
A finance manager may be given a Problem of investment where information about stock market can be given to him and he may be asked to take decision

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Interest Tests

Tests conducted to understand likings and disliking of the candidates in relation to their job

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Interest Tests

The Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) 400 items of liking and disliking Grouped in 8 parts Which group one individual falls Kudar Preference Record (KPR) 10 groups and 1 for verification also suggested occupations for the groups KPR Occupational 38 occupation and one for verification

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Personality Tests

Personality may be defined as the sum total of behavior or sum total of all the qualities or characteristics that an individual has inherited and acquired by experience. P= F (HE) Where F is function H is hereditary characteristics E is Environmental learning's

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Big Five Personality Traits

Openness Conscientiousness Agreeableness Extroversion Neuroticism

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Openness
Big Five personality traits

Curious vs Cautious. Transparency Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas,

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Conscientiousness
Big Five personality traits
Efficient/ Organized vs. Easy-going / careless).

A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement

Planned rather than spontaneous behaviour.

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Big Five personality traits

Agreeableness
Friendly / Compassionate vs.
Competitive / Outspoken). A tendency to be Cooperative rather than suspicious

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Big Five personality traits

Neuroticism
Sensitive / nervous vs. Secure / confident). A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions, such as anger, anxiety, depression

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Extroversion
Big Five personality traits
Outgoing / Energetic vs. Shy / Reserved.

Positive emotions, and


The tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.

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Extroverts & Introverts


Extroverts Introverts

Alert to their environment Mix with people Ups and down in mood Express emotions Impulsive in action Likes action Likes change Adapts readily

Absent minded Avoid social Contacts Apparently even tempered Not Expressive Thinks before acting Likes reflection Dislikes change Not Easily Adaptable

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Personality Tests

Personality may be defined as the sum total of behavior or sum total of all the qualities or characteristics that an individual has inherited and acquired by experience. P= F (HE) Where F is function H is hereditary characteristics E is Environmental learning's

Paramjit Sharma

Big Five Personality Traits

Openness Conscientiousness Agreeableness Extroversion Neuroticism

Paramjit Sharma

Openness
Big Five personality traits

Curious vs Cautious. Transparency Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas,

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Conscientiousness
Big Five personality traits
Efficient/ Organized vs. Easy-going / careless).

A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement

Planned rather than spontaneous behaviour.

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Big Five personality traits

Agreeableness
Friendly / Compassionate vs.
Competitive / Outspoken). A tendency to be Cooperative rather than suspicious

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Big Five personality traits

Neuroticism
Sensitive / nervous vs. Secure / confident). A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions, such as anger, anxiety, depression

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Extroversion
Big Five personality traits
Outgoing / Energetic vs. Shy / Reserved.

Positive emotions, and


The tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.

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Pl be frank with yourself in answering 16 questions 1 A job is what you make of it.
2 On most jobs people can pretty accomplish whatever they set out to accomplish 3If you know what you want out of job, you can find a job that gives it to you 4 If employees are unhappy with the decision made by the boss, they should do something about it. 5 Getting a job you want is mostly a matter of luck. 6 Making money is primarily a matter of good fortune 7 Most people are capable of doing their jobs well if they make the effort. 8 In order to get good job you need to have acquaintances at high places 9 Promotions are usually a matter of good fortune 10 To land on a good job, it is more important to know people than knowing the job 11 Promotions are given to those employees who performs well on jobs 12To make lots of money you have to know the right people. 13 it takes a lot of luck to be an outstanding employee on most jobs 14 People who performs their jobs well are generally rewarded for it. 15 Most people have influence over their supervisors, except you 16 The main difference between people who make a lot of money and people who makes a little money is luck

1 Disagree very much 2 Disagree Moderately 3 Disagree Slightly

4 agree Slightly 5 agree Moderately 6 agree Very much

Subjective Tests
Personality Tests Objective Tests

Projective Personality Tests Tests

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Subjective Tests
Personality Tests
The candidate himself discloses what he knows about himself. He makes observations of himself and reports his findings to the Psychologists case history, interview, autobiography .set of questionnaires

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Objective Tests

Personality Tests

The behavior is observed by others on the basis of certain tests

Bell Adjustment Inventory California Psychology Inventory Guilford-Zimmern Tempramental Survey Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory

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Can be used for screening well adjusted and mal-adjusted workers.

4 Adjustment scores in Home Health Social and Emotion

Bell Adjustment Inventory

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5 different forms

Primary, elementary, intermediate, secondary, Adult The scales are grouped into Personal Adjustments Self reliance, Personal freedom, feeling of belongingness. Social Adjustments Social Standard, Family relations, Occupational Relations

California Test of Personality

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Separate Scores on 10 traits


Each score is based on 30 items related to the trait Each trait vary from high degree to low degree

Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey

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Traits Traits
1 General 2 Restraint 3 Ascendance 4 Sociability 5 Emotional 6 Objectivity 7 Friendliness 8Thoughtfulness 9 Personal Relations 10Masculinity

High

Low
1 slow 2 Carefree 3 Submissive 4 lonely 5 pessimistic 6 sensitive 7 suspicious 8 Hostile 9 Critical 10 Interest in 10 traits
Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey

1 Fast 2 Serious-minded 3 Leader 4 Many friends 5 Optimistic 6 Thick-skinned 7 tolerance 8 Poise 9 Faith in others 10 Interest in
Masculine activities

feminine activities

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McKinley-1940 It assesses those traits of phases of human personality that are characteristics of psychological normal or abnormality. Inventory consist of 500 affirmative statements which a candidate is to answer as true, false or cannot say Minnesota Multiphsic Personality Inventory

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Neurological Disorders Motor Disturbance Sexual Attitude Political Attitude Religious Attitude Occupation Family

Areas Covered by MMPI

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Neurotic Symptoms Obsessions Compulsions Delusions Illusions Phobias Sadistic trends Anxiety

Areas Covered by MMPI

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Projective Tests

Personality Tests

The projective technique is an instrument that is considered especially sensitive to unconscious aspects of behavior. Hndzey has described 5 classes of methods Associative techniques Ordering Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques Completion Technique

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Associative Technique

Subjects are asked to react to words, inkblots or other stimuli with first thought coming to mind

Projective Tests

Frustration Motivation Work Attendance Punctual National Beloved

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Construction Technique

Subject is asked to create a story after Watching the picture

Projective Tests

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Completion Technique

Subject is asked to complete an incomplete Product or sentence

Projective Tests

When I heard National Anthem of India at.

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Ordering Technique

Subject is asked to choose or order among the stimuli

Projective Tests

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Expressive Technique

Subject is asked to express freely on any topic

Projective Tests

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Commonly Used Personality Tests

The Rorschach Inkblots test Thematic Appreciation test

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Rorschach Inkblots Test

The subject respond to ambiguous inkblots as a diagnostic tool in studying unconscious processes

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Thematic Appreciation Test

Candidates are shown cards or pictures and asked to tell a story about each card. He is asked to depict the scene on the card, what the characters are thinking and feelings and what is the outcome of the Scene

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Test of Vision Test of Colour Vision Auditory Tests Motor and Manual Tests Hand Dynamometer Tests Reaction Time Tests Manual Dexterity Test Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Tests Stromberg Dexterity Tes Bennett Hand Tools Dexterity Test

Some other Tests

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Effectiveness of Psychological Tests

Training, Research and Execution Methodology Used

Testers Credentials
Analysis of Test Results

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Improving Psychology of Manpower

Motivation Leadership Skills Communication Understanding Others Decision Making Improve Memory Performance and Competence Health

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