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# Flow Measurement

PENGUKURAN DEBIT
Measurement Approaches
Direct methods (stream gaging)
Current-meter method (Current meter)
Floats (PELAMPUNG)
Tracer-dilution technique (larutan)
Ultrasonic method (metode ultrasonic)
Electromagnetic method (metode
electromagnetic)
Measurement Approaches
Hydraulic Devices (Bangunan
hidrolik)
Weirs and notches
Orifices
Flumes
Indirect Techniques
Slope-area method
Contracted-opening method
Flow-over-structure methods
Definition of Terms
Stage (TMA/h : tinggi muka air)
: Height of water surface above
a fixed datum
Rating (Lengkung): Relationship
between stream stage and
discharge
Alat Pengukuran
Alat ukur/sensor :
Pelampung, Manual/Peischall,tekanan
Metode Pencatatan: manual,
electronic,mekanik, elektromekanik
Alat Perekam : pias/chart,komputer,
data logger dsb.
Stage Measurement
Gupta, Fig. 6.1
Typical Stilling Well-bangunan AWLR
Gupta, Fig. 6.2
Typical Bubble-gage
Gupta, Fig. 6.3
Measuring Velocity
Current meters
Cup-type (Price and pygmy)
Propeller type
Inductance
Velocity Distribution-distribusi v
sungai
Chow, Fig. 2.3
Velocity Distributions
Chow, Fig. 2.4
Vertical Velocity Distribution
Rantz, Fig. 88
Computation of Discharge
Cross-section divided into 20-30
sections
Sections positioned such that no
more than 5% of flow passes in one
section
Discrete integration based on one of
two techniques
Mean-section method
Mid-section method
Mean-section Method-luas penampang
Gupta, Fig. 6.12
x
x x x x
x
W
d d V V
q
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
+ +
2 2
1 1
Mid-section Method-luas penampang
Gupta, Fig. 6.11

q
x
= V
x
W
x1
+ W
x+1
2
|
\
|
.
d
x
Measuring Widths
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Measurement Section
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Section Locations
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Velocity Measurement
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Stage-Discharge Ratings
(Kurva lengkung debit h vs Q)
If it is not possible to install a weir or
flume (large channel), need to
develop a stage-discharge rating
3 basic types
Simple stage-discharge
Control produces one-to-one rating
Slope-stage-discharge
Velocity-stage-discharge
Simple Rating
In general, ratings in natural
(power function)
Rating has an offset at the point of
zero flow
The point of zero flow can be
determined graphically
Determining Point of Zero Flow
Rantz, Fig. 141
Rating Sections
In natural channels, behavior of
rating varies depending on flow rate
Separate rating sections are
developed for:
Low flow
Intermediate flow
High flow
Rating-Curve Sections
Gupta, Fig. 6.28
Slope-Stage-Discharge Rating
If control doesnt exist, discharge is a
function of the stage and the slope of
the water surface
Discharge from rating curve is
Auxillary station (usually upstream)
is used to determine drop in water
surface (fall)
Velocity-Stage-Discharge Rating
If it is not feasible to use slope as a
parameter, can use velocity
Velocity is measured at a point in the
cross-section and used as an index
Velocity measured in one of four
ways:
Current meter, deflection meter,
acoustic meter, electromagnetic meter
Velocity-Stage-Discharge Rating
( h vs v)
Based on discharge measurements,
develop ratings for:
Area vs stage
Mean velocity vs stage and index
velocity
For recorded stages, ratings are used
to determine area and mean velocity
Discharge is the product of area and
mean velocity
Weirs
Definition: A regular obstruction
across the channel
Two types based on longitudinal shape
Sharp crested: thin plate with sharp edge
Broad crested: solid with flat center portion
Various cross-sectional shapes
Rectangular, triangular (V-notch),
trapezoidal, parabolic
V-Notch (Triangular/Sharp
crested) Weir

Cipoletti (Trapezoidal) Weir
Weir Formula
Q = CLH3/2
Q = discharge
C = coefficient
L = length
H = head over the weir

C is usually between 2.6 and 3.2

C Weir coefficient
Sharp-crested usually 3.1 or 3.2
Broad crested usually 2.6 to 3
If it is critical, there are detailed
references
See Figure 5.1 in book
Embankments 2.7 to 2.8
usually good

Sharp-crested Weir
Gupta, Fig. 6.20
Discharge Equation for Weirs
Gupta, Fig. 6.21

V
2
= C
d
2g(H h)

Q =
2
3
C
d
L 2gH
3/ 2
End Contractions
If cross-section of weir doesnt
extend across channel, end
contractions result
Effect of end contractions is to
reduce the effective length of the
weir
Discharge formula is modified to
account for this effect
If thickness of weir crest exceeds
On top of crest flow reaches critical
depth
Shape of weir greatly influences
discharge coefficient C
d
(0.851.1)

Q = 0.385C
d
L 2gH
3 / 2
Orifices
Definition: Opening through which
water is discharged under pressure
Generally used at the side or bottom
of a tank or in a pipeline
Characterized by size:
Small: head h > 5d (d is diameter)
Characterized by shape, upstream
edge:
Sharp edged or rounded corners

Orifices
Q = CA(2gH)
1/2

C = coefficient
A = area of opening

Orifice
Gupta, Fig. 6.24

V = C
v
2gh

Q = C
v
C
c
A 2gh = C
d
A 2gh
Assumptions
Frictionless flow along a streamline
Incompressible fluid
Streamlines of jet normal to plane of
orifice: velocity constant across
orifice
Corrections applied to account for
friction, edge conditions
Large Orifice
If head on orifice h < 5d (diameter of
orifice), velocity is not constant
through orifice
Discharge equation is modified
further (e.g, Eq. 6.32 for a
rectangular orifice)
Flumes
Flume: A channel with a lateral
constriction of the width (Venturi)
Parshall flume: A venturi flume with
a change in bed elevation
Typically installed in small channels
or in cases where overland flow is
constricted to a small area
FLUME-PARSHALL
Parshall Flume
Chow, Fig. 4.6
Parshall Flume Ratings
Gupta, Table 6.5
Venturi Flume
Gupta, Fig. 6.27

Q = 0.385C
d
2gWH
3/ 2

H = h
1
+
V
1
2
2g