Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39

Introduction to Information Technology Turban, Rainer and Potter John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright 2005
Chapter 7 1

APPLYING IT FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE


Chapter 7 2

Transaction Processing, Functional Application, and Integration


Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Chapter 7 3

Chapter Outline
Functional information systems Transaction processing information systems Managing the accounting and finance systems Managing production/ operations and logistics Managing human resource systems Integrating functional information systems

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

Learning Objectives
Describe the drivers and characteristics of functional information systems. Describe MISs . Describe the transaction processing system and how it is supported by IT Describe the support provided by IT and the Web to accounting and finance. Describe the support provided by IT and the Web to marketing and sales. Describe the support provide by IT and the Web to production / operations management, including logistic Describe the support provided by IT and the Web to human resources management Describe the benefits and issues of integrating functional information systems.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`
Chapter 7 5

7.1 Functional Information Systems

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

Functional Information Systems cont


Functional information Systems can be divided into two general categories: functionspecific and function- general . The most common type of function-general system, is management information systems (MISs)

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

Management Information System (MIS)


A system that provides information to managers in the functional areas, in order to support managerial tasks of planning, organizing, and controlling operations.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

An MIS produces routine, ad-hoc (ondemand) and exception report:


Ad-hoc ( on- demand) reports: Nonroutine reports. Drill- down report: Reports that show a greater level of detail than is included in routine reports. Key- indicator reports. Reports that summarize the performance of critical activities . Comparative reports. Reports that compare performance of different business units or time periods. Exception report. Report that include only information that exceeds certain threshold standard

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

Information systems can also be function-specific


Typical function- specific system are accounting, finance, marketing, operations (POM), and human resources management

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

10

Major characteristic of functional information systems


Frequently composed of smaller systems Integrated or independent Interfacing Supportive of different organizational levels

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

11

7.2 Transaction Processing Information Systems (TPS)


Information system that supports routine, core business transactions.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

12

Objectives of a TPS
To provide all the information needed by law, by management and / or by organizational policies to keep the business running properly and efficiently to efficiently handle high volume of data, to avoid errors due to concurrent operations to handle large variations in volume To avoid downtime, never lose results, and maintain privacy and security To interface with many IT applications, including epayment, e-procurement and e-marketing.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

13

Activities and Methods of TPSs


First, data are collected by people or sensors and entered into the computer via any input device. Next the system processes data in one of two basic ways: batch or online processing. Batch processing: processes data in batches at fixed periodic intervals. Online processing: processes data as soon as a transaction occurs.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`
Chapter 7 14

The Major Characteristics of a TPS


Typically . Large amounts of data are processed. The source of data are mostly internal , and the outputs is intended mainly for an internal audience . This characteristic is changing somewhat, since trading partners may contribute data and may be permitted to use TPS output directly . The TPS processes information on a regular basis: daily, weekly, biweekly and so on. Large storage (database) capacitv is required.

High processing speed is needed due to the high volume.


The TPS monitors and collects past data Input and output data are structured. Since the processed data are fairly stable, they are formatted in a standard fashion. A high level of detail (raw data, not summarized) is usually observable, especially in input data but often in output as well. Low computation complexity (simple mathematical and statistical operations) is usuallv evident in a TPS. A high level of accuracy, data integrity, and security is needed. Sensitive issues such as privacy of personal data are strongly related to TPSs. High reliability is required. The TPS can be viewed as the lifeblood of the organization . Interruption in the flow of TPS data can be fatal to the organization . Inquiry processing is a must . The TPS enables users to query files and databases ( even online and in real
time)

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

15

The flow of information in TPS

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

16

WebBased and Online TPS


In online transaction processing (OLTP) business transaction are processed online as soon as they occur.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

17

Typical TPS Activities


Activities The ledger Accounts payable and receivable Receiving and shipping records Inventory-on-hand records Fixed-assets management Description The entire financial accounts: all of the assets, liabilities, and owners (stockholders') equity accounts Record of all account to be paid and those owed by customers. Transaction records of all item send or received and returns Record of inventory levels. Use of barcodes improves ability to count inventory periodically Record of the value of an organizations fixed assets ( e.g. buildings, cars, machine ), including depreciation rate and major improvements made in assets, for taxation purposes All raw and summery payroll records.

Payroll

Personnel files and skills inventory


Reports to government Other periodic reports and statements Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Files of employees history, evaluations, and record of training and performance.


Report on compliance with government regulations , taxes , etc Financial, tax, production, sales and routine reports

Chapter 7

18

7.3 Managing The Accounting and Finance Systems

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

19

Financial planning and budgeting


Financial and economic forecasting Budgeting Capital budgeting

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

20

Managing financial transactions


E-commerce applications of financial transactions (global stock exchange, multiple currencies, E-bonds, etc.) Virtual close . The ability of a company to close its accounting records quickly and on short notice Expense Management Automation (EMA). Systems that automate data entry and processing of travel and entertainment expenses.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`
Chapter 7 21

Investment Management
Access to financial and economic reports Financial analysis

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

22

Control and auditing


Budgetary control Auditing Financial ratio analysis. Product pricing Contract management Profitability analysis and cost control

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

23

7.4 Managing marketing and sales systems


Channel systems. The systems involved in the process of getting a product or services to customers and dealing with all customers needs.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

24

Marketing Channel Systems

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

25

Customer relations The Customer is King /Queen


Customer profile and preference analysis Prospective customer lists and marketing Databases Mass customization Personalization Advertising and promotions

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

26

Distribution channels and In-store innovations


New IT-support distribution channel

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

27

Marketing Management
Pricing of products or services Salesperson productivity (sales force automation, sales productivity software) Profitability analysis Sales Analysis and trends New products, services and marketing planning Web-based systems in marketing

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

28

7.5 Managing production/ operations and logistics


In-house logistics and materials management Inventory management Quality control

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

29

Planning production and operations


Material requirement planning: A planning process that integrates production, purchasing and inventory management of interdependent items. Manufacturing resource planning: A planning process that integrates an enterprises production, inventory management, purchasing, financing and labor activities. Just- in- time systems: An inventory scheduling system in which materials and parts arrive at a workplace just when needed. Other areas.
Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`
Chapter 7 30

Computer-integrated manufacturing
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Manufacturing approach that integrates several computerized systems such as CAD, CAM, MRP and JIT into a whole, in a factory.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

31

The CIM model

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

32

Product lifecycle management (PLM)


A business strategy that enables manufacturers to collaborate on product design and development efforts, using webbased strategies.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

33

How product life cycle management works?

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

34

7.6 Managing Human Resources Systems: Recruitment


Using he web for recruitment, HRM portals and salary surveys.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

35

Human Resources Maintenance and Development


Performance evaluation Training and HR development

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

36

Human Resources Planning and Management


Payroll and employees records Benefit administration Employee relationship management

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

37

7.7 Integrating Functional Information Systems


Approaches to integration Integrating front- office and back-office operations Process-centric integration: System integrating solutions designed, developed and managed from a business- process perspective

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

38

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for information should be addressed to the permission department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The publisher assumes no responsibility for error, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.`

Chapter 7

39