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We shall now focus on how the message will be executed.
Appeals Execution styles Tactical issues

Appeals and Execution Styles

Advertising Appeals
The approach used to attract the attention of consumers

To influence consumer feelings toward a product, service or cause

Execution Style

The way an appeal is turned into an advertising message

The way the message is presented to the consumer

Appeals and Execution Styles

Advertising Appeals:
Informational/Rational Emotional

Informational appeals focus on the consumers practical, functional or utilitarian need for the product and emphasize features of a product and/or the benefits or reasons for owning or using a particular brand. These ads tend to be informative.

Informational Appeals
The objective is to persuade the target audience to buy the brand because it provides a specific benefit that satisfies consumers needs. Weilbacher identified several types of appeals within rational appeals
Feature Competitive advantage Favorable price News Product/service popularity appeals.

Types of rational appeals

Feature: Focus on dominant traits of the product

Competitive: Makes comparisons to other brands

Price: Makes price offer the dominant point

News: News announcement about the product

Popularity: Stresses the brands popularity

Emotional Appeals
Emotional appeals: Relates to the consumers social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a product. Many feelings or needs can serve as the basis for advertising appeals. Marketers use emotional appeals in hopes that the positive feeling they evoke will transfer to the brand.

Appealing to Socially Based Feelings

Approval Acceptance Affiliation



Social-Based Feelings


Rejection Recognition


Emotional Appeals
Personal states or feelings
Safety Security Fear Love Affection Happiness Joy Nostalgia Sentiment Excitement Pride Pleasure Ambition Sorrow/grief

Social-Based Feelings
Recognition Status Respect Involvement Embarrassment Rejection Acceptance Affiliation/belonging

Emotional Appeals
Emotional Appeals:
One reason for using emotional appeals is to influence consumers interpretations of their product usage experience This is done through transformational advertising It is an ad which associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the ad.

A transformational ad has two characteristics:
It must make the experience of using the product richer, warmer, more exciting and/or more enjoyable than that obtained solely from an objective description of the advertised brand. Must promise more fun and excitement It must connect the experience of the ad so tightly with the experience of using the brand that consumers cannot remember the brand without recalling the experience generated by the ad.

Combining Appeals: Rational and Emotional

Often, decisions made on both rational and emotional appeals Emotional bonding a technique to evaluate How consumers feel about brands. Nature of emotional rapport they have with a brand compared to the ideal emotional state they associate with the product category.

Combining Rational and Emotional Appeals:

Emotional bonding
Consumers develop three levels of relationships with brands:


Personality Product benefits

Additional Appeals:
Reminder Advertising Teaser Advertising

Advertising Execution
Creative Execution the way an ad appeal will be presented One of the strongest advocates of execution was William Bernbach, founder of DDB (Doyle Dane Bernbach).

Advertising Execution
Straight sell or factual message Scientific/technical evidence Demonstration Comparison Testimonial Slice of Life Animation Personality symbol Fantasy Dramatization Humor Combinations

Advertising Execution
Straight Sell/Factual:
Straightforward presentation of information Often used with informational/rational appeals Focus of the message is the product and its specific attributes and benefits. Common in print ads For high involvement consumer products as well as industrial and B2B products

Advertising Execution
Scientific/ Technical Evidence:
Technical information, results of scientific or lab studies, endorsements by scientific bodies to support ad claims

Key benefits/ attributes shown in actual use TV is best suited medium

Advertising Execution
In case of competitive advantage appeals Positioning a brand

A person praises the product or service on the basis of his or her personal experience with it Effective when they come from a recognizable source and the source is someone with whom the target audience can associate itself. Endorsement- by a celebrity.

Advertising Execution
Slice of Life:
Based on a problem/solution approach. Show real life problems Consumers can relate to the situations

Cartoon animation is popular Animations mixed with real people

Advertising Execution
Personality Symbol:
Develop a central character or personality symbol that can deliver the advertising message and with which the P/S can be identified. Personality figures can be built around animated characters.

Advertising Execution
Image advertising fantasy Often used by cosmetics

The focus is on telling a short story with the product or service as the star.

Humor Combinations

Creative Tactics
Once the creative approach, type of appeal and execution style have been determined, attention turns to creating the actual ad. Design and production of ad messages include activities such as Writing copy, developing illustrations Visual elements

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising: Basic components Headline Body copy Visual illustrations Layout.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising:
The words in the leading position of the ad. Usually set in larger, darker type and often set apart from the body copy Has to attract the readers attention Headlines also perform a segmentation function by engaging the attention and interest of consumers who are most likely to buy a particular P/S.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising:
Can be categorized as direct and indirect
Direct headlines are straightforward and informative Indirect ones provoke curiosity questions and provocations

Subheads smaller than the headline but larger than the body copy Often used to enhance readability Their content reinforces the headline and ad theme/slogan

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising:
Body Copy:
Main text portion Heart of the ad message, but difficult to get the target audience to read it. It often flows from the points made in the headline, but the specific content depends on the type of the appeal used. Body copy in sync with appeal and execution.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising:
Visual Elements:
In synergy with headline and copy. Many decisions have to be made regarding the visual portion of the ad:
What identification marks should be included (brand name, company or trade name, trademarks, logos) Whether to use photos or hand drawn or painted illustrations What colors to use What should be the focus of the visual.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising:
Blend all the elements into a finished ad Layout is the physical arrangement of the various parts of the ad. Rough layouts for client approvals.

Aesop Glims copy policy

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Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising:
On a cost-per minute basis, commercials are the most expensive productions seen on TV TV advertising is unique because
It combines sight, sound and motion Viewer cannot control the rate, thus no opportunity to review points.

Video and audio must work together to create the right impact.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising: Video:
Visual portion generally dominates in a TV ad Decisions regarding the product, the presenter, action sequences, demonstrations, the setting, characters, etc. Lighting, color, graphics, art direction, landscaping, footage of scenes.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising: Audio:
Voices, music, sound effects. Voice of the direct presenter, a conversation among people. Voiceover- the message or voice is delivered by a presenter who is not visible onscreen. Music is used to break through clutter and attract attention. Used to create a mood.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising: Audio:
Popular songs are used, rights are bought Jingles catchy songs about a product or service that usually carries the message theme. Serves as a good reminder.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising: Planning and Production of TV Commercials:
Type of appeal and execution to be used. TV is necessarily an entertainment medium, so ads have to be entertaining as well.
Planning the Commercial:
Various elements are brought together in a script a written version of the commercial. The script shows the various audio components of the commercial copy to be spoken by voices, the music, and sound effects.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising: Planning and Production of TV Commercials:
Planning the Commercial:
Video portion of the script provides the visual plan of the adcamera actions and angles, scenes, transitions, etc. Once the script is conceived, the writer and art director get together to produce a storyboard still drawings of the video scenes and descriptions of the audio that accompanies each scene. Storyboards are then presented for client approval.

Creative Tactics
Creative Tactics for Television Advertising:
Planning and Production of TV Commercials: Production:
Preproduction activities before the actual shooting Production period during which the ad is filmed or videotaped. Postproduction activities after filming and recording.

Selecting a director Production company Bidding Cost estimation Timing Production timetable Set construction Location Agency and client approvals Casting Wardrobes Preproduction meeting

Location versus set shoots Night/weekend shoots Talent arrangements

Editing Processing Recording sound effects Audio/video mixing Optical Client/agency approval Duplicating Release/shipping

Creative Tactics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guidelines for Evaluating Creative Output: Is the creative approach consistent with the brands marketing and advertising objectives? Is the C.A. consistent with the creative strategy and objectives? Does it communicate what it is supposed to? Is the C.A. appropriate for the target audience? Does the C.A. communicate a clear and convincing message to the customer? Is the C.A. appropriate for the media environment in which it is likely to be seen? Is the ad truthful and tasteful?